78 relations: Żoliborz, Baruth/Mark, Battle of Dresden, Battle of Lwów (1920), Battle of Mława, Battle of Modlin, Beskids, Brandenburgers, Bronisław Rakowski, Captain (armed forces), Cölln, Ceasefire, Ciechanów, Division (military), Działdowo, Fifth column, Friendly fire, Grudusk, Gulag, Guttau, Home Army, II Corps (Poland), Invasion of Poland, Iran, Kampinos, Kazakhstan, List of Polish divisions in World War II, Ludwik de Laveaux (officer), Lusatian Neisse, Mazovia, Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade, Mława, Middle East, Modlin (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), Modlin Army, Modlin Fortress, Niesky, Operation Tempest, Operation Vistula, Operational Group, Opinogóra Górna, Organic unit, Płock, Peace of Riga, Podpolkovnik, Polish 13th Infantry Regiment, Polish Armed Forces in the East, Polish army order of battle in 1939, Polish contribution to World War II, Polish Land Forces, ..., Polish People's Army, Polish–Soviet War, Polkovnik, Pomeranian Military District, Przasnysz, Pseudonym, Pułtusk, Romuald Traugutt, Saxony, See, Tyrol, Siedlce, Siege of Warsaw (1939), Sikorski–Mayski agreement, Stanisław Sosabowski, Tachanka, Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Vistula, Wacław Iwaszkiewicz-Rudoszański, Warsaw, Warsaw Uprising, Weißer Schöps, Western Pomerania, Wojciech Bartosz Głowacki, World War I, World War II, 20th Infantry Division (Poland), 36th Infantry Regiment (Poland), 5th Rifle Division (Poland). Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Żoliborz is one of the northern districts of the city of Warsaw.
Baruth/Mark is a town in the Teltow-Fläming district of Brandenburg, Germany.
The Battle of Dresden (26–27 August 1813) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars.
During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów (modern Lviv, Ukraine) was attacked by the forces of Alexander Ilyich Yegorov.
The Battle of Mława, otherwise known as the Defence of the Mława position, took place to the north of the town of Mława in northern Poland between 1 and 3 September 1939.
The Battle of Modlin was a battle that took place during the 1939 German invasion of Poland at the beginning of the Second World War.
The Beskids or Beskid Mountains (Beskidy, Czech and Beskydy, Rusyn: Бескиды (Beskidy), Бескиди (Beskydy)) is a traditional name for a series of mountain ranges in the Carpathians, stretching from the Czech Republic in the west along the border of Poland with Slovakia up to Ukraine in the east.
The Brandenburgers (Brandenburger) were members of the Brandenburg German special forces unit during World War II.
Bronisław Stanisław Rakowski (20 June 1895 in Szczucin – 28 December 1950 in Buenos Aires) was a Polish general.
The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.
In the 13th century Cölln was the sister town of Old Berlin (Altberlin), located on the southern Spree Island in the Margraviate of Brandenburg.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
Ciechanów (German: Zichenau) is a city in north-central Poland with 45,900 inhabitants (2006).
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.
A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or nation.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
Grudusk is a village in Ciechanów County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Guttau, in Sorbian Hućina, is a village and a former municipality in the east of Saxony, Germany.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
The Polish II Corps (Drugi Korpus Wojska Polskiego), 1943–1947, was a major tactical and operational unit of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Kampinos is a village in Warsaw West County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
This is a list of Polish divisions in World War II.
Ludwik de Laveaux was a Brigadier General of the Polish Army in World War I, World War II and Polish–Soviet War.
The Lusatian Neisse (Lužická Nisa; Lausitzer Neiße; Nysa Łużycka; Upper Sorbian: Łužiska Nysa; Lower Sorbian: Łužyska Nysa), or Western Neisse, is a long river in Central Europe.
Mazovia (Mazowsze) is a historical region (dzielnica) in mid-north-eastern Poland.
Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade (Mazowiecka Brygada Kawalerii) was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period, which took part in the Polish September Campaign.
Mława (מלאווע Mlave; 1941-45 Mielau) is a town in north-central Poland with 30,957 inhabitants in 2012.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Modlin was a village near Warsaw in Poland near the banks of rivers Narew and Vistula.
Modlin Army (Armia Modlin) was one of the Polish armies that took part in the Invasion of Poland in 1939.
Modlin Fortress (Polish Twierdza Modlin) is one of the biggest 19th century fortresses in Poland.
Niesky (-German, Sorbian/Polish: Niska) is a small town in Upper Lusatia in eastern the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Operation Tempest (akcja „Burza”, sometimes referred in English as Operation Storm) was a series of anti-Nazi uprisings conducted during World War II by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), the dominant force in the Polish resistance.
Operation Vistula (Akcja "Wisła") was a codename for the 1947 forced resettlement of the Ukrainian minority including Boykos and Lemkos from the south-eastern provinces of post-war Poland, to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country.
Operational Group (Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the invasion of Poland.
Opinogóra Górna is a village in Ciechanów County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
An organic unit is a military unit that is a permanent part of a larger unit and (usually) provides some specialized capability to that parent unit.
Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.
The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga (Traktat Ryski), was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.
Podpolkovnik (regimentary) is a military rank in Slavic countries which corresponds to the lieutenant colonel in the English-speaking states and military.
13th Children of Krakow Infantry Regiment (Polish language: 13 Pulk Piechoty Dzieci Krakowa, 13 pp) was an infantry regiment of the Polish Army.
Polish Armed Forces in the East (Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Wschodzie) (or Polish Army in USSR) refers to military units composed of Poles created in the Soviet Union at the time when the territory of Poland was occupied by both Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in the Second World War.
Polish OOB during the invasion of Poland.
The European theatre of World War II opened with the German invasion of Poland on Friday September 1, 1939 and the Soviet invasion of Poland on September 17, 1939.
The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.
The Polish People's Army (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie, LWP) constituted the second formation of the Polish Armed Forces in the East (1943–1945) and later the armed forces (1945–1989) of the Polish communist government of Poland (from 1952, the Polish People's Republic) along with the ruling Polish United Workers' Party.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Polkovnik (lit) is a military rank in Slavic countries and countries in the former Soviet Union mostly which corresponds to a colonel in English-speaking states, and oberst in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries.
The Pomeranian Military District (Polish acronym POW) was a military district of the Polish Armed Forces from 1945 to 2011.
Przasnysz (פראשניץ Proshnitz, German: "Praschnitz") is a town in Poland.
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).
Pułtusk (Ostenburg) is a town in Poland by the river Narew, north of Warsaw.
Romuald Traugutt (16 January 1826 – 5 August 1864) was a Polish general and war hero best known for commanding the January Uprising of 1863.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
See is a municipality in the district of Landeck in the Austrian state of Tyrol located 8 km southwest of the city of Landeck.
Siedlce (שעדליץ, Седлец) is a city in eastern Poland with 76,585 inhabitants.
The Siege of Warsaw in 1939 was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the invading German Army.
The Sikorski–Mayski Agreement was a treaty between the Soviet Union and Poland, signed in London on 30 July 1941.
Stanisław Franciszek Sosabowski CBE (8 May 1892 – 25 September 1967) was a Polish general in World War II.
The tachanka (тача́нка, taczanka) was a horse-drawn machine gun, usually a cart (such as charabanc) or an open wagon with a heavy machine gun installed in the back.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Wacław Iwaszkiewicz-Rudoszański (26 August 1871 – 25 November 1922) was a Polish general.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Weißer Schöps is a river of Saxony, Germany.
Western Pomerania, also called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern), is the western extremity of the historic region of the duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.
Wojciech Bartos(z) Głowacki (1758–1794), known also as Bartosz Głowacki, was a Polish peasant and the most famous member of the kosynierzy (peasant volunteer infantry) during the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
20th Infantry Division (20.) was a unit of the Polish Army during the interbellum period, which took part in the Polish September Campaign.
The 36th Infantry Regiment of the Academic Legion (Polish 36 pułk piechoty Legii Akademickiej, 36pp) was a Polish military unit.
Polish 5th Siberian Rifle Division (5.; also known as the Siberian Division and Siberian Brigade) was a Polish military unit formed in 1919 in Russia during World War I. The division fought during the Polish-Bolshevik War, but as it was attached to the White Russian formations, it is considered to have fought more in the Russian Civil War.