274 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abbasid Revolution, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abu Muslim, Adi Shankara, Advaita Vedanta, Ajaw, Al-Andalus, Al-Mansur, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Masudi, Al-Walid I, Alcuin, An Lushan, An Lushan Rebellion, Aquileia, Arabic, Arabs, Architecture, As-Saffah, Asia, Asuka period, Baghdad, Barlaam and Josaphat, Battle of Akroinon, Battle of Marcellae, Battle of Talas, Battle of Tours, Bede, Beijing, Bengal, Beowulf, Berbers, Borobudur, Buddhism, Bulgaria, Bulgarians, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Iconoclasm, Caliphate, Canggal inscription, Cartography, Celestial globe, Census, Central Asia, Chalke, Chan Buddhism, Chang'an, Charlemagne, Charles Martel, ..., China, Chinese painting, Christianity, Church of the East, Common Era, Constantinople, Copán, Damascus, Desiderius, Dharmasetu, Doge, Du Fu, Duchy of Saxony, East Africa, East Asia, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Emperor Dezong of Tang, Emperor Kanmu, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Empress Genmei, Empress Kōken, England, Escapement, Europe, Ferrous metallurgy, Francia, Franks, Frisian–Frankish wars, Frisians, Gautama Buddha, Göktürks, Geography, Ghana Empire, Giant Wild Goose Pagoda, Greek language, Guangzhou, Guo Ziyi, Han Gan, Harp, Harun al-Rashid, Heian period, Heian-kyō, Heijō Palace, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Horse collar, Horseshoe, Huineng, Iberian Peninsula, India, Indonesia, Irene of Athens, Islam, Japan, Jataka tales, Jia Dan, Jianzhen, John of Damascus, Julian calendar, K'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil, K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil, Kalasan, Kalasan inscription, Kyoto, Leo III the Isaurian, Li Bai, Lighthouse, Lindisfarne, List of Abbasid caliphs, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Chinese-language poets, Liutprand, King of the Lombards, Lombards, Manjusrigrha inscription, Marwan II, Maya civilization, Medang Kingdom, Mediterranean Sea, Mesoamerican chronology, Metropolitan area, Monarchy, Monk, Muhammad bin Qasim, Municipality, Muslim, Nara period, Nara, Nara, National Museum of China, Nestorian Stele, New Book of Tang, North Africa, Northern Europe, Offa of Mercia, Padmasambhava, Pala Empire, Palenque, Pamir Mountains, Panchatantra, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, Paper, Pattadakal, Paul the Deacon, Paulinus II of Aquileia, Pepin the Short, Persian Gulf, Persian people, Picts, Piracy, Poet, Pope Adrian I, Pope Leo III, Pope Stephen II, Prajñā (Buddhist monk), Pre-Columbian era, Punjab, Quiriguá, Qutayba ibn Muslim, Rhine, Sailing, Samarkand, Sanjaya dynasty, Saxon Wars, Saxons, Scandinavia, Scotland, Second Council of Nicaea, Serbs, Sewu, Shailendra dynasty, Shanxi, Shrine, Siege of Constantinople (717–718), Sindh, Sogdia, Srivijaya, Syriac language, Taihō Code, Takrur, Tang dynasty, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Tervel of Bulgaria, Theodulf of Orléans, Timothy I (Nestorian patriarch), Toniná, Transoxiana, Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil, Umar II, Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad campaigns in India, Venice, Vikings, Vimalamitra, Visigoths, Wu Zetian, Xi'an, Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat, Yi Xing, 685, 690, 697, 700, 701, 705, 707, 708, 710, 711, 712, 713, 715, 717, 718, 721, 723, 726, 731, 732, 738, 740, 741, 742, 743, 744, 748, 749, 750, 751, 752, 754, 755, 756, 757, 758, 760, 763, 764, 768, 770, 771, 772, 774, 775, 778, 779, 780, 781, 782, 785, 786, 787, 792, 793, 794, 795, 797, 798, 800, 802, 804, 805, 806, 809, 814, 816, 818. Expand index (224 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abbasid Revolution refers to the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE), the second of the four major Caliphates in early Islamic history, by the third, the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 CE).
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani or al-Khurasani (أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني born 718-19 or 723-27, died in 755), born Behzādān Pūr-i Vandād Hormoz (بهزادان پور ونداد هرمزد), was a Persian general in service of the Abbasid dynasty, who led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad dynasty.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Ajaw or Ahau ('Lord') is a pre-Columbian Maya political title attested from epigraphic inscriptions.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.
Alcuin of York (Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria.
An Lushan (703 – 29 January 757) was a general in the Tang dynasty and is primarily known for instigating the An Lushan Rebellion.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Abu al-‘Abbās ‘Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad al-Saffāḥ, or Abul `Abbas as-Saffaḥ (أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفّاح) (b. 721/722 AD – d. 10 June 754) was the first caliph of the Abbasid caliphate, one of the longest and most important caliphates (Islamic dynasties) in Islamic history.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710 (or 592 to 645), although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Barlaam and Josaphat (Barlamus et Iosaphatus) are two legendary Christian martyrs and saints.
The Battle of Akroinon was fought at Akroinon or Akroinos (near modern Afyon) in Phrygia, on the western edge of the Anatolian plateau, in 740 between an Umayyad Arab army and the Byzantine forces.
The Battle of Marcellae (Битката при Маркели, Μάχη των Μαρκελλών) took place in 792 at Markeli, near the modern town of Karnobat in south eastern Bulgaria.
The Battle of Talas, Battle of Talas River, or Battle of Artlakh (معركة نهر طلاس) was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong.
The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Borobudur, or Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, Candhi Barabudhur) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine Iconoclasm (Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía, literally, "image struggle" or "struggle over images") refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Canggal inscription is a Javanese inscription dated to 732, discovered in the Gunung Wukir temple complex in Kadiluwih village, Salam, Magelang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Celestial globes show the apparent positions of the stars in the sky.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chalke Gate (Χαλκῆ Πύλη), was the main ceremonial entrance (vestibule) to the Great Palace of Constantinople in the Byzantine period.
Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles Martel (c. 688 – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Copán is an archaeological site of the Maya civilization located in the Copán Department of western Honduras, not far from the border with Guatemala.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Desiderius (also known as Desiderio in Italian) (died c. 786) was a king of the Lombard Kingdom of northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774.
Dharmasetu was an 8th-century maharaja of Srivijaya.
A doge (plural dogi or doges) was an elected lord and chief of state in many of the Italian city-states during the medieval and renaissance periods.
Du Fu (Wade–Giles: Tu Fu;; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.
Emperor Dezong of Tang (27 May 742 – 25 February 805), personal name Li Kuo, was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the oldest son of his father Emperor Daizong.
was the 50th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō):; retrieved 2013-8-22.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.
, also known as Empress Genmyō, was the 43rd monarch of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō):; retrieved 2013-8-22.
, also known as, was the 46th (with Empress Kōken name) and the 48th monarch of Japan (with Empress Shōtoku name),Emperor Kōnin, Takano Imperial Mausoleum, Imperial Household Agency according to the traditional order of succession.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element (the "impulse action") and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted (the "locking action").
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The Frisian–Frankish wars were a series of conflicts between the Frankish Empire and the Frisian kingdom in the 7th and 8th centuries.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda, is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guo Ziyi (Kuo Tzu-i; Traditional Chinese: 郭子儀, Simplified Chinese: 郭子仪, Hanyu Pinyin: Guō Zǐyí, Wade-Giles: Kuo1 Tzu3-i2) (697 – July 9, 781), formally Prince Zhōngwǔ of Fényáng (汾陽忠武王), was the Tang dynasty general who ended the An Lushan Rebellion and participated in expeditions against the Uyghur Khaganate) and Tibetan Empire. He was regarded as one of the most powerful Tang generals before and after the Anshi Rebellion. After his death he was immortalized in Chinese mythology as the God of Wealth and Happiness (Lu Star of Fu Lu Shou). Guo Ziyi was a reportedly a Nestorian Christian.
Han Gan (Chinese: 韩干/韓幹) (c. 706-783) was a Tang Dynasty painter.
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.
Harun al-Rashid (هَارُون الرَشِيد Hārūn Ar-Rašīd; "Harun the Orthodox" or "Harun the Rightly-Guided," 17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809 (148–193 Hijri) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. His birth date is debated, with various sources giving dates from 763 to 766. His epithet "al-Rashid" translates to "the Orthodox," "the Just," "the Upright," or "the Rightly-Guided." Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age. His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad in present-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade. During his rule, the family of Barmakids, which played a deciding role in establishing the Abbasid Caliphate, declined gradually. In 796, he moved his court and government to Raqqa in present-day Syria. A Frankish mission came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Harun sent various presents with the emissaries on their return to Charlemagne's court, including a clock that Charlemagne and his retinue deemed to be a conjuration because of the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. The fictional The Book of One Thousand and One Nights is set in Harun's magnificent court and some of its stories involve Harun himself. Harun's life and court have been the subject of many other tales, both factual and fictitious. Some of the Twelver sect of Shia Muslims blame Harun for his supposed role in the murder of their 7th Imam (Musa ibn Ja'far).
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.
Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto.
was the imperial residence in the Japanese capital city Heijō-kyō (today's Nara), during most of the Nara period.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
A horse collar is a part of a horse harness that is used to distribute the load around a horse's neck and shoulders when pulling a wagon or plough.
A horseshoe is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear.
Dajian Huineng (638–713), also commonly known as the Sixth Patriarch or Sixth Ancestor of Chan, is a semi-legendary but central figure in the early history of Chinese Chan Buddhism.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Irene of Athens (Εἰρήνη ἡ Ἀθηναία; 752 – 9 August 803 AD), also known as Irene Sarantapechaina (Εἰρήνη Σαρανταπήχαινα), was Byzantine empress consort by marriage to Leo IV from 775 to 780, Byzantine regent during the minority of her son Constantine VI from 780 until 790, and finally ruling Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress from 797 to 802.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.
Jia Dan (730 – October 27, 805Hsu (1988), 96.http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype.
Jianzhen (688–763), or Ganjin in Japanese, was a Chinese monk who helped to propagate Buddhism in Japan.
Saint John of Damascus (Medieval Greek Ἰωάννης ὁ Δαμασκηνός, Ioánnis o Damaskinós, Byzantine; Ioannes Damascenus, يوحنا الدمشقي, ALA-LC: Yūḥannā ad-Dimashqī); also known as John Damascene and as Χρυσορρόας / Chrysorrhoas (literally "streaming with gold"—i.e., "the golden speaker"; c. 675 or 676 – 4 December 749) was a Syrian monk and priest.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
K'ak' Joplaj Chan K'awiil was installed as the 14th dynastic ruler of Copán on 7 June 738, 39 days after the execution of Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil.
K'ak' Yipyaj Chan K'awiil (died 763) was a ruler of the Mayan city of Copán.
Kalasan (Candi Kalasan), also known as Candi Kalibening, is an 8th-century Buddhist temple in Java, Indonesia.
The Kalasan inscription is an inscription dated 700 Saka (778 CE), discovered in Kalasan village, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
, officially, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan.
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
The Abbasid caliphs were the holders of the Islamic title of caliph who were members of the Abbasid dynasty, a branch of the Quraysh tribe descended from the uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
Poets who wrote or write much of their poetry in the languages of China.
Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
The Manjusrigrha inscription is an inscription dated 714 Saka (792 CE), written in Old Malay with Old Javanese script.
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (691 – 6 August 750; Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم / ALA-LC: Marwān bin Muḥammad bin Marwān bin al-Ḥakam) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The Medang Empire or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of prehispanic Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation–3500 BCE), the Archaic (before 2600 BCE), the Preclassic or Formative (2000 BCE–250 CE), the Classic (250–900CE), and the Postclassic (900–1521 CE), Colonial (1521–1821), and Postcolonial (1821–present).
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي; c. 695715) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The of the history of Japan covers the years from AD 710 to 794.
is the capital city of Nara Prefecture located in the Kansai region of Japan.
The National Museum of China flanks the eastern side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China.
The Nestorian Stele, also known as the Nestorian Stone, Nestorian Monument, or Nestorian Tablet, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents 150 years of early Christianity in China.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796.
Padmasambhava (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist master.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Palenque (Yucatec Maya: Bàakʼ /ɓàːkʼ/), also anciently known as Lakamha (literally: "Big Water"), was a Maya city state in southern Mexico that flourished in the 7th century.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
The Panchatantra (IAST: Pañcatantra, पञ्चतन्त्र, "Five Treatises") is an ancient Indian work of political philosophy, in the form of a collection of interrelated animal fables in Sanskrit verse and prose, arranged within a frame story.
Paolo Lucio Anafesto (Latin: Paulucius Anafestus) was, according to tradition, the first Doge of Venice, serving from 697 to 717.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Pattadakal, also called Paṭṭadakallu or Raktapura, is a complex of 7th and 8th century CE Hindu and Jain temples in northern Karnataka (India).
Paul the Deacon (720s 13 April 799 AD), also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, Winfridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis (i.e. "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.
Saint Paulinus II (726 – 11 January 802 or 804 AD) was a priest, theologian, poet, and one of the most eminent scholars of the Carolingian Renaissance.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Pope Adrian I (Hadrianus I d. 25 December 795) was Pope from 1 February 772 to his death in 795.
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Stephen II (Stephanus II (or III); 714-26 April 757 a Roman aristocrat was Pope from 26 March 752 to his death in 757. He succeeded Pope Zachary following the death of Pope-elect Stephen (sometimes called Stephen II). Stephen II marks the historical delineation between the Byzantine Papacy and the Frankish Papacy. The safety of Rome was facing invasion by the Kingdom of the Lombards. Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to seek assistance against the Lombard threat from Pepin the Short. Pepin had been anointed a first time in 751 in Soissons by Boniface, archbishop of Mainz, but named his price. With the Frankish nobles agreeing to campaign in Lombardy, the Pope consecrated Pepin a second time in a lavish ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis in 754, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius Romanorum (Latin for "Patrician of the Romans") in the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a Pope. Pepin defeated the Lombards – taking control of northern Italy – and made a gift (called the Donation of Pepin) of the properties formerly constituting the Exarchate of Ravenna to the pope, eventually leading to the establishment of the Papal States.
Prajñā, was an important 9th century Buddhist monk from Gandhara (born in the area of modern Kabul, Afghanistan).
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Quiriguá is an ancient Maya archaeological site in the department of Izabal in south-eastern Guatemala.
Abū Ḥafṣ Qutayba ibn Abī Ṣāliḥ Muslim ibn ʿAmr al-Bāhilī (أبو حفص قتيبة بن أبي صالح مسلم بن عمرو الباهلي; 669–715/6) was an Arab commander of the Umayyad Caliphate who became governor of Khurasan and distinguished himself in the conquest of Transoxiana during the reign of al-Walid I (705–715).
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sañjaya was an ancient Javanese dynasty that ruled the Mataram kingdom in Java during first millennium CE.
The Saxon Wars, also called the Saxon War or Saxon Uprising (not to be confused with the Saxon Rebellion of 1073-75), were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Sewu (Sèwu) is an eighth century Mahayana Buddhist temple located 800 meters north of Prambanan in Central Java, Indonesia.
The Shailendra dynasty (derived from Sanskrit combined words Śaila and Indra, meaning "King of the Mountain", also spelled Sailendra, Syailendra or Selendra) was the name of a notable Indianised Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java, whose reign signified a cultural renaissance in the region.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The was an administrative reorganization enacted in 703 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period.
Takrur, Tekrur or Tekrour (800 – c. 1285) was an ancient state of West Africa, which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.
Khan Tervel (Тервел) also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the Khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century.
Theodulf of Orléans (750(/60) – 18 December 821) was a writer, poet and the Bishop of Orléans (c. 798 to 818) during the reign of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.
Timothy I, (ܛܝܡܬܐܘܣ ܩܕܡܝܐ;, c. 740 – 9 January 823, traditional date of birth 727/728) Patriarch of the Church of the East from 780 to 823, is widely considered to be one of the most impressive patriarchs in the long history of the Church of the East as well as a Father of the Church.
Tonina (or Toniná in Spanish orthography) is a pre-Columbian archaeological site and ruined city of the Maya civilization located in what is now the Mexican state of Chiapas, some 13 km (8.1 mi) east of the town of Ocosingo.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil (also known by the appellation "18-Rabbit" or "Eighteen Rabbit"), was the 13th ajaw or ruler of the powerful Maya polity associated with the site of Copán in modern Honduras (its Classic Maya name was probably Oxwitik).
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
In the first half of the 8th century CE, a series of battles took place between the Umayyad Caliphate and the Indian kingdoms to the east of the Indus river.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Vimalamitra was an 8th-century Indian monk.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Yax Pasaj Chan Yopaat, also known as Yax Pasaj Chan Yoaat, Yax Pac and Yax Pasah, was ruler of the Maya kingdom of Xukpi from 763 to 810 or later.
Yi Xing (683–727), born Zhang Sui, was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer and Buddhist monk of the Tang dynasty (618–907).
Year 685 (DCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 690 (DCXC) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 697 (DCXCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
The denomination 700 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Year 701 (DCCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 705 (DCCV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 707 (DCCVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 708 (DCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 710 (DCCX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 711 (DCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 712 (DCCXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 713 (DCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 715 (DCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 717 (DCCXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 718 (DCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 721 (DCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 723 (DCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 726 (DCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 731 (DCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 732 (DCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 738 (DCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 740 (DCCXL) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 741 (DCCXLI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 742 (DCCXLII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 743 (DCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 744 (DCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 748 (DCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 749 (DCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 750 (DCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 751 (DCCLI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 752 (DCCLII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 754 (DCCLIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 755 (DCCLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 756 (DCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 757 (DCCLVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 758 (DCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 760 (DCCLX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 763 (DCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 764 (DCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 768 (DCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 770 (DCCLXX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 771 (DCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 772 (DCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 774 (DCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 775 (DCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 778 (DCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 779 (DCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 780 (DCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 781 (DCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 782 (DCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 785 (DCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 786 (DCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 787 (DCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 792 (DCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 793 (DCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 794 (DCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 795 (DCCXCV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 797 (DCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 798 (DCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 800 (DCCC) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 802 (DCCCII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 804 (DCCCIV) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 805 (DCCCV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 806 (DCCCVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 809 (DCCCIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 814 (DCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 816 (DCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 818 (DCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.