122 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abu'l-Fadl al-Isfahani, Adelaide of Italy, Alfonso IV of León, Amol, An Chonghui, April 4, Asceticism, Asfar ibn Shiruya, Asturias, Æthelstan, Bard Boinne, Béatrice of Vermandois, Boris II of Bulgaria, Cao Bin, Catholic Church, Christopher Lekapenos, Common year starting on Saturday, County of Empúries, County of Roussillon, Deheubarth, Dinavar, Diocese of York, Duchy of Normandy, Emperor Muzong of Liao, Emperor Uda, Empress Fu the Elder, Eric Bloodaxe, First Bulgarian Empire, Fruela II of Asturias, Gausbert, Glywysing, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, Gu Quanwu, Hamadan, Harald Fairhair, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, Hrotheweard, Hugh of Italy, Hywel Dda, Ibn Masarra, Idwal Foel, Iran, Irish poetry, Isfahan Province, Italy, January 27, Japan, Jimeno Garcés of Pamplona, ..., Julian calendar, June 25, Kashan, Kingdom of Gwent, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire), Kingdom of León, Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of Norway (872–1397), Kong Xun, Later Han (Five Dynasties), Later Tang, Later Zhou, Li Congyi, Liao dynasty, Liu Chengyou, Liutgard of Saxony (died 953), Lorraine, Lothair II of Italy, Lower Burgundy, March 28, Mardavij, Marozia, May 29, Min Kingdom, Morgan Hen ab Owain, Nobility, Nomina regum catolicorum Legionensium, Ollamh Érenn, Pope, Pope John XI, Pope Stephen VII, Principality of Hungary, Ramiro II of León, Robert II (bishop of Tours), Rollo, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours, Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier, Roman numerals, Roman Senate, Rome, Rouen, Rudolph II of Burgundy, Ruotger, Scandinavia, September 19, September 3, Song dynasty, Spain, Taksony of Hungary, Tang dynasty, Ten Kingdoms, Tsar, Vassal, Vikings, Vushmgir, Wales, Wang Yanbing, West Francia, William Longsword, Yang Guangmei, 864, 867, 883, 884, 947, 951, 953, 956, 969, 977, 999. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu'l-Fadl al-Isfahani, also known as the Isfahani Mahdi was a young Persian man who in 931 BCE was declared to be "God incarnate" by Qarmatian leader Abū Tāhir Sulaymān.
Adelaide of Italy (93116 December 999 AD) (Adelheid von Burgund; Adelaide di Borgogna), also called Adelaide of Burgundy, was a Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Otto the GreatCampbell, Thomas.
Alfonso IV (s933), called the Monk (el Monje), was King of León from 925 (or 926) and King of Galicia from 929, until he abdicated in 931.
Amol (آمل –;; also Romanized as Āmol and Amul) is a city and the administrative center of Amol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
An Chonghui (d. June 25, 931?Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 277..) (fl. 10th century) was the chief of staff (Shumishi) and chief advisor to Li Siyuan (Emperor Mingzong) (r. 926–933) of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang.
On the Roman calendar, this was known as the day before the nones of April (Pridie).
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Asfar ibn Shiruya (Gilaki/اسفار بن شیرویه: died 931) was an Iranian military leader of Gilaki origin, active in northern Iran (esp. Tabaristan and Jibal) in the early 10th century.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Æthelstan or Athelstan (Old English: Æþelstan, or Æðelstān, meaning "noble stone"; 89427 October 939) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939.
Bard Boinne was an Irish poet, who died in 931.
Béatrice of Vermandois (c. 880 – after 26 March 931), a Carolingian aristocrat, queen of Western Francia by marriage to Robert I, King of France, and mother of Hugh the Great.
Boris II (Борис II) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 969 to 977 (in Byzantine captivity from 971).
Cao Bin (曹彬) (931-999) was a military general in imperial China.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Christopher Lekapenos or Lecapenus (Χριστόφορος Λακαπηνός) was the eldest son of Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920–944) and co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 921 until his death in 931.
A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December.
The County of Empúries (Comtat d'Empúries), also known as the County of Ampurias (Condado de Ampurias), was a medieval county centred on the town of Empúries and enclosing the Catalan region of Peralada.
The County of Roussillon (Comtat de Rosselló,, Comitatus Ruscinonensis) was one of the Catalan counties in the Marca Hispanica during the Middle Ages.
Deheubarth (lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia).
Dinawar (دینور) was a major city in the 8th-11th centuries, located to the northeast of Kermanshah in western Iran.
The Diocese of York is an administrative division of the Church of England, part of the Province of York.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
Emperor Muzong of Liao (19 September 931 – 12 March 969), personal name Yelü Jing, infant name Shulü, was the fourth emperor of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty.
was the 59th emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): according to the traditional order of succession.
Empress Fu (符皇后; given name unknown) (931 – 29 August 956), posthumously Empress Xuanyi (宣懿皇后) was an empress consort of imperial China's short-lived Later Zhou during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Eric Haraldsson (Old Norse: Eiríkr Haraldsson, Eirik Haraldsson; c. 885 – 954), nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe (Old Norse: Eiríkr blóðøx, Eirik Blodøks), was a 10th-century Norwegian ruler.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
Fruela II (Froila II) (c. 875–July 925) was the King of Asturias from the death of his father, Alfonso III of Asturias, in 910 to his own death.
Gausbert (died 931) was the count of Empúries and Rosselló from 915 until he died.
Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales.
Grand Prince (Nagyfejedelem) was the title used by contemporary sources to name the leader of the federation of the Hungarian tribes in the tenth century.
Gu Quanwu (864–931) was a general and official during the late Tang dynasty and early Five Dynasties period, serving under the warlord Qian Liu who founded the Wuyue kingdom.
Hamadān or Hamedān (همدان, Hamedān) (Old Persian: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran.
Harald Fairhair (Old Norse: Haraldr Hárfagri, Norwegian: Harald Hårfagre, (literally "Harald Hair-pleasant"); 850 – 932) is remembered by medieval historians as the first King of Norway.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hrotheweard (or Lodeward) was Archbishop of York starting some time between 904 and 928 and ending with his death in 931.
Hugh of Arles (or Hugh of Provence) was King of Italy from 924 until his death in 947.
Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) or Hywel ap Cadell (c.880 – 950) was a King of Deheubarth who eventually came to rule most of Wales.
Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah b. Masarra b. Najih al-Jabali (883–931), was an Andalusi Muslim ascetic and scholar.
Idwal Foel (Idwal the Bald; died c. 942) or Idwal ab Anarawd (Idwal son of Anarawd) was a 10th-century King of Gwynedd in Wales.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irish poetry includes poetry in two languages, Irish and English.
Isfahan province (Ostāne Esfahan), also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jimeno II Garcés (died 29 May 931) was the brother of King Sancho I of Pamplona and son of García Jiménez by his second wife, Dadildis of Pallars.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kashan (کاشان, also Romanized as: Kāshān) is a city in Isfahan province, Iran.
Gwent (Guent) was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.
The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The terms Norwegian Empire,A Short History of Norway https://archive.is/mU1jM Hereditary Kingdom of Norway (Old Norse: Norégveldi, Bokmål: Norgesveldet, Nynorsk: Noregsveldet) and Norwegian Realm refer to the Kingdom of Norway's peak of power at the 13th century after a long period of civil war before 1240.
Kong Xun (孔循) (884New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 43.-April 4, 931Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 277..), known early in his life as Zhao Yinheng (趙殷衡), also having used surnames of Li (李) and Zhu (朱) early in life, was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Later Liang and Later Tang.
The Later Han was founded in 947.
Tang, known in history as Later Tang, was a short-lived imperial dynasty that lasted from 923 to 937 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in the history of China.
The Later Zhou was the last in a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.
Li Congyi (李從益) (931History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 51. – June 23, 947Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 287..), known as the Prince of Xu (許王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Later Tang.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Liu Chengyou (劉承祐) (28 March 931. – 2 January 951), also known by his posthumous name Emperor Yin (隱皇帝), was the second and final emperor of imperial China's short-lived Later Han during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, reigning from 948 until his death.
Liutgarde of Saxony (931 – 18 November 953), a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duchess consort of Lorraine from 947 until her death by her marriage with Duke Conrad the Red.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Lothair II (926/8 – 22 November 950), often Lothair of Arles, was the King of Italy from 948 to his death.
Lower Burgundy was a historical kingdom in what is now southeastern France, so-called because it was lower down the Rhone Valley than Upper Burgundy.
Mardavij (مرداویج, meaning "man assailant"), was a Gilaki prince, who established the Ziyarid dynasty, ruling from 930 to 935.
Marozia, born Maria and also known as Mariuccia or Mariozza (890 – 937), was a Roman noblewoman who was the alleged mistress of Pope Sergius III and was given the unprecedented titles senatrix ("senatoress") and patricia of Rome by Pope John X. Edward Gibbon wrote of her that the "influence of two sister prostitutes, Marozia and Theodora was founded on their wealth and beauty, their political and amorous intrigues: the most strenuous of their lovers were rewarded with the Roman tiara, and their reign may have suggested to darker ages the fable of a female pope.
Min was one of the Ten Kingdoms which was in existence between the years of 909 and 945.
Morgan Hen ab Owain was the king of Morgannwg who ruled from 942 - 974.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The Nomina regum catolicorum Legionensium ("Names of the Catholic kings of León", Nómina Leonesa) is a medieval regnal list of the Kings of Asturias and León from Pelagius of Asturias to Ramiro II of León, included in the manuscript of the Albeldense Chronicles of the Codex of Roda.
The Ollamh Érenn or Chief Ollam of Ireland was a professional title of Gaelic Ireland.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope John XI (Ioannes XI; d. December 935) was Pope from March 931 (at the age of 20) to his death in December 935.
Pope Stephen VII (Stephanus VII; d. 15 March 931) was Pope from February 929 to his death in 931.
The Principality of HungaryS.
Ramiro II (c. 900 – 1 January 951), son of Ordoño II, was a King of León from 931 until his death.
Robert II was bishop of Tours from 916 to 931.
Rollo or Gaange Rolf (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; Rollon; 846 – 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region of France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours (Latin: Archidioecesis Turonensis; French: Archidiocèse de Tours) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Rudolph II (c. 880 – 11 July 937), a member of the Elder House of Welf, was King of Burgundy from 912 until his death.
Ruotger, also spelled Rutger, Rudger or Rudgar (died 27 January 931), was the archbishop of Trier from 915.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Taksony (before or around 931 – early 970s) was the Grand Prince of the Hungarians after their catastrophic defeat in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Ten Kingdoms was a period in the history of Southern China that followed the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Zahir al-Dawla Vushmgir (ظهیرالدوله وشمگیر), mostly known as Vushmgir (also spelled as Voshmgir, Wushmgir, Wushmagir and Washmgir), was the second Ziyarid Emir who ruled from 935 until his death in December 967.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Wang Yanbing (王延稟) (d. 931), né Zhou Yanchen (周彥琛), formally Prince Weisu of Wuping (武平威肅王), was an adoptive son of Wang Shenzhi (commonly considered the founding ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Min).
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
William Longsword (Guillaume Longue-Épée, Willermus Longa Spata, Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; c. 893 – 17 December 942) was the second ruler of Normandy, from 927 until his assassination in 942.
Yang Mei (楊美) (931 – 978), named Yang Guangmei (楊光美) before 976, was a general in ancient China, first in the Later Zhou military and later in the Northern Song military.
Year 864 (DCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 867 (DCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 883 (DCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 884 (DCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 947 (CMXLVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 951 (CMLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 953 (CMLIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 956 (CMLVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 969 (CMLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 977 (CMLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
Year 999 (CMXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.