131 relations: A, A (Cyrillic), A with breve (Cyrillic), A-list, Aardvark, Abjad, ABO blood group system, Aleph, Aleph number, Algebra, Alpha, Alphabet, Anarchist symbolism, Ancient Greece, Ansuz (rune), Arabic script, Argentine austral, ASCII, At sign, अ, À, Á, Â, Ã, Ä, Å, Ångström, Æ, Ā, Ă, Ą, Bar (diacritic), Bengali alphabet, Blackletter, Bra, Carolingian minuscule, Caron, Close-mid front unrounded vowel, Collier's Encyclopedia, Consonant, Coptic alphabet, Cursive, Cyrillic script, Diacritic, Diphthong, Dot (diacritic), Double grave accent, Eau (trigraph), EBCDIC, Egyptian hieroglyphs, ..., Enclosed Alphanumerics, Encyclopædia Britannica, English orthography, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/, Etruscan civilization, Ȧ, First-order logic, Ge'ez script, General American, Geometry, Glottal stop, Gothic alphabet, Great Vowel Shift, Greek alphabet, Greek Dark Ages, Gujarati alphabet, Hamza, Handwriting, Hebrew alphabet, Hook above, Indo-European studies, Insular script, International Phonetic Alphabet, Inverted breve, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian Peninsula, Italic type, Italy, Lambda, Latin, Latin alpha, Latin script, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, Line (geometry), Line segment, List of Latin-script digraphs, Logogram, Merovingian script, Middle English phonology, Modifier letter right half ring, Motivation, Near-open central vowel, Near-open front unrounded vowel, Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, Old Italic script, Open back rounded vowel, Open back unrounded vowel, Open central unrounded vowel, Open front unrounded vowel, Open-mid back unrounded vowel, Ordinal indicator, Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician language, Phoneme, Pictogram, Proto-Sinaitic script, R-colored vowel, Ring (diacritic), Roman Empire, Runes, Saanich dialect, Samuel Johnson, Schwa, Schwa (Cyrillic), Semitic languages, Serif, Tau, Teuthonista, The Times of Israel, Triangle, Turned A, Turned v, Ugaritic alphabet, Uncial script, Universal quantification, Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Visigothic script, Vowel, X-SAMPA, Ya (Cyrillic). Expand index (81 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A with breve (Ӑ ӑ; italics: Ӑ ӑ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An A-list celebrity is one at the very top of their field.
The aardvark (Orycteropus afer) is a medium-sized, burrowing, nocturnal mammal native to Africa.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
In mathematics, and in particular set theory, the aleph numbers are a sequence of numbers used to represent the cardinality (or size) of infinite sets that can be well-ordered.
Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
Alpha (uppercase, lowercase; ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Anarchists have employed certain symbols for their cause, including most prominently the circle-A (Ⓐ) and the black flag (⚑), although anarchists have historically largely denied the importance of symbols to political movement.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ansuz is the conventional name given to the a-rune of the Elder Futhark,.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The austral was the currency of Argentina between June 15, 1985 and December 31, 1991.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
The at sign, @, is normally read aloud as "at"; it is also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at.
अ is the first vowel of the Devanagari abugida.
À, à (a-grave) is a letter of the Catalan, Emilian-Romagnol, French, Galician, Italian, Occitan, Portuguese, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages consisting of the letter A of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and a grave accent.
Á, á (a-acute) is a letter of the Blackfoot, Czech, Dutch, Faroese, Galician, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, Kazakh, Lakota, Navajo, Occitan, Portuguese, Sámi, Slovak, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages as a variant of the letter a. It is sometimes confused with à; e.g. "5 apples á $1", which is more commonly written as "5 apples à $1" (meaning "5 apples at 1 dollar each").
Â, â (a-circumflex) is a letter of the Inari Sami, Romanian, and Vietnamese alphabets.
Ã/ã (a with tilde) is a letter used in some languages, generally considered a variant of the letter A. In Portuguese, Ã/ã represents a nasal near-open central vowel, (its exact height varies from near-open to mid according to dialect).
Ä (lower case ä) is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis.
Å (lower case: å) — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae.
Ā, lowercase ā, is a grapheme, a Latin A with a macron, used in several orthographies.
Ă (upper case) or ă (lower case), usually referred to in English as A-breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian language, Vietnamese language and Chuvash language orthographies.
Ą (minuscule: ą) is a letter in the Polish, Kashubian, Lithuanian, Creek, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Osage, Hocąk, Mescalero, Gwich'in, Tutchone, and Elfdalian alphabets.
A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) or Bengali script (বাংলা লিপি, bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and, together with the Assamese alphabet, is the fifth most widely used writing system in the world.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
A bra, short for brassiere (UK or), is a form-fitting undergarment suspender designed to support or cover the wearer's breasts.
Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Collier's Encyclopedia (full title: Collier's Encyclopedia with Bibliography and Index) was a United States-based general encyclopedia published by Crowell, Collier and Macmillan.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian and sometimes Slovene languages.
Eau is a trigraph of the Latin script.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Enclosed Alphanumerics is a Unicode block of typographical symbols of an alphanumeric within a circle, a bracket or other not-closed enclosure, or ending in a full stop.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
In English, many vowel shifts only affect vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by an that has since been elided in non-rhotic dialects.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
Ȧ (minuscule: ȧ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from A with the addition of a dot above the letter.
First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.
Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
In typesetting, the hook above (dấu hỏi) is a diacritic mark placed on top of vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet.
Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics and an interdisciplinary field of study dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct.
Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (̑), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘).
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Lambda, Λ, λ (uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; λάμ(β)δα lám(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin alpha (majuscule: Ɑ, minuscule: ɑ) or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e., having no curvature) with negligible width and depth.
In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line between its endpoints.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Merovingian script or Gallo-Roman script was a medieval variant of the Latin script so called because it was developed in Gaul during the Merovingian dynasty.
Middle English phonology is necessarily somewhat speculative, since it is preserved only as a written language.
is a character of the Unicode Spacing Modifier Letters range, used to transliterate.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) possesses a variety of obsolete and nonstandard symbols.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The open back unrounded vowel, or low back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages.
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as an extra-open/low unrounded vowel at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells. In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol for an open ''central'' unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with (which officially signifies a ''near-open'' front unrounded vowel). This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, one can use symbols like (advanced/fronted), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
The open-mid back unrounded vowel, or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a character, or group of characters, following a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number, rather than a cardinal number.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Saanich (also Sənčaθən, written as SENĆOŦEN in Saanich orthography) is the language of the First Nations Saanich people.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Schwa (Ә ә; italics: Ә ә) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.
Tau (uppercase Τ, lowercase τ; ταυ) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Teuthonista is a phonetic transcription system used predominantly for the transcription of (High) German dialects.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
Turned A (capital: Ɐ, lowercase: ɐ, math symbol ∀) is a symbol based upon the letter A. Lowercase ɐ (in two story form) is used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to identify the near-open central vowel.
Turned v (majuscule: Λ, minuscule: ʌ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on a turned form of V. It is used in the orthographies of Ch'ol, Nankina, Northern Tepehuán, Temne and Wounaan, and also some orthographies of Ibibio.
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
In predicate logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all".
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA;, /%Eks"s.
Ya (Я я; italics: Я я) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, the civil script variant of Old Cyrillic Little Yus.