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A. J. Ayer

Index A. J. Ayer

Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956). [1]

108 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Aesthetics, Alex Callinicos, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Analytic philosophy, Analytic–synthetic distinction, Anthony Quinton, Aristotelian Society, Ascham St Vincent's School, Bard College, Berkshire, Bertrand Russell, Calvinism, Christ Church, Oxford, Citroën, Conway Hall Ethical Society, David Hume, Dee Wells, Eastbourne, Empirical evidence, Epistemology, Ethical intuitionism, Ethics, Eton College, Eton wall game, Eton, Berkshire, Fellow of the British Academy, Fernando Sánchez, Fontana Modern Masters, Frederick Copleston, George Orwell, Gifford Lectures, Grote Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic, Humanism, Humanist Manifesto II, Humanists UK, Humphrey Slater, Ignosticism, Immanuel Kant, J. L. Austin, Jim Holt (philosopher), Julian Huxley, Karl Popper, Karl Sigmund, Knight, Knight Bachelor, Language, Truth, and Logic, List of British philosophers, List of Wadham College people, Logical positivism, ..., Ludwig Wittgenstein, Martin Heidegger, Marylebone, Meaning (linguistics), Meta-ethics, Metaphysics, Mihailo Marković, Mike Tyson, Moritz Schlick, Naomi Campbell, Near-death experience, New College, Oxford, Nigel Lawson, Non-cognitivism, Normative ethics, P. F. Strawson, Paul Kurtz, Peter Unger, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of science, Polemic (magazine), Private language argument, R. M. Hare, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rationalist Association, Rothschild family, School corporal punishment, Second lieutenant, Secret Intelligence Service, Secular humanism, Sense and Sensibilia (Austin), Sheilah Graham, Special Operations Executive, St John's Wood, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stuart Hampshire, Sussex, Tautology (logic), Ted Honderich, The New York Review of Books, The New York Times, Tottenham Hotspur F.C., Turing test, University College London, University of London, University of Oxford, University of St Andrews, University of Vienna, Verificationism, Vienna Circle, Voltaire, Welsh Guards, Western philosophy, Windsor, Berkshire, World War I, World War II, Wykeham Professor, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (58 more) »

A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Alex Callinicos

Alexander Theodore Callinicos (born 24 July 1950) is a Zimbabwean-born British political theorist and activist.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Analytic–synthetic distinction

The analytic–synthetic distinction (also called the analytic–synthetic dichotomy) is a semantic distinction, used primarily in philosophy to distinguish propositions (in particular, statements that are affirmative subject–predicate judgments) into two types: analytic propositions and synthetic propositions.

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Anthony Quinton

Anthony Meredith Quinton, Baron Quinton, FBA (25 March 1925 – 19 June 2010) was a British political and moral philosopher, metaphysician, and materialist philosopher of mind.

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Aristotelian Society

The Aristotelian Society for the Systematic Study of Philosophy, more generally known as the Aristotelian Society, was founded at a meeting on 19 April 1880, at 17 Bloomsbury Square.

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Ascham St Vincent's School

Ascham St Vincent's School was an English preparatory school for boys at Eastbourne, East Sussex.

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Bard College

Bard College is a private liberal arts college in Annandale-on-Hudson, a hamlet in New York, United States.

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Berkshire (abbreviated Berks, in the 17th century sometimes spelled Barkeshire as it is pronounced) is a county in south east England, west of London and is one of the home counties.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Christ Church, Oxford

Christ Church (Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ædēs, of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.

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Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).

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Conway Hall Ethical Society

The Conway Hall Ethical Society, formerly the South Place Ethical Society, based in London at Conway Hall, is thought to be the oldest surviving freethought organisation in the world and is the only remaining ethical society in the United Kingdom.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Dee Wells

Alberta Wells or Alberta Constance Wells; Alberta Chapman; Dee Wells or Alberta Constance Ayer, Lady Ayer (19 March, 1925 – 24 June, 2003) was an American journalist, novelist, and broadcaster.

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Eastbourne is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of Brighton.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Ethical intuitionism

Ethical intuitionism (also called moral intuitionism) is a family of views in moral epistemology (and, on some definitions, metaphysics).

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Eton College

Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor.

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Eton wall game

The Eton wall game is a game which bears some resemblance to rugby union that originated at and is still played at Eton College.

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Eton, Berkshire

Eton is a town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Berkshire, but within the historic boundaries of Buckinghamshire, lying on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor and connected to it by Windsor Bridge.

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Fellow of the British Academy

Fellowship of the British Academy (FBA) is an award granted by the British Academy to leading academics for their distinction in the humanities and social sciences.

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Fernando Sánchez

Fernando Sánchez (Antwerp, Belgium, 9 August 1935 - Manhattan, New York, 28 June 2006) was a Spanish fashion designer.

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Fontana Modern Masters

The Fontana Modern Masters was a series of pocket guides on writers, philosophers, and other thinkers and theorists who shaped the intellectual landscape of the twentieth century.

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Frederick Copleston

Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).

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George Orwell

Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.

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Gifford Lectures

The Gifford Lectures are an annual series of lectures which were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (died 1887).

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Grote Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic

The Grote Chair of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic is an endowed chair at University College London.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humanist Manifesto II

The second Humanist Manifesto was written in 1973 by humanists Paul Kurtz and Edwin H. Wilson, and was intended to update the previous ''Humanist Manifesto'' (1933).

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Humanists UK

Humanists UK, known from 1967 until May 2017 as the British Humanist Association (BHA), is a charitable organisation which promotes Humanism and aims to represent "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs" in the United Kingdom by campaigning on issues relating to humanism, secularism, and human rights.

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Humphrey Slater

Humphrey Richard "Hugh" Slater (1906-1958) was an English author and painter.

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Ignosticism or igtheism is the idea that the question of the existence of God is meaningless because the term has no coherent and unambiguous definition.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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J. L. Austin

John Langshaw "J.

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Jim Holt (philosopher)

Jim Holt is an American philosopher, author and essayist.

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Julian Huxley

Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Karl Sigmund

Karl Sigmund (b. July 26, 1945 in Gars am Kamp, Lower Austria) is a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Vienna and one of the pioneers of evolutionary game theory.

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A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.

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Knight Bachelor

The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the most basic and lowest rank of a man who has been knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry; it is a part of the British honours system.

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Language, Truth, and Logic

Language, Truth, and Logic is a 1936 work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer.

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List of British philosophers

This page provides a list of British philosophers; of people who either worked within Great Britain, or the country's citizens working abroad.

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List of Wadham College people

A list of Wadham College, Oxford people, including alumni, Fellows, Deans and Wardens of the College.

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Logical positivism

Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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Marylebone (or, both appropriate for the Parish Church of St. Marylebone,,, or) is an affluent inner-city area of central London, England, located within the City of Westminster and part of the West End.

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Meaning (linguistics)

In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

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Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Mihailo Marković

Mihailo Marković, PhD (Михаило Марковић; 24 February 1923 – 7 February 2010) was a Serbian philosopher who gained prominence in the 1960s and 1970s as a proponent of the Praxis School, a Marxist humanist movement that originated in Yugoslavia.

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Mike Tyson

Michael Gerard Tyson (born June 30, 1966) is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 2005.

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Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.

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Naomi Campbell

Naomi Elaine Campbell (born 22 May 1970) is an English model, actress, and singer.

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Near-death experience

A near-death experience (NDE) is a personal experience associated with death or impending death.

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New College, Oxford

New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.

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Nigel Lawson

Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative politician and journalist.

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Non-cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences do not express propositions (i.e., statements) and thus cannot be true or false (they are not truth-apt).

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Normative ethics

Normative ethics is the study of ethical action.

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P. F. Strawson

Sir Peter Frederick Strawson FBA (23 November 1919 – 13 February 2006), usually cited as P. F. Strawson, was an English philosopher.

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Paul Kurtz

Paul Kurtz (December 21, 1925 – October 20, 2012) was a prominent American scientific skeptic and secular humanist.

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Peter Unger

Peter K. Unger (born April 25, 1942) is a contemporary American philosopher and professor at New York University.

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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Polemic (magazine)

Polemic was a British "Magazine of Philosophy, Psychology, and Aesthetics" published between 1945 and 1947, which aimed to be a general or non-specialist intellectual periodical.

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Private language argument

The private language argument argues that a language understandable by only a single individual is incoherent, and was introduced by Ludwig Wittgenstein in his later work, especially in the Philosophical Investigations.

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R. M. Hare

Richard Mervyn Hare (21 March 1919 – 29 January 2002), usually cited as R. M. Hare, was an English moral philosopher who held the post of White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rationalist Association

The Rationalist Association, originally the Rationalist Press Association, is an organisation in the United Kingdom, founded in 1885 by a group of free thinkers who were unhappy with the increasingly political and decreasingly intellectual tenor of the British secularist movement.

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Rothschild family

The Rothschild family is a wealthy Jewish family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), a court factor to the German Landgraves of Hesse-Kassel in the Free City of Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire, who established his banking business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international banking family through his five sons, who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples. The family was elevated to noble rank in the Holy Roman Empire and the United Kingdom. During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in modern world history.The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, page 481-85The Secret Life of the Jazz Baroness, from The Times 11 April 2009, Rosie Boycott The family's wealth was divided among various descendants, and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits.The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11 The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which have antisemitic origins.

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School corporal punishment

School corporal punishment refers to causing deliberate pain or discomfort in response to undesired behaviour by students in schools.

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Second lieutenant

Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.

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Secret Intelligence Service

The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.

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Secular humanism

Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.

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Sense and Sensibilia (Austin)

Sense and Sensibilia is a landmark 1962 work of ordinary language philosophy by J. L. Austin, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford.

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Sheilah Graham

Sheilah Graham (born Lily Shiel; 15 September 1904 – 17 November 1988) was a British-born, nationally syndicated American gossip columnist during Hollywood's "Golden Age".

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Special Operations Executive

The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a British World War II organisation.

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St John's Wood

St John's Wood is a district of northwest London, of which more than 98 percent lies in the City of Westminster and less than two percent in Camden.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stuart Hampshire

Sir Stuart Newton Hampshire (1 October 1914 – 13 June 2004) was an Oxford University philosopher, literary critic and university administrator.

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Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.

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Tautology (logic)

In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.

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Ted Honderich

Ted Honderich (born 30 January 1933) is a Canadian-born British philosopher, Grote Professor Emeritus of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic, University College London.

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The New York Review of Books

The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Tottenham Hotspur F.C.

Tottenham Hotspur Football Club, commonly referred to simply as Tottenham or Spurs, is an English football club in Tottenham, London, England, that competes in the Premier League.

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Turing test

The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of London

The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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University of Vienna

The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.

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Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).

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Vienna Circle

The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Welsh Guards

The Welsh Guards (WG; Gwarchodlu Cymreig), part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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Windsor, Berkshire

Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wykeham Professor

The University of Oxford has three statutory professorships named after William of Wykeham, who founded New College.

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.

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A J Ayer, A.J. Ayer, A.J.Ayer, AJ Ayer, Alfred Ayer, Alfred J. Ayer, Alfred Jules Ayer, Ayer, Alfred Jules, Freddie Ayer, Sir A. J. Ayer, Sir Alfred Ayer, Sir Alfred Jules Ayer.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._J._Ayer

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