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The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller 5.45×39mm cartridge, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons. The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the Mujahideen during the Soviet–Afghan War. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former Soviet Union. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), and the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK).Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001. Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s. [1]

161 relations: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight, AEK-971, AG-043, Airborne forces, AK-100 (rifle family), AK-101, AK-102, AK-103, AK-104, AK-105, AK-107, AK-12, AK-47, AKM, AL-7, AO-46 (firearm), Armed Forces of Armenia, Assault rifle, Bakelite, Ballistic gelatin, Bayonet, BelOMO, Black, Blank-firing adaptor, Bolt thrust, Bulgaria, Bullet, Bullpup, C. J. Chivers, C79 optical sight, CAR-15, Carbine, Cartridge (firearms), Cavitation, Central Intelligence Agency, Chrome plating, Circular error probable, Close quarters combat, Commonwealth of Independent States, Cypriot National Guard, Density of air, East Germany, East Prigorodny Conflict, Eelam War IV, Elevation (ballistics), Epoxy, External ballistics, FB Tantal, Fiberglass, ..., First Chechen War, Flight dynamics, Free recoil, Gas-operated reloading, Georgian Civil War, Glass-filled polymer, GP-25, GRAU, Gravity, Grenade launcher, Igor Stechkin, Infantry, Inter-Services Intelligence, Internal Troops of Russia, Iraq, Iraq War, Iron sights, Izhevsk, Kalashnikov Concern, Kalashnikov rifle, Korean People's Army Special Operation Force, Lamination, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, Libyan Civil War (2011), Light machine gun, List of assault rifles, List of modern Russian small arms and light weapons, M4 carbine, Machine press, Magazine (firearms), Maroon, Martin Fackler, Mikhail Kalashnikov, Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, Ministry of Defence Industry of Azerbaijan, MP 40, Mujahideen, Muzzle booster, Muzzle brake, Muzzle rise, Muzzle velocity, NATO, Optoelectronics, Osama bin Laden, OTs-14 Groza, Patrick Sweeney (gunsmith), Personal defense weapon, Peter Andreevich Tkachev, Phenol formaldehyde resin, PK machine gun, Plum (color), Plywood, Point-blank range, Polyamide, Pușcă Automată model 1986, Rail Integration System, Ratnik (program), Reticle, Rostec, Rotating bolt, RPK, RT (TV network), Russia, Russian Airborne Troops, Russian Armed Forces, Russian Ground Forces, Russian language, Russo-Georgian War, Rust (color), Saudi–Yemeni border conflict (2015–present), Second Chechen War, Semi-automatic firearm, Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov, Service rifle, Sheet metal, Silencer (firearms), SKS, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Special forces, Speed of sound, Spetsnaz, Spot welding, Sri Lanka Army, Stadiametric rangefinding, Stamping (metalworking), Steel, Stripper clip, Submachine gun, SUSAT, Syrian Civil War, Tajikistani Civil War, TASS, Telescopic sight, Transcaucasian Military District, Transnistria War, Tritium, Tula Arms Plant, USP-1, Vietnam People's Navy, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War in Donbass, Yevgeny Dragunov, 1PN51, 1PN58, 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade, 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes, 40 mm grenade, 5.45×39mm, 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×39mm. Expand index (111 more) »

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·(C4H6)y·(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer.

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Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight

Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight (abbreviated ACOG) is a series of telescopic sights manufactured by Trijicon.

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The AEK-971 is a Russian (formerly the Soviet Union) selective fire 5.45×39mm assault rifle that was developed at the Kovrov Mechanical Plant (KMZ) by chief designer Sergey Koksharov in the late 1970s and 1980s (currently manufactured by Degtyarev Plant).

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AG-043 (АГ-043) was a Soviet compact fully automatic assault rifle chambered for the 5.45×39mm round, developed in 1975.

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Airborne forces

Airborne Military parachuting or gliding form of inserting personnel or supplies.

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AK-100 (rifle family)

The AK-74M is the basis for the new Russian AK-100 family of Kalashnikov firearms.

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The AK-101 is an assault rifle of the Kalashnikov series.

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The AK-102 assault rifle is a shortened carbine version of the AK-101 rifle, which in turn was derived from the original AK-47 design and its AK-74 successor.

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The AK-103 assault rifle is a derivative of the AK-74M chambered for the 7.62×39mm M43 round, similar to the older AKM.

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The AK-104 is a shortened carbine version of the AK-103 rifle.

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The AK-105 is a shortened carbine version of the AK-74M rifle, which in turn was derived from the original AK-47 design and its AK-74 successor.

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The AK-107 is a Russian 5.45×39mm assault rifle developed from the AK-100-series.

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The AK-12 is a Russian 5.45×39mm assault rifle, designed and manufactured by Kalashnikov Concern (formerly Izhmash).

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The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.

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The AKM is a 7.62mm assault rifle designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov.

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The AL-7 is a Russian assault rifle designed by Izhmash engineer Yury Aleksandrov in the early 1970s.

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AO-46 (firearm)

The AO-46 was a gas-operated 5.45×39mm caliber, compact carbine/assault rifle prototype.

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Armed Forces of Armenia

The Armed Forces of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության զինված ուժեր) comprise two services: the Army, and the Air Force and Air Defense (a unified branch).

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Assault rifle

An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.

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Bakelite (sometimes spelled Baekelite), or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is the first plastic made from synthetic components.

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Ballistic gelatin

Ballistic gelatin is a testing medium scientifically correlated to swine muscle tissue (which in turn is comparable to human muscle tissue), in which the effects of bullet wounds can be simulated.

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A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of a rifles muzzle, allowing it to be used as a pike.

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BelOMO or Belorusskoe Optiko-Mechanichesckoye Obyedinenie (Беломо or Белорусское оптико-механическое объединение, Belarus Optical & Mechanical Association) was founded in Minsk in 1971 in Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Union, now Belarus.

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Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.

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Blank-firing adaptor

A blank-firing adapter or blank-firing attachment (BFA), sometimes called a blank adapter or blank attachment, is a device used in conjunction with blank ammunition.

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Bolt thrust

Bolt thrust or breech pressure is a term used in internal ballistics and firearms (whether small arms or artillery) that describes the amount of rearward force exerted by the propellant gases on the bolt or breech of a firearm action or breech when a projectile is fired.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.

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A bullpup is a firearm with its action and magazine far behind its trigger group.

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C. J. Chivers

Christopher John Chivers (born 1964) is an American journalist and author best known for his work with The New York Times and Esquire magazine.

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C79 optical sight

The C79 Optical sight is a small arms telescopic sight of 3.4×28 magnification.

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The Colt Automatic Rifle-15 or CAR-15 was a family of M16 rifle based firearms marketed by Colt in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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A carbine, from French carabine, is a long gun firearm but with a shorter barrel than a rifle or musket.

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Cartridge (firearms)

A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.

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Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids"), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chrome plating

Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating), often referred to simply as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object.

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Circular error probable

In the military science of ballistics, circular error probable (CEP) (also circular error probability or circle of equal probability) is a measure of a weapon system's precision.

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Close quarters combat

Close quarters combat (CQC) is a tactical concept that involves physical confrontation between several combatants.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Cypriot National Guard

The Cypriot National Guard (Εθνική Φρουρά, Ethnikí Frourá; Milli Muhafız Ordusu), also known as the Greek Cypriot National Guard or simply National Guard, is the combined arms military force of the Republic of Cyprus.

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Density of air

The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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East Prigorodny Conflict

The East Prigorodny Conflict, also referred to as the Ossetian-Ingush Conflict, was an inter-ethnic conflict in the eastern part of the Prigorodny district in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, which started in 1989 and developed, in 1992, into a brief ethnic war between local Ingush and Ossetian paramilitary forces.

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Eelam War IV

Eelam War IV is the name given to the fourth phase of armed conflict between the Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which is currently proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries.

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Elevation (ballistics)

In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the axial direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery.

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Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.

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External ballistics

External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.

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FB Tantal

The karabinek wzór 1988 (Carbine Model 1988) Tantal is a 5.45×39mm assault rifle designed and produced in Poland in the late 1980s.

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Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.

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First Chechen War

The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.

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Flight dynamics

Flight dynamics is the study of the performance, stability, and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space.

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Free recoil

Free recoil is a vernacular term or jargon for recoil energy of a firearm not supported from behind.

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Gas-operated reloading

Gas-operation is a system of operation used to provide energy to operate autoloading firearms.

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Georgian Civil War

The Georgian Civil War comprised inter-ethnic and intranational conflicts in the regions of South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993), as well as the violent military coup d'état of December 22, 1991 – December 31, 1993, against the first democratically elected President of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his subsequent uprising in an attempt to regain power (1993). While the Gamsakhurdia rebellion was eventually defeated, the South Ossetia and Abkhazia conflicts resulted in the de facto secession of both regions from Georgia. As a result, both conflicts have lingered on, with occasional flare-ups.

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Glass-filled polymer

Glass-filled polymer, or glass-filled plastic, is a mouldable composite material.

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The GP-25 Kostyor ('Bonfire'), GP-30 Obuvka ('Shoe') and GP-34 are a family of Russian 40 mm under-barrel grenade launchers (Granatomyot Podstvolnyj) for the AK-series of assault rifle.

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The Main Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (GRAU) (translit) is a department of the Russian (ex-Soviet) Ministry of Defense.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Grenade launcher

A grenade launcher is a weapon that fires a specially-designed large-caliber projectile, often with an explosive, smoke or gas warhead.

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Igor Stechkin

Igor Yakovlevich Stechkin (Russian: Игорь Яковлевич Стечкин; 1922–2001) was a Russian small arms designer.

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Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Inter-Services Intelligence

The Inter-Services Intelligence (بین الخدماتی مخابرات, abbreviated as ISI) is the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, operationally responsible for gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world.

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Internal Troops of Russia

The Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MVD RF) (Внутренние войска Министерства внутренних дел, Vnutrenniye Voiska Ministerstva Vnutrennikh Del; abbreviated ВВ, VV), was a gendarmerie-like paramilitary force of the federal government in Russia.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Iron sights

Iron sights are a system of shaped alignment markers (usually metal) used as a sighting device to assist in the aiming of a device such as a firearm, crossbow, or telescope, and exclude the use of optics as in reflector (reflex) sights, holographic sights, and telescopic sights.

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Izhevsk (p; Иж, Iž, or Ижкар, Ižkar) is the capital city of the Udmurt Republic, Russia, located along the Izh River in the Western Ural Mountains.

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Kalashnikov Concern

JSC Kalashnikov Concern (Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant until 2013) or IZHMASH (ИЖМАШ) is a Russian defense manufacturing concern and joint-stock company headquartered in the city of Izhevsk in the Republic of Udmurtia as well as the capital city of Moscow.

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Kalashnikov rifle

A Kalashnikov rifle is any one of a series of automatic rifles based on the original design of Mikhail Kalashnikov.

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Korean People's Army Special Operation Force

The North Korean special operation force (NKSOF), officially the Korean People's Army Special Operation Force, consists of specially equipped and trained elite military units trained to perform military, political, or psychological operations for North Korea.

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Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, sound insulation, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials.

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Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.

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Libyan Civil War (2011)

The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.

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Light machine gun

A light machine gun (LMG) is a machine gun designed to be employed by an individual soldier, with or without an assistant, as an infantry support weapon.

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List of assault rifles

An assault rifle is a rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge, a detachable magazine, and can switch between semiautomatic/fully automatic fire.

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List of modern Russian small arms and light weapons

The following is a list of modern Russian small arms and light weapons which were in service in 2016.

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M4 carbine

The M4 carbine is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rifle.

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Machine press

A forming press, commonly shortened to press, is a machine tool that changes the shape of a workpiece by the application of pressure.

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Magazine (firearms)

A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm.

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Maroon is a dark brownish red color that takes its name from the French word marron, or chestnut.

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Martin Fackler

Martin L. Fackler served in the U.S Navy from 1960–1975 and in the U.S. Army from 1975–1991.

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Mikhail Kalashnikov

Lieutenant-General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (p; 10 November 1919 – 23 December 2013) was a Russian general, inventor, military engineer and small arms designer.

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Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps

The Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps (Военно-исторический музей артиллерии, инженерных войск и войск связи.), also known simply as the Artillery Museum, is a state-owned military museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Ministry of Defence Industry of Azerbaijan

The Ministry of Defence Industry of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikasının Müdafiə Sənayesi Nazirliyi) is a governmental agency within the Cabinet of Azerbaijan in charge of design, manufacturing, regulation and maintenance of products in the fields of defense, radio electronics, instrument engineering.

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MP 40

The MP 40 (Maschinenpistole 40) was a submachine gun chambered for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge.

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Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").

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Muzzle booster

A muzzle booster or recoil booster is a device affixed to the muzzle of a firearm, intended to harness the energy of the escaping propellant to augment the force of recoil on portions of the firearm.

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Muzzle brake

A muzzle brake or recoil compensator is a device connected to the muzzle of a firearm or cannon that redirects propellant gases to counter recoil and unwanted rising of the barrel.

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Muzzle rise

The interchangeable terms muzzle rise, muzzle flip and muzzle climb refer to the tendency of firearms or airguns' front end (muzzle end of the barrel) to rise up after firing.

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Muzzle velocity

Muzzle velocity is the speed of a projectile at the moment it leaves the muzzle of a gun.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

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Osama bin Laden

Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.

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OTs-14 Groza

The OTs-14 Groza (lit) is a Russian selective fire bullpup assault rifle chambered for the 7.62×39 round and the 9×39mm subsonic round.

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Patrick Sweeney (gunsmith)

Patrick Sweeney is an American gunsmith (retired), originally from Detroit, Michigan.

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Personal defense weapon

Personal defense weapons (PDWs) are a class of compact semi-automatic (selective fire for military and law enforcement), magazine-fed, submachine gun like firearms – essentially a hybrid between a submachine gun and compact rifles.

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Peter Andreevich Tkachev

Peter Andreevich Tkachev was a Russian weapons engineer for TsNIITochMash.

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Phenol formaldehyde resin

Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.

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PK machine gun

The PK (Пулемёт Калашникова, transliterated as Pulemyot Kalashnikova, or "Kalashnikov's Machinegun"), is a 7.62x54mmR general-purpose machine gun designed in the Soviet Union and currently in production in Russia.

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Plum (color)

Plum is a dark purple colour, such as that shown at right (color #8E4585), which is a close representation of the average color of the plum fruit.

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Plywood is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another.

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Point-blank range

Point-blank range is any distance over which the trajectory of a given projectile fired from a given weapon remains sufficiently flat that one can strike a target by firing at it directly.

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A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.

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Pușcă Automată model 1986

The Pușcă Automată model 1986 (Automatic Rifle Model 1986, abbreviated PA md. 86 or simply md. 86) is the standard assault rifle used by the Romanian Military Forces and manufactured in Cugir, Romania by the ROMARM firm, located in Bucharest.

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Rail Integration System

. Rail Interface System (RIS, sometimes also referred to as Rail Accessory System, RAS) is a generic term for a system for attaching accessories to small firearms such as pistols, rifles and light machine guns.

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Ratnik (program)

Ratnik (Russian: Ратник; Warrior) is a Russian future infantry combat system.

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A reticle, or reticule, also known as a graticule, is a pattern of fine lines or markings built into the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescopic sight in a telescope, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope, to provide references during visual examination.

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Rostec (Rostekh), formerly Rostekhnologii (Ростехнологии) is a Russian state corporation established in late 2007 to consolidate strategically important companies with the ultimate goal of capitalizing them and bringing them to an IPO.

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Rotating bolt

Rotating bolt is a method of locking used in firearms.

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The RPK (Ruchnoy Pulemyot Kalashnikova, Ручной пулемёт Калашникова or "Kalashnikov hand-held machine gun") is a 7.62×39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the late 1950s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Airborne Troops

The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-desantnye voyska Rossii", Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска России, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

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Russian Armed Forces

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russo-Georgian War

The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

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Rust (color)

Rust is an orange-red-brown color resembling iron oxide.

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Saudi–Yemeni border conflict (2015–present)

An armed conflict between troops of Saudi Arabia and Houthi insurgents is taking place at the Saudi–Yemeni border, at the southern edge of the regions of Najran, Jizan, and Asir.

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Second Chechen War

Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.

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Semi-automatic firearm

A semi-automatic firearm, or self-loading firearm, is one that not only fires a bullet each time the trigger is pulled, but also performs all steps necessary to prepare it to discharge again—assuming cartridges remain in the firearm's feed device.

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Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov

Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov (Russian: Сергей Гаврилович Симонов; 9 April 1894 – 6 May 1986) was a Russian weapons designer; he is one of the fathers of the modern assault rifle.

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Service rifle

The service rifle (also known as standard-issue rifle) of a given armed force is that which it issues as standard to its service members.

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Sheet metal

Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.

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Silencer (firearms)

A silencer, suppressor, sound suppressor, or sound moderator is a device that reduces the sound intensity and muzzle flash when a firearm or air gun is discharged.

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The SKS is a Soviet semi-automatic carbine chambered for the 7.62×39mm round, designed in 1943 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Special forces

Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.

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Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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Spetsnaz (p), abbreviation for Войска специа́льного назначе́ния, tr. Voyska spetsialnogo naznacheniya, (Special Purpose Forces or Special Purpose Military Units), is an umbrella term for special forces in Russian and is used in numerous post-Soviet states.

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Spot welding

Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a process in which contacting metal surface points are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current.

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Sri Lanka Army

The Sri Lankan Army (Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.

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Stadiametric rangefinding

Stadiametric rangefinding, or the stadia method is a technique of measuring distances with a telescopic instrument.

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Stamping (metalworking)

Stamping (also known as pressing) is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Stripper clip

A stripper clip (also known as a charger or charger clip, especially in British and in Commonwealth military vocabulary) is a speedloader that holds several cartridges (usually consisting between 5 and 10 rounds) together in a single unit for easier and faster loading of a firearm's magazine.

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Submachine gun

A submachine gun (SMG) is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.

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The Sight Unit Small Arms, Trilux, or SUSAT, is a 4× telescopic sight, with tritium-powered illumination utilised at dusk or dawn.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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Tajikistani Civil War

The Tajikistani Civil War (Ҷанги шаҳрвандии Тоҷикистон, Jangi şahrvandi‘i Tojikiston/Çangi şahrvandiji Toçikiston); also known as the Tajik Civil War or the War in Tajikistan, began in May 1992 when regional groups from the Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan regions of Tajikistan rose up against the government of President Rahmon Nabiyev, which was dominated by people from the Khujand and Kulyab regions.

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Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.

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Telescopic sight

A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is an optical sighting device that is based on a refracting telescope.

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Transcaucasian Military District

The Transcaucasian Military District, a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces, traces its history to May 1921 and the incorporation of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia into the Soviet Union.

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Transnistria War

The Transnistria War was an armed conflict that broke out in November 1990 in Dubăsari (Дубоссáры, Dubossary) between pro-Transnistria forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard, militia and Cossack units (which were supported by elements of the Russian 14th Army), and pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police.

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Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Tula Arms Plant

Tula Arms Plant (Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod) is a Russian weapons manufacturer founded by Tsar Peter I of Russia in 1712 in Tula, Tula Oblast as Tula Arsenal.

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The USP-1 "Tyul'pan" (From Russian: Унифицированный Стрелковый Прицел, первый образец, Unifitsirovannyj Strelkovyj Pritsel, pervyj obrazets, "Unified Firearm Sight, first model, GRAU index 1P29) is a Soviet/Russian universal optic sight, designed for use on the AK rifle family (AKMN, AK-74N, AK-74M, AK-101, AK-102, AK-105), the RPK-74N, the PKMN and the PKP "Pecheneg" and is designed for quick-mounting and quick-detaching.

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Vietnam People's Navy

The Vietnam People's Navy (Hải quân nhân dân Việt Nam), commonly known as the Vietnamese Navy or the Vietnamese People's Navy, is the naval branch of the Vietnam People's Army and is responsible for the protection of the country's national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the co-ordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defence force.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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War in Donbass

The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.

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Yevgeny Dragunov

Yevgeny Fyodorovich Dragunov (Евге́ний Фёдорович Драгуно́в; February 20, 1920August 4, 1991) was a Soviet weapons designer, best known his role in helping invent the semi-automatic rifle bearing his name, the Dragunov sniper rifle.

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1PN51 (1ПН51) is the GRAU index for a Soviet designed passive night scope for a range of Soviet designed small arms and grenade launchers.

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1PN58 (1ПН58) is the GRAU index for a Soviet designed passive night scope for a range of Soviet designed small arms and grenade launchers.

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2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade

The 2015 Moscow Victory Day Parade was a parade that took place in Red Square in Moscow on 9 May 2015 to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the capitulation of Nazi Germany in 1945.

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2016 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes

The Four-Day War or April War, began along the Nagorno-Karabakh line of contact on 1 April 2016 with the Artsakh Defense Army, backed by the Armenian Armed Forces, on one side and the Azerbaijani Armed Forces on the other.

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40 mm grenade

The 40 mm grenade is a military grenade caliber for grenade launchers in service with many armed forces.

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The 5.45×39mm cartridge is a rimless bottlenecked Intermediate cartridge.

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5.56×45mm NATO

The 5.56×45mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 5.56 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge family developed in Belgium by FN Herstal.

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The 7.62×39mm (aka 7.62 Soviet or formerly.30 Russian Short) round is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge of Soviet origin that was designed during World War II.

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Redirects here:

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AK-74

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