136 relations: "Hello, World!" program, Ada (programming language), Address programming language, Adriaan van Wijngaarden, Alan Perlis, ALCOR, ALGOL 58, ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68, ALGOL W, Algorithm, APL syntax and symbols, ASCII, Association for Computing Machinery, Atlas Autocode, Automatic Computing Engine, B (programming language), Backslash, Backus–Naur form, BCPL, BESM, Boolean data type, Brian Randell, Buran (spacecraft), Burroughs Corporation, Burroughs large systems, Burroughs MCP, C (programming language), Case Western Reserve University, Charles Katz, COBOL, Comecon, Communications of the ACM, Compiler, Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools, Computer History Museum, Context-free grammar, Coral 66, Cyrillic script, Dartmouth ALGOL 30, Data General Eclipse, DG/L, Donald Knuth, Edinburgh IMP, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Electrologica X1, Elliott 803, Elliott ALGOL, English Electric, English Electric DEUCE, ..., English Electric KDF9, ES EVM, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, ETH Zurich, Evaluation strategy, Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language, Ferranti Pegasus, Font, Formal grammar, Fortran, Friedrich L. Bauer, GOST, GOST 10859, Heinz Rutishauser, Hermann Bottenbruch, High-level programming language, IBM 2741, IBM System/360, ICT 1900 series, Imperative programming, Input/output, Instruction set architecture, International Federation for Information Processing, ISWIM, Java virtual machine, Jørn Jensen, Jensen's Device, John Backus, John C. Reynolds, John McCarthy (computer scientist), Joseph Henry Wegstein, JOVIAL, Klaus Samelson, Konrad Zuse, Kristen Nygaard, Lambda calculus, LGP-30, Lisp (programming language), Man or boy test, META II, Mike Woodger, Minsk family of computers, ML (programming language), NELIAC, Nested function, NEWP, Niklaus Wirth, Ole-Johan Dahl, Parameter (computer programming), Pascal (programming language), PDP-1, PDP-11, Peter Landin, Peter Naur, Peter O'Hearn, PL/I, Procedural programming, Programming Computable Functions, Programming language, Recursion (computer science), Ron Morrison, S-algol, Scheme (programming language), Scope (computer science), Simula, Soviet Union, Stropping (syntax), Structured programming, Table (information), The Computer Journal, Thomas E. Kurtz, Thunk, Tony Hoare, Tron (video game), Turing Award, Unicode, Unisys, United States Department of Defense, UNIVAC, UNIVAC 1100/2200 series, Van Wijngaarden grammar, Whetstone (benchmark), Willem van der Poel, Z22 (computer), Z23 (computer), ZEBRA (computer). Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
The Address programming language (Адресный язык программирования Адресна мова програмування) is one of the world's first high-level programming languages.
Adriaan "Aad" van Wijngaarden (2 November 1916 – 7 February 1987) was a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist, who is considered by many to have been the founding father of informatica (computer science) in the Netherlands.
Alan Jay Perlis (April 1, 1922 – February 7, 1990) was an American computer scientist and professor at Purdue University, Carnegie Mellon University and Yale University.
ALCOR is an early computer language definition created by the ALCOR Group, a consortium of universities, research institutions and manufacturers in Europe and the United States which was founded in 1959 and which had 60 members in 1966.
ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
ALGOL W is a programming language.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
The programming language APL is distinctive in being symbolic rather than lexical: its primitives are denoted by symbols, not words.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Atlas Autocode (AA)R.A. Brooker and J.S. Rohl,, University of Manchester Computer Science Department, 1965.
The Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) was an early electronic stored-program computer designed by Alan Turing.
B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.
The backslash (\) is a typographical mark (glyph) used mainly in computing and is the mirror image of the common slash (/).
In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols.
BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.
BESM (БЭСМ) is the name of a series of Soviet mainframe computers built in 1950–60s.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
Brian Randell (born 1936) is a British computer scientist, and Emeritus Professor at the School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, UK He specialises in research into software fault tolerance and dependability, and is a noted authority on the early pre-1950 history of computers.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.
The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs small, medium and large systems, including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
Case Western Reserve University (also known as Case Western Reserve, Case Western, Case, and CWRU) is a private doctorate-granting university in Cleveland, Ohio.
Charles Katz (born in 1927) is an American computer scientist known for his contributions to early compiler development in the 1950s.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools is a computer science textbook by Alfred V. Aho, Monica S. Lam, Ravi Sethi, and Jeffrey D. Ullman about compiler construction.
The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.
In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a certain type of formal grammar: a set of production rules that describe all possible strings in a given formal language.
CORAL (Computer On-line Real-time Applications Language) is a programming language originally developed in 1964 at the Royal Radar Establishment (RRE), Malvern, UK, as a subset of JOVIAL.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dartmouth ALGOL 30 was an 1960s-era implementation, firstly of the ALGOL 58 programming language, then of ALGOL 60 for the LGP-30 at Dartmouth College, hence the name.
The Data General Eclipse line of computers by Data General were 16-bit minicomputers released in early 1974 and sold until 1988.
DG/L was a programming language developed by Data General Corp for the Nova, Eclipse and Eclipse/MV families of minicomputers in the 1970s and early 1980s.
Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.
Edinburgh IMP is a development of ATLAS Autocode, initially developed around 1966-1969 at Edinburgh University, Scotland.
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.
The Electrologica X1 was a digital computer designed and manufactured in the Netherlands from 1958 to 1965.
The Elliott 803 is a small, medium-speed transistor digital computer which was manufactured by the British company Elliott Brothers in the 1960s.
Elliott ALGOL was an ALGOL 60 compiler for the Elliott 803 computer.
The English Electric Company Limited was a British industrial manufacturer formed after the armistice of World War I at the end of 1918.
The DEUCE (Digital Electronic Universal Computing Engine) was one of the earliest British commercially available computers, built by English Electric from 1955.
KDF9 was an early British computer designed and built by English Electric.
ES EVM (ЕС ЭВМ, Единая система электронных вычислительных машин, Yedinaya Sistema Electronnykh Vytchislitel'nykh Mashin, meaning "Unified System of Electronic Computers") was a series of clones of IBM's System/360 and System/370 mainframes, released in the Comecon countries under the initiative of the Soviet Union since the 1960s.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.
Evaluation strategies are used by programming languages to determine when to evaluate the argument(s) of a function call (for function, also read: operation, method, or relation) and what kind of value to pass to the function.
ESPOL (short for Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language) was a superset of ALGOL 60 that provided capabilities of what would later be known as Mohols, machine oriented high order languages, such as interrupting a processor on a multiprocessor system (the Burroughs large systems were multiprocessor processor systems).
Pegasus was an early vacuum tube (valve) computer built by Ferranti, Ltd of Great Britain.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
Friedrich Ludwig "Fritz" Bauer (10 June 1924 – 26 March 2015) was a German computer scientist and professor at the Technical University of Munich.
GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
GOST 10859 (1964) is a standard of the Soviet Union which defined how to encode data on punched cards.
Heinz Rutishauser (30 January 1918 – 10 November 1970) was a Swiss mathematician and a pioneer of modern numerical mathematics and computer science.
Hermann Bottenbruch (b.September 14, 1928) is a German mathematician and computer scientist.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
The IBM 2741 is a printing computer terminal that was introduced in 1965.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
ICT 1900 was the name given to a series of mainframe computers released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and later International Computers Limited (ICL) during the 1960s and '70s.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
The International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) is a global organisation for researchers and professionals working in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) to conduct research, develop standards and promote information sharing.
ISWIM is an abstract computer programming language (or a family of programming languages) devised by Peter J. Landin and first described in his article The Next 700 Programming Languages, published in the Communications of the ACM in 1966.
A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.
Jørn Jensen (1925–2007), one of the earliest Danish programmers.
Jensen's Device is a computer programming technique that exploits call by name.
John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist.
John Charles Reynolds (June 1, 1935 – April 28, 2013) was an American computer scientist.
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.
Joseph Henry Wegstein (b.April 7, 1922 in Washburn, Illinois) is an American computer scientist.
JOVIAL is a high-level computer programming language similar to ALGOL, specialized for the development of embedded systems (specialized computer systems designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, usually embedded as part of a complete device including mechanical parts).
Klaus Samelson (December 21, 1918 – May 25, 1980) was a German mathematician, physicist, and computer pioneer in the area of programming language translation and push-pop stack algorithms for sequential formula translation on computers.
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
Kristen Nygaard (27 August 1926 – 10 August 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist, programming language pioneer and politician.
Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.
The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
The man or boy test was proposed by computer scientist Donald Knuth as a means of evaluating implementations of the ALGOL 60 programming language.
META II is a domain-specific programming language for writing compilers.
Michael ("Mike") Woodger (born 28 March 1923) is a pioneering English computer scientist.
Minsk family of mainframe computers was developed and produced in the Byelorussian SSR from 1959 to 1975.
ML (Meta Language) is a general-purpose functional programming language.
The Navy Electronics Laboratory International ALGOL Compiler or NELIAC is a dialect and compiler implementation of the ALGOL 58 programming language developed by the Naval Electronics Laboratory in 1958.
In computer programming, a nested function (or nested procedure or subroutine) is a function which is defined within another function, the enclosing function.
NEWP (or the New Executive Programming Language) is a high-level programming language used on the Unisys MCP systems.
Niklaus Emil Wirth (born 15 February 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering.
Ole-Johan Dahl (12 October 1931 – 29 June 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist.
In computer programming, a parameter (often called formal parameter or formal argument) is a special kind of variable, used in a subroutine to refer to one of the pieces of data provided as input to the subroutine.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
The PDP-1 (Programmed Data Processor-1) is the first computer in Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP series and was first produced in 1959.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
Peter John Landin (5 June 1930, Sheffield – 3 June 2009) was a British computer scientist.
Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science pioneer and Turing award winner.
Peter William O'Hearn One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: (born 13 July 1963) is a Research Scientist at Facebook and a Professor of Computer science at University College London (UCL).
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
In computer science, Programming Computable Functions, or PCF, is a typed functional language introduced by Gordon Plotkin in 1977, based on previous unpublished material by Dana Scott.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Recursion in computer science is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem (as opposed to iteration).
Professor Ron Morrison was the head of School of the computer science department of the University of St. Andrews and the inventor of the S-algol programming language, and co-inventor of the PS-algol and Napier88 languages.
S-algol (St Andrews Algol) is a computer programming language derivative of ALGOL 60 developed at the University of St Andrews in 1979 by Ron Morrison and Tony Davie.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In computer language design, stropping is a method of explicitly marking letter sequences as having a special property, such as being a keyword, or a certain type of variable or storage location, and thus inhabiting a different namespace from ordinary names ("identifiers"), in order to avoid clashes.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
A table is an arrangement of data in rows and columns, or possibly in a more complex structure.
The Computer Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering computer science and information systems.
Thomas Eugene Kurtz (born February 22, 1928) is a retired Dartmouth professor of mathematics and computer scientist, who along with his colleague John G. Kemeny set in motion the then revolutionary concept of making computers as freely available to college students as library books were, by implementing the concept of time-sharing at Dartmouth College.
In computer programming, a thunk is a subroutine used to inject an additional calculation into another subroutine.
Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (born 11 January 1934), is a British computer scientist.
Tron is a coin-operated arcade video game manufactured and distributed by Bally Midway in 1982.
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation.
The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series is a series of compatible 36-bit computer systems, beginning with the UNIVAC 1107 in 1962, initially made by Sperry Rand.
In computer science, a Van Wijngaarden grammar (also vW-grammar or W-grammar) is a two-level grammar which provides a technique to define potentially infinite context-free grammars in a finite number of rules.
The Whetstone benchmark is a synthetic benchmark for evaluating the performance of computers.
Willem Louis van der Poel (2 December 1926, The Hague) is a pioneering Dutch computer scientist, who is known for designing the ZEBRA computer.
The Z22 was the seventh computer model Konrad Zuse developed (the first six being the Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z11, respectively).
The Zuse Z23 was a transistorized computer first delivered in 1961, designed by the Zuse KG company.
The ZEBRA (Zeer Eenvoudige Binaire Reken Automaat translated Very Simple Binary Automatic Calculator) was one of the first computers to be designed in the Netherlands, (the first one was the "ARRA") and one of the first Dutch computers to be commercially available.
ALGOL (programming language), ALGOL programming language, Algol (programming language), Algol language, Algol programming language, Algol-like, Algorithmic Language, Algorithmic language, Computer language ALGOL.