191 relations: Acorn Archimedes, Ada (programming language), Adriaan van Wijngaarden, ALGOL, ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68-R, ALGOL 68C, ALGOL 68RS, ALGOL 68S, ALGOL Bulletin, ALGOL N, ALGOL W, ALGOL Y, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Andrey Ershov, Array data structure, ASCII, Assignment (computer science), Association for Computing Machinery, Atari, Atari ST, Backslash, Barry J. Mailloux, Bash (Unix shell), BCPL, BLISS, Bourne shell, Braille, Brian Randell, Bulgarian language, C (programming language), C++, C.mmp, Camel case, CAP computer, Carnegie Mellon University, Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Charles H. Lindsey, Chinese language, CMS-2 (programming language), COBOL, Colt Python, Communications of the ACM, Comparison of ALGOL 68 and C++, Compiler, Compiler Description Language, Complex number, Computer Conservation Society, Computer History Museum, Computer programming, ..., Computer science, Concurrent computing, Context-free grammar, Copyright law of the Soviet Union, Coral 66, Cornelis H. A. Koster, Crown copyright, Cyrillic script, Dangling else, Data type, Dennis Ritchie, Directive (programming), Douglas T. Ross, Duck typing, ECL programming language, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Elbrus (computer), ELLA (programming language), EPSILON (programming language), Euclid (programming language), Evaluation strategy, Expression-oriented programming language, FLACC, Flex machine, Font, For loop, Fortran, French language, Friedrich L. Bauer, GEORGE (operating system), German language, GNU General Public License, Go (programming language), GOST, Guido van Rossum, HAL/S, IBM 1130, IBM 2741, IBM System/370, ICL 2900 Series, ICL Series 39, ICL VME, ICT 1900 series, IFIP Working Group 2.1, Imperative programming, Incremental compiler, Interactive ALGOL 68, International Computers Limited, International Federation for Information Processing, Introspection, Japanese language, Java (programming language), John E. L. Peck, John McCarthy (computer scientist), JOVIAL, Klaus Samelson, Lambert Meertens, Library (computing), LIS (programming language), Lisp (programming language), Mary (programming language), Michael Guy, Michel Sintzoff, Microsoft, Mike Woodger, Minsk family of computers, Multics, NAG Numerical Library, Namespace, Niklaus Wirth, Nobuo Yoneda, Numerical analysis, Odra (computer), Oklahoma State University–Stillwater, Open-source model, Operating system, Operator (computer programming), Orthogonality, Parallel computing, Pascal (programming language), PEARL (programming language), Perl, Peter Landin, Peter Naur, PL/I, Polymorphism (computer science), Prime number, Programming language, Programming paradigm, Public domain, Python (programming language), RAF Strike Command, Real-time computing, RISC OS, Royal Radar Establishment, Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, RTL/2, Russian language, S-algol, S3 (programming language), Seed7, Semaphore (programming), Shareware, Sic, Sieve of Eratosthenes, Simula, Six-bit character code, Software patent, Solaris (operating system), SPARC, Statement (computer science), Steelman language requirements, Stephen R. Bourne, Strong and weak typing, Stropping (syntax), Structural type system, Sun-3, SunOS, Syntactic sugar, TACPOL (programming language), Tagged union, Technical University of Berlin, Telefunken, Tony Hoare, Type conversion, Ultrix, UNESCO, Unicode, United Kingdom, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Cambridge, University of Leeds, University of Virginia, Unix, Unix shell, Van Wijngaarden grammar, VAX, VAX-11, Virtual machine, Willem van der Poel, Zilog Z80. Expand index (141 more) » « Shrink index
The Acorn Archimedes is a family of personal computers designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge (England) and sold in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, Acorn's first general-purpose home computer based on its own ARM architecture (initially the CPU and architecture was known as Acorn RISC Machine, or ARM; it later became one of the most widely used CPU architectures in the world, used in most smartphones among many other uses).
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Adriaan "Aad" van Wijngaarden (2 November 1916 – 7 February 1987) was a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist, who is considered by many to have been the founding father of informatica (computer science) in the Netherlands.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68-R was the first implementation of the Algorithmic language ALGOL 68.
The language was originally called Z70 and was subsequently morphed into ALGOL 68.
ALGOL 68RS is the second ALGOL 68 compiler written by I.F. Currie and J.D. Morrison at the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment.
ALGOL 68SA Sublanguage of ALGOL 68, P.G. Hibbard, SIGPLAN Notices 12(5), May 1977 was designed as a subset of ALGOL 68 in order to permit single-pass compilation.
The ALGOL Bulletin was a periodical regarding the ALGOL 60 and ALGOL 68 programming languages.
ALGOL N is the name of a successor to ALGOL 60 designed in Japan with the aim of being as powerful as ALGOL 68 but as simple as ALGOL 60.
ALGOL W is a programming language.
ALGOL Y was the name given to a speculated successor for the ALGOL 60 programming language that incorporated some radical features that were rejected for ALGOL 68 and ALGOL X. ALGOL Y was intended to be a "radical reconstruction" of ALGOL.
Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum (born March 16, 1944), sometimes referred to by the handle ast, is an American-Dutch computer scientist and professor emeritus of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
Academician Andrey Petrovych Ershov (Андре́й Петро́вич Ершо́в; 19 April 1931, Moscow – 8 December 1988, Moscow) was a Soviet computer scientist, notable as a pioneer in systems programming and programming language research.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive, a subsidiary of the French publisher Atari, SA.
The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family.
The backslash (\) is a typographical mark (glyph) used mainly in computing and is the mirror image of the common slash (/).
Barry James Mailloux (died May 26, 1982) obtained his M.Sc in Numerical Analysis in 1963.
Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.
BLISS is a system programming language developed at Carnegie Mellon University by W. A. Wulf, D. B. Russell, and A. N. Habermann around 1970.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
Brian Randell (born 1936) is a British computer scientist, and Emeritus Professor at the School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, UK He specialises in research into software fault tolerance and dependability, and is a noted authority on the early pre-1950 history of computers.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
The C.mmp was an early MIMD multiprocessor system developed at Carnegie Mellon University by William Wulf (1971).
Camel case (stylized as camelCase or CamelCase; also known as camel caps or more formally as medial capitals) is the practice of writing compound words or phrases such that each word or abbreviation in the middle of the phrase begins with a capital letter, with no intervening spaces or punctuation.
The Cambridge CAP computer was the first successful experimental computer that demonstrated the use of security capabilities, both in hardware and software.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (abbr. CWI; English: "National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science") is a research center in the field of mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Charles Hodgson Lindsey is a British computer scientist, most known for his involvement with the programming language Algol 68.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
CMS-2 is an embedded systems programming language used by the United States Navy.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
The Colt Python is a.357 Magnum caliber revolver formerly manufactured by Colt's Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut.
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
C++ doesn't have.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Compiler Description Language, or CDL, is a programming language based on affix grammars.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
The Computer Conservation Society (CCS) is a British organisation, founded in 1989.
The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).
In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a certain type of formal grammar: a set of production rules that describe all possible strings in a given formal language.
The Copyright law of the Soviet Union went through several major revisions during its existence.
CORAL (Computer On-line Real-time Applications Language) is a programming language originally developed in 1964 at the Royal Radar Establishment (RRE), Malvern, UK, as a subset of JOVIAL.
Cornelis Hermanus Antonius "Kees" Koster (born 13 July 1943 - 21 March 2013) was a Dutch computer scientist who was a professor in the Department of Informatics at the Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands.
Crown copyright is a form of copyright claim used by the governments of a number of Commonwealth realms.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The dangling else is a problem in computer programming in which an optional else clause in an if–then(–else) statement results in nested conditionals being ambiguous.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.
In computer programming, a directive or pragma (from "pragmatic") is a language construct that specifies how a compiler (or other translator) should process its input.
Douglas Taylor "Doug" Ross (21 December 1929 – 31 January 2007) was an American computer scientist pioneer, and Chairman of SofTech, Inc. He is most famous for originating the term CAD for computer-aided design, and is considered to be the father of Automatically Programmed Tools (APT) a language to drive numerically controlled manufacturing.
In computer programming, duck typing is an application of the duck test in type safety.
The ECL programming language and system were an extensible high-level programming language and development environment developed at Harvard University in the 1970s.
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.
The Elbrus (Эльбрус) is a line of Soviet and Russian computer systems developed by Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering.
ELLA is a Hardware description language and support toolset.
EPSILON is a macro language with high level features including strings and lists, developed by A.P. Ershov at Novosibirsk in 1967.
Euclid is an imperative programming language for writing verifiable programs.
Evaluation strategies are used by programming languages to determine when to evaluate the argument(s) of a function call (for function, also read: operation, method, or relation) and what kind of value to pass to the function.
An expression-oriented programming language is a programming language where every (or nearly every) construction is an expression and thus yields a value.
FLACC is an implementation of the ALGOL 68 programming language.
The Flex Computer System was developed by Michael Foster and Ian Currie of Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern, England, during the late 1970s and 1980s.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
In computer science, a for-loop (or simply for loop) is a control flow statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Friedrich Ludwig "Fritz" Bauer (10 June 1924 – 26 March 2015) was a German computer scientist and professor at the Technical University of Munich.
GEORGE was the name given to a series of operating systems released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) in the 1960s, for the ICT 1900 series of computers.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
Go (often referred to as Golang) is a programming language created at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Guido van Rossum (born 31 January 1956) is a Dutch programmer best known as the author of the Python programming language, for which he is the "Benevolent Dictator For Life" (BDFL), which means he continues to oversee Python development, making decisions when necessary.
HAL/S (High-order Assembly Language/Shuttle) is a real-time aerospace programming language compiler and cross-compiler for avionics applications used by NASA and associated agencies (JPL, etc.). It has been used in many U.S. space projects since 1973 and its most significant use was in the Space Shuttle program (approximately 85% of the Shuttle software is coded in HAL/S).
The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.
The IBM 2741 is a printing computer terminal that was introduced in 1965.
The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family.
The ICL 2900 Series was a range of mainframe computer systems announced by the UK manufacturer ICL on 9 October 1974.
The ICL Series 39 was a range of mainframe and minicomputer computer systems released by the UK manufacturer ICL in 1985.
VME (Virtual Machine Environment) is a mainframe operating system developed by the UK company International Computers Limited (ICL, now part of the Fujitsu group).
ICT 1900 was the name given to a series of mainframe computers released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and later International Computers Limited (ICL) during the 1960s and '70s.
IFIP Working Group 2.1 on Algorithmic Languages and Calculi is a working group of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP).
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
An incremental compiler is a kind of incremental computation applied to the field of compilation.
The Interactive ALGOL 68 compiler for ALGOL 68 was made available by Peter Craven of Algol Applications from 1984.
International Computers Limited (ICL) was a large British computer hardware, computer software and computer services company that operated from 1968 until 2002.
The International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) is a global organisation for researchers and professionals working in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) to conduct research, develop standards and promote information sharing.
Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
John Edward Lancelot Peck (August 14, 1918 – November 6, 2013) was the first permanent Head of Department of Computer Science at the University of British Columbia.
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.
JOVIAL is a high-level computer programming language similar to ALGOL, specialized for the development of embedded systems (specialized computer systems designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, usually embedded as part of a complete device including mechanical parts).
Klaus Samelson (December 21, 1918 – May 25, 1980) was a German mathematician, physicist, and computer pioneer in the area of programming language translation and push-pop stack algorithms for sequential formula translation on computers.
Lambert Guillaume Louis Théodore Meertens or L.G.L.T. Meertens (born 10 May 1944, Amsterdam) is a Dutch computer scientist and professor.
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development.
LIS (Language d'Implementation de Systèmes) was a system implementation programming language designed by Jean Ichbiah, who later designed Ada.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
Mary was a programming language designed and implemented by RUNIT at Trondheim, Norway in the 1970s.
Michael J. T. Guy (born c.1942) is a British computer scientist and mathematician.
Michel Sintzoff (12 Aug 1938 - Nov 28, 2010) was a Belgian mathematician and computer scientist.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Michael ("Mike") Woodger (born 28 March 1923) is a pioneering English computer scientist.
Minsk family of mainframe computers was developed and produced in the Byelorussian SSR from 1959 to 1975.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
The NAG Numerical Library is a software product developed and sold by The Numerical Algorithms Group.
In computing, a namespace is a set of symbols that are used to organize objects of various kinds, so that these objects may be referred to by name.
Niklaus Emil Wirth (born 15 February 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering.
was a Japanese mathematician and computer scientist.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
Odra was a line of computers manufactured in Wrocław, Poland.
Oklahoma State University (also referred to informally as Oklahoma State, OKState, and OSU), is a land-grant, sun-grant, coeducational public research university located in Stillwater, Oklahoma, United States.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
PEARL, or Process and experiment automation realtime language, is a computer programming language designed for multitasking and real-time programming.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
Peter John Landin (5 June 1930, Sheffield – 3 June 2009) was a British computer scientist.
Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science pioneer and Turing award winner.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
In programming languages and type theory, polymorphism (from Greek πολύς, polys, "many, much" and μορφή, morphē, "form, shape") is the provision of a single interface to entities of different types.
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
The Royal Air Force's Strike Command was the military formation which controlled the majority of the United Kingdom's bomber and fighter aircraft from 1968 until 2007 when it merged with Personnel and Training Command to form the single Air Command.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
RISC OS is a computer operating system originally designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge, England.
The Royal Radar Establishment is a research center in Malvern, Worcestershire in the United Kingdom.
The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) was a scientific research establishment within the Ministry of Defence (MoD) of the United Kingdom.
RTL/2 was a high-level programming language developed at Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd by J.G.P. Barnes.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
S-algol (St Andrews Algol) is a computer programming language derivative of ALGOL 60 developed at the University of St Andrews in 1979 by Ron Morrison and Tony Davie.
S3 is a structured, imperative high-level computer programming language.
Seed7 is an extensible general-purpose programming language designed by Thomas Mertes.
In computer science, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type used to control access to a common resource by multiple processes in a concurrent system such as a multitasking operating system.
Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially provided free of charge to users, who are allowed and encouraged to make and share copies of the program.
The Latin adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written") inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription.
In mathematics, the sieve of Eratosthenes is a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
A six-bit character code is a character encoding designed for use on computers with word lengths a multiple of 6.
A software patent is a patent on a piece of software, such as a computer program, libraries, user interface, or algorithm.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
The Steelman language requirements were a set of requirements which a high-level general-purpose programming language should meet, created by the United States Department of Defense in The Department of Defense Common High Order Language program in 1978.
Stephen Richard "Steve" Bourne (born 7 January 1944) is a computer scientist, originally from the United Kingdom and based in the United States for most of his career.
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed).
In computer language design, stropping is a method of explicitly marking letter sequences as having a special property, such as being a keyword, or a certain type of variable or storage location, and thus inhabiting a different namespace from ordinary names ("identifiers"), in order to avoid clashes.
A structural type system (or property-based type system) is a major class of type system, in which type compatibility and equivalence are determined by the type's actual structure or definition, and not by other characteristics such as its name or place of declaration.
Sun-3 is a series of UNIX computer workstations and servers produced by Sun Microsystems, launched on September 9, 1985.
SunOS is a Unix-branded operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstation and server computer systems.
In computer science, syntactic sugar is syntax within a programming language that is designed to make things easier to read or to express.
TACPOL (Tactical Procedure Oriented Language) is a block structured programming language developed by the United States Army for the TACFIRE Tactical Fire Direction command and control application.
In computer science, a tagged union, also called a variant, variant record, choice type, discriminated union, disjoint union, or sum type, is a data structure used to hold a value that could take on several different, but fixed, types.
The Technical University of Berlin (official name Technische Universität Berlin, known as TU Berlin) is a research university located in Berlin, Germany.
Telefunken was a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) (General electricity company).
Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (born 11 January 1934), is a British computer scientist.
In computer science, type conversion, type casting, and type coercion are different ways of changing an entity of one data type into another.
Ultrix (officially all-caps ULTRIX) is the brand name of Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) discontinued native Unix operating systems for the PDP-11, VAX and DECstations.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.
In computer science, a Van Wijngaarden grammar (also vW-grammar or W-grammar) is a two-level grammar which provides a technique to define potentially infinite context-free grammars in a finite number of rules.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
The VAX-11 is a discontinued family of minicomputers developed and manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) using processors implementing the VAX instruction set architecture (ISA).
In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.
Willem Louis van der Poel (2 December 1926, The Hague) is a pioneering Dutch computer scientist, who is known for designing the ZEBRA computer.
The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor.
AL-76 programming language, ALGOL 68 (programming language), ALGOL 68 programming language, ALGOL-68, ALGOrithmic Language 1968, Algol 68, Algol-68, Algol68, Algorithmic Language 1968, Format (Algol68), GOST 27974-88, GOST 27975-88, Struct (Algol 68), UЭль-76.