Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

APL (programming language)

Index APL (programming language)

APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson. [1]

224 relations: "Hello, World!" program, A+ (programming language), Adin Falkoff, American National Standards Institute, APL syntax and symbols, APLX, Array data structure, Array data type, Array programming, Artificial intelligence, ASCII, Asilomar Conference Grounds, Asset management, Association for Computing Machinery, BASIC, Big O notation, Binary operation, Blue Mountain Lake, New York, Burroughs Corporation, Burroughs large systems, Bytecode, Calculation, Character encoding, CICS, COBOL, Commodore PET, Common subexpression elimination, Compiler, Computer animation, Computer History Museum, Computer keyboard, Computer terminal, Constant folding, Control Data Corporation, Control flow, Conversational Monitor System, Conway's Game of Life, Coordinate vector, Copyright infringement, Cross-platform, Cygwin, Data General, Data parallelism, Data science, Declaration (computer programming), Digital Effects (studio), Digital Equipment Corporation, Digraphs and trigraphs, DNA profiling, Duplex (telecommunications), ..., Dyadics, E (mathematical constant), Edward H. Sussenguth, Epsilon, Financial software, Finland, Firmware, Fortran, FP (programming language), France, Fred Brooks, Free Software Directory, Functional programming, Germany, GNU General Public License, GNU Project, Grace Murray Hopper Award, Great Britain, Harris Corporation, Harvard University, Health care, Hewlett-Packard, Higher-order function, I. P. Sharp Associates, IBM, IBM 1050, IBM 1130, IBM 1620, IBM 2741, IBM 4300, IBM 5100, IBM 7090, IBM 7090/94 IBSYS, IBM AIX, IBM Journal of Research and Development, IBM Selectric typewriter, IBM System/360, IBM System/360 Model 50, IBM System/370, IBM Type-III Library, Imperial College London, Input method, Insurance, Integer, Intel 8008, Intel 8080, International Electrotechnical Commission, International Organization for Standardization, Interpreted language, Investment management, Iota, Iteration, Iverson Award, J (programming language), Japan, Java (programming language), Jim Brown (computer scientist), K (programming language), Kenneth E. Iverson, Lambda calculus, Lawrence M. Breed, Linguistic relativity, Linux, Lottery, LYaPAS, Machine code, MacOS, Massively parallel, Mathematical notation, MATLAB, MCM/70, Memory management unit, Michael S. Montalbano, Microcomputer, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Modular programming, Monad (functional programming), Motorola 6800, Multiplication table, MUSIC/SP, Neural network, Nial, Niklaus Wirth, Object-oriented programming, OP Financial Group, Open Letter to Hobbyists, Open-source software, Order of operations, Orthogonality, OS/2, Outer product, Parallel computing, PC-based IBM-compatible mainframes, Personal computer, Philip S. Abrams, Photo manipulation, Physics engine, Polymorphic Programming Language, Popular Science, Prime number, Programmer, Programming idiom, Programming language, Proprietary software, Pseudorandomness, Raspberry Pi, Register machine, Remote job entry, Richard H. Lathwell, Richard Stallman, Robert Bernecky, Robert Spence (engineer), Robotics, Roger Moore (computer scientist), Role-playing game, Row- and column-major order, Runtime library, S (programming language), Science Research Associates, Scientific Time Sharing Corporation, Shared Variables, Sheffer stroke, Siemens, SIGPLAN, SIMD, Simulation video game, Solaris (operating system), Soliton Incorporated, Sorting, Soviet Union, Speakeasy (computational environment), Spreadsheet, Springer Science+Business Media, Stack machine, Strong and weak typing, Structured programming, Studentlitteratur, Subject-matter expert, Subroutine, Sweden, Switzerland, Syracuse University, Telecommunication, The Computer Company, The Computer Journal, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Tieto, Tilde, Time Sharing Option, Time-sharing, Tron, Turing Award, Type system, Unary operation, Unicode, United Kingdom, United States, UNIVAC 1100/2200 series, University of Waterloo, Unix, Very-large-scale integration, VideoBrain Family Computer, Virtual memory, Virtual Storage Personal Computing, Wine (software), Wolfram Language, Wolfram Mathematica, Working group, Xerox, Yorktown Heights, New York, Z/OS, Z/VM, .NET Framework. Expand index (174 more) »

"Hello, World!" program

A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.

New!!: APL (programming language) and "Hello, World!" program · See more »

A+ (programming language)

A+ is an array programming language descendent from the programming language A, which in turn was created to replace APL in 1988.

New!!: APL (programming language) and A+ (programming language) · See more »

Adin Falkoff

Adin D. Falkoff (19 December 1921 – 13 August 2010) was an engineer and computer systems and programming systems designer who was mostly known for his work on the programming language APL and systems for IBM.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Adin Falkoff · See more »

American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.

New!!: APL (programming language) and American National Standards Institute · See more »

APL syntax and symbols

The programming language APL is distinctive in being symbolic rather than lexical: its primitives are denoted by symbols, not words.

New!!: APL (programming language) and APL syntax and symbols · See more »


APLX is a cross-platform dialect of the programming language APL, created by British company MicroAPL, Ltd.

New!!: APL (programming language) and APLX · See more »

Array data structure

In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Array data structure · See more »

Array data type

Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Array data type · See more »

Array programming

In computer science, array programming languages (also known as vector or multidimensional languages) generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Array programming · See more »

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Artificial intelligence · See more »


ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

New!!: APL (programming language) and ASCII · See more »

Asilomar Conference Grounds

Asilomar Conference Grounds is a conference center built for the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Asilomar Conference Grounds · See more »

Asset management

Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Asset management · See more »

Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Association for Computing Machinery · See more »


BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.

New!!: APL (programming language) and BASIC · See more »

Big O notation

Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behaviour of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Big O notation · See more »

Binary operation

In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Binary operation · See more »

Blue Mountain Lake, New York

Blue Mountain Lake is a rural hamlet in the town of Indian Lake of Hamilton County, New York, at the intersection of New York Routes 28 and 30.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Blue Mountain Lake, New York · See more »

Burroughs Corporation

The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Burroughs Corporation · See more »

Burroughs large systems

In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Burroughs large systems · See more »


Bytecode, also termed portable code or p-code, is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Bytecode · See more »


A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Calculation · See more »

Character encoding

Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Character encoding · See more »


Customer Information Control System (CICS) is a family of mixed language application servers that provide online transaction management and connectivity for applications on IBM Mainframe systems under z/OS and z/VSE.

New!!: APL (programming language) and CICS · See more »


COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.

New!!: APL (programming language) and COBOL · See more »

Commodore PET

The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) is a line of home/personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Commodore PET · See more »

Common subexpression elimination

In compiler theory, common subexpression elimination (CSE) is a compiler optimization that searches for instances of identical expressions (i.e., they all evaluate to the same value), and analyzes whether it is worthwhile replacing them with a single variable holding the computed value.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Common subexpression elimination · See more »


A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Compiler · See more »

Computer animation

Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Computer animation · See more »

Computer History Museum

The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Computer History Museum · See more »

Computer keyboard

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Computer keyboard · See more »

Computer terminal

A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Computer terminal · See more »

Constant folding

Constant folding and constant propagation are related compiler optimizations used by many modern compilers.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Constant folding · See more »

Control Data Corporation

Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Control Data Corporation · See more »

Control flow

In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Control flow · See more »

Conversational Monitor System

The Conversational Monitor System (CMS – originally: "Cambridge Monitor System") is a simple interactive single-user operating system.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Conversational Monitor System · See more »

Conway's Game of Life

The Game of Life, also known simply as Life, is a cellular automaton devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Conway's Game of Life · See more »

Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Coordinate vector · See more »

Copyright infringement

Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Copyright infringement · See more »


In computing, cross-platform software (also multi-platform software or platform-independent software) is computer software that is implemented on multiple computing platforms.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Cross-platform · See more »


Cygwin is a Unix-like environment and command-line interface for Microsoft Windows.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Cygwin · See more »

Data General

Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Data General · See more »

Data parallelism

Data parallelism is parallelization across multiple processors in parallel computing environments.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Data parallelism · See more »

Data science

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from data in various forms, both structured and unstructured, similar to data mining.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Data science · See more »

Declaration (computer programming)

In computer programming, a declaration is a language construct that specifies properties of an identifier: it declares what a word (identifier) "means".

New!!: APL (programming language) and Declaration (computer programming) · See more »

Digital Effects (studio)

Digital Effects Inc. was an early and innovative computer animation studio at 321 West 44th street in New York City.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Digital Effects (studio) · See more »

Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Digital Equipment Corporation · See more »

Digraphs and trigraphs

In computer programming, digraphs and trigraphs are sequences of two and three characters, respectively, that appear in source code and, according to a programming language's specification, should be treated as if they were single characters.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Digraphs and trigraphs · See more »

DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

New!!: APL (programming language) and DNA profiling · See more »

Duplex (telecommunications)

A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Duplex (telecommunications) · See more »


In mathematics, specifically multilinear algebra, a dyadic or dyadic tensor is a second order tensor, written in a notation that fits in with vector algebra.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Dyadics · See more »

E (mathematical constant)

The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.

New!!: APL (programming language) and E (mathematical constant) · See more »

Edward H. Sussenguth

Edward H. (Ed) Sussenguth Jr. (October 10, 1932 – November 22, 2015) was an American engineer and former IBM employee, known best for his work on IBM Systems Network Architecture.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Edward H. Sussenguth · See more »


Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid<!-- not close-mid, see Arvanti (1999) - Illustrations of the IPA: Modern Greek. --> front unrounded vowel.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Epsilon · See more »

Financial software

Financial software or financial system software is special application software that records all the financial activity within a business organization.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Financial software · See more »


Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Finland · See more »


In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Firmware · See more »


Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Fortran · See more »

FP (programming language)

FP (short for Function Programming) is a programming language created by John Backus to support the function-level programming Backus' 1977 Turing Award lecture paradigm.

New!!: APL (programming language) and FP (programming language) · See more »


France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

New!!: APL (programming language) and France · See more »

Fred Brooks

Frederick Phillips "Fred" Brooks Jr. (born April 19, 1931) is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Fred Brooks · See more »

Free Software Directory

The Free Software Directory (FSD) is a project of the Free Software Foundation (FSF).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Free Software Directory · See more »

Functional programming

In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Functional programming · See more »


Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Germany · See more »

GNU General Public License

The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.

New!!: APL (programming language) and GNU General Public License · See more »

GNU Project

The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.

New!!: APL (programming language) and GNU Project · See more »

Grace Murray Hopper Award

The Grace Murray Hopper Awards (named for computer pioneer RADM Grace Hopper) has been awarded by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) since 1971.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Grace Murray Hopper Award · See more »

Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Great Britain · See more »

Harris Corporation

Harris Corporation is an American technology company, defense contractor and information technology services provider that produces wireless equipment, tactical radios, electronic systems, night vision equipment and both terrestrial and spaceborne antennas for use in the government, defense and commercial sectors.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Harris Corporation · See more »

Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Harvard University · See more »

Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Health care · See more »


The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Hewlett-Packard · See more »

Higher-order function

In mathematics and computer science, a higher-order function (also functional, functional form or functor) is a function that does at least one of the following.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Higher-order function · See more »

I. P. Sharp Associates


New!!: APL (programming language) and I. P. Sharp Associates · See more »


The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM · See more »

IBM 1050

IBM 1050 Data Communications System is a computer terminal subsystem to send data to and receive data from another 1050 subsystem or IBM computer in the IBM 1400, IBM 7000 or System/360 series.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 1050 · See more »

IBM 1130

The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 1130 · See more »

IBM 1620

The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 1620 · See more »

IBM 2741

The IBM 2741 is a printing computer terminal that was introduced in 1965.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 2741 · See more »

IBM 4300

The IBM 4300 series were mid-range systems compatible with System/370 that were sold from 1979 through 1992.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 4300 · See more »

IBM 5100

The IBM 5100 Portable Computer is a portable computer (one of the first) introduced in September 1975, six years before the IBM Personal Computer.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 5100 · See more »

IBM 7090

The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computers that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications".

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 7090 · See more »

IBM 7090/94 IBSYS

IBSYS is the discontinued tape-based operating system that IBM supplied with its IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 computers.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM 7090/94 IBSYS · See more »


AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive, pronounced) is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM AIX · See more »

IBM Journal of Research and Development

IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed bimonthly scientific journal covering research on information systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM Journal of Research and Development · See more »

IBM Selectric typewriter

The IBM Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on 31 July 1961.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM Selectric typewriter · See more »

IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM System/360 · See more »

IBM System/360 Model 50

The IBM System/360 Model 50 is a member of the IBM System/360 family of computers.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM System/360 Model 50 · See more »

IBM System/370

The IBM System/370 (S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM System/370 · See more »

IBM Type-III Library

The IBM Type-III Library (also: Type-III software, Type-III product) was software provided by IBM to its customers, available without charge, liability, or support, and typically (perhaps always) in source-code format.

New!!: APL (programming language) and IBM Type-III Library · See more »

Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Imperial College London · See more »

Input method

An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Input method · See more »


Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Insurance · See more »


An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

New!!: APL (programming language) and Integer · See more »

Intel 8008

The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Intel 8008 · See more »

Intel 8080

The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Intel 8080 · See more »

International Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".

New!!: APL (programming language) and International Electrotechnical Commission · See more »

International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

New!!: APL (programming language) and International Organization for Standardization · See more »

Interpreted language

An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Interpreted language · See more »

Investment management

Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities) and other assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Investment management · See more »


Iota (uppercase Ι, lowercase ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Iota · See more »


Iteration is the act of repeating a process, to generate a (possibly unbounded) sequence of outcomes, with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Iteration · See more »

Iverson Award

The Iverson Award, more formally the Kenneth E. Iverson Award for Outstanding Contribution to APL, is presented by the Special Interest Group on APL (SIGAPL) of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Iverson Award · See more »

J (programming language)

The J programming language, developed in the early 1990s by Kenneth E. Iverson and Roger Hui, is a synthesis of APL (also by Iverson) and the FP and FL function-level languages created by John Backus.

New!!: APL (programming language) and J (programming language) · See more »


Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Japan · See more »

Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Java (programming language) · See more »

Jim Brown (computer scientist)

James A. Brown was manager of the group within IBM responsible for the programming language APL2 program product.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Jim Brown (computer scientist) · See more »

K (programming language)

K is a proprietary array processing programming language developed by Arthur Whitney and commercialized by Kx Systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and K (programming language) · See more »

Kenneth E. Iverson

Kenneth Eugene Iverson (17 December 1920 – 19 October 2004) was a Canadian computer scientist noted for the development of the programming language APL.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Kenneth E. Iverson · See more »

Lambda calculus

Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Lambda calculus · See more »

Lawrence M. Breed

Lawrence (Larry) Moser Breed (born July 17, 1940) is a computer scientist, artist and inventor, best known for his involvement in the programming language APL.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Lawrence M. Breed · See more »

Linguistic relativity

The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Linguistic relativity · See more »


Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Linux · See more »


A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers for a prize.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Lottery · See more »


LYaPAS (Russian: ЛЯПАС, short for "Logical Language for the Representation of Synthesis Algorithms") is a programming language created in the Soviet Union in 1964 by Arkady D.Zakrevskij of the Laboratory of System Programming and Logical Synthesis of the BSSR Academy of Sciences.

New!!: APL (programming language) and LYaPAS · See more »

Machine code

Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Machine code · See more »


macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

New!!: APL (programming language) and MacOS · See more »

Massively parallel

In computing, massively parallel refers to the use of a large number of processors (or separate computers) to perform a set of coordinated computations in parallel (simultaneously).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Massively parallel · See more »

Mathematical notation

Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Mathematical notation · See more »


MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.

New!!: APL (programming language) and MATLAB · See more »


The MCM/70 was a pioneering microcomputer first built in 1973 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and released the next year, making it one of the first microcomputers in the world, the second to be shipped in completed form, and the first portable computer.

New!!: APL (programming language) and MCM/70 · See more »

Memory management unit

A memory management unit (MMU), sometimes called paged memory management unit (PMMU), is a computer hardware unit having all memory references passed through itself, primarily performing the translation of virtual memory addresses to physical addresses.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Memory management unit · See more »

Michael S. Montalbano

Michael S. Montalbano (28 April 1918 – 13 April 1989) was a computer scientist most noted for authoring "APL Blossom Time", a poem about the early days of the APL programming language, performed to the tune of The Battle of New Orleans.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Michael S. Montalbano · See more »


A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Microcomputer · See more »


Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Microsoft · See more »

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Microsoft Windows · See more »

Modular programming

Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Modular programming · See more »

Monad (functional programming)

In functional programming, a monad is a design pattern that defines how functions, actions, inputs, and outputs can be used together to build generic types, with the following organization.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Monad (functional programming) · See more »

Motorola 6800

The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Motorola 6800 · See more »

Multiplication table

In mathematics, a multiplication table (sometimes, less formally, a times table) is a mathematical table used to define a multiplication operation for an algebraic system.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Multiplication table · See more »


MUSIC/SP (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing/System Product; originally "McGill University System for Interactive Computing") was developed at McGill University in the 1970s from an early IBM time-sharing system called RAX (Remote Access Computing System).

New!!: APL (programming language) and MUSIC/SP · See more »

Neural network

The term neural network was traditionally used to refer to a network or circuit of neurons.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Neural network · See more »


Nial (from "Nested Interactive Array Language") is a high-level array programming language developed from about 1981 by Mike Jenkins of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Nial · See more »

Niklaus Wirth

Niklaus Emil Wirth (born 15 February 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist, best known for designing several programming languages, including Pascal, and for pioneering several classic topics in software engineering.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Niklaus Wirth · See more »

Object-oriented programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").

New!!: APL (programming language) and Object-oriented programming · See more »

OP Financial Group

OP Financial Group is one of the largest financial companies in Finland.

New!!: APL (programming language) and OP Financial Group · See more »

Open Letter to Hobbyists

The Open Letter to Hobbyists was a 1976 open letter written by Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft, to early personal computer hobbyists, in which Gates expresses dismay at the rampant copyright infringement of software taking place in the hobbyist community, particularly with regard to his company's software.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Open Letter to Hobbyists · See more »

Open-source software

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Open-source software · See more »

Order of operations

In mathematics and computer programming, the order of operations (or operator precedence) is a collection of rules that reflect conventions about which procedures to perform first in order to evaluate a given mathematical expression.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Order of operations · See more »


In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Orthogonality · See more »


OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.

New!!: APL (programming language) and OS/2 · See more »

Outer product

In linear algebra, an outer product is the tensor product of two coordinate vectors, a special case of the Kronecker product of matrices.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Outer product · See more »

Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Parallel computing · See more »

PC-based IBM-compatible mainframes

Since the rise of the personal computer in the 1980s, IBM and other vendors have created PC-based IBM-compatible mainframes which are compatible with the larger IBM mainframe computers.

New!!: APL (programming language) and PC-based IBM-compatible mainframes · See more »

Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Personal computer · See more »

Philip S. Abrams

Philip S. Abrams is a computer science researcher who co-authored the first implementation of the programming language APL.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Philip S. Abrams · See more »

Photo manipulation

Photo manipulation involves transforming or altering a photograph using various methods and techniques to achieve desired results.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Photo manipulation · See more »

Physics engine

A physics engine is computer software that provides an approximate simulation of certain physical systems, such as rigid body dynamics (including collision detection), soft body dynamics, and fluid dynamics, of use in the domains of computer graphics, video games and film.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Physics engine · See more »

Polymorphic Programming Language

The Polymorphic Programming Language (PPL) was developed in 1969 at Harvard University by Thomas A. Standish.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Polymorphic Programming Language · See more »

Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Popular Science · See more »

Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Prime number · See more »


A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Programmer · See more »

Programming idiom

A programming idiom or code idiom is expressing a special feature of a recurring construct in one or more programming languages.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Programming idiom · See more »

Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Programming language · See more »

Proprietary software

Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Proprietary software · See more »


A pseudorandom process is a process that appears to be random but is not.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Pseudorandomness · See more »

Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Raspberry Pi · See more »

Register machine

In mathematical logic and theoretical computer science a register machine is a generic class of abstract machines used in a manner similar to a Turing machine.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Register machine · See more »

Remote job entry

Remote job entry is the procedure for sending requests for data processing tasks or 'jobs' to mainframe computers from remote workstations, and by extension the process of receiving the output from such tasks at a remote workstation.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Remote job entry · See more »

Richard H. Lathwell

Richard (Dick) Henry Lathwell was the 1973 recipient (with Larry Breed and Roger Moore) of the Grace Murray Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Richard H. Lathwell · See more »

Richard Stallman

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Richard Stallman · See more »

Robert Bernecky

Robert (Bob) Bernecky is a Canadian computer scientist notable as a designer and implementer of APL.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Robert Bernecky · See more »

Robert Spence (engineer)

Robert (Bob) Spence (born 11 July 1933) is a British engineer and Professor Emeritus and Senior Research Investigator at the Imperial College London, known for his work in the field of information visualization.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Robert Spence (engineer) · See more »


Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Robotics · See more »

Roger Moore (computer scientist)

Roger D. Moore (born November 16, 1939) was the 1973 recipient (with Larry Breed and Richard Lathwell) of the Grace Murray Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Roger Moore (computer scientist) · See more »

Role-playing game

A role-playing game (sometimes spelled roleplaying game and abbreviated to RPG) is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Role-playing game · See more »

Row- and column-major order

In computing, row-major order and column-major order are methods for storing multidimensional arrays in linear storage such as random access memory.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Row- and column-major order · See more »

Runtime library

In computer programming, a runtime library (RTL) is a set of low-level routines used by a compiler to invoke some of the behaviors of a runtime environment, by inserting calls to the runtime library into compiled executable binary.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Runtime library · See more »

S (programming language)

S is a statistical programming language developed primarily by John Chambers and (in earlier versions) Rick Becker and Allan Wilks of Bell Laboratories.

New!!: APL (programming language) and S (programming language) · See more »

Science Research Associates

Science Research Associates Inc., commonly known as SRA, is a Chicago-based publisher of educational materials and schoolroom reading comprehension products.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Science Research Associates · See more »

Scientific Time Sharing Corporation

Scientific Time Sharing Corporation (STSC) was a pioneering timesharing and consulting service company which offered APL from its datacenter in Bethesda, MD to users in the United States and Europe.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Scientific Time Sharing Corporation · See more »

Shared Variables

Shared Variables are a feature of the programming language APL which allows APL programs running on one processor to share information with another processor.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Shared Variables · See more »

Sheffer stroke

In Boolean functions and propositional calculus, the Sheffer stroke, named after Henry M. Sheffer, written ↑, also written | (not to be confused with "||", which is often used to represent disjunction), or Dpq (in Bocheński notation), denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as "not both".

New!!: APL (programming language) and Sheffer stroke · See more »


Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Siemens · See more »


SIGPLAN is the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on programming languages.

New!!: APL (programming language) and SIGPLAN · See more »


Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.

New!!: APL (programming language) and SIMD · See more »

Simulation video game

A simulation video game describes a diverse super-category of video games, generally designed to closely simulate real world activities.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Simulation video game · See more »

Solaris (operating system)

Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Solaris (operating system) · See more »

Soliton Incorporated

Soliton Incorporated is a Canadian company formed in 1993 to continue supporting and developing the programming language Sharp APL, and related products and services, originally developed by Canadian company I. P. Sharp Associates.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Soliton Incorporated · See more »


Sorting is any process of arranging items systematically, and has two common, yet distinct meanings.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Sorting · See more »

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Soviet Union · See more »

Speakeasy (computational environment)

Speakeasy is a numerical computing interactive environment also featuring an interpreted programming language.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Speakeasy (computational environment) · See more »


A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Spreadsheet · See more »

Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Springer Science+Business Media · See more »

Stack machine

In computer science, computer engineering and programming language implementations, a stack machine is a type of computer.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Stack machine · See more »

Strong and weak typing

In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed).

New!!: APL (programming language) and Strong and weak typing · See more »

Structured programming

Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Structured programming · See more »


Studentlitteratur is an academic publishing company based in Sweden and publishing mostly in Swedish.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Studentlitteratur · See more »

Subject-matter expert

A subject-matter expert (SME) or domain expert is a person who is an authority in a particular area or topic.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Subject-matter expert · See more »


In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Subroutine · See more »


Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Sweden · See more »


Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Switzerland · See more »

Syracuse University

Syracuse University (commonly referred to as Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a private research university in Syracuse, New York, United States.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Syracuse University · See more »


Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Telecommunication · See more »

The Computer Company

The Computer Company (TCC) was an early computer time-sharing service based in Richmond, Virginia.

New!!: APL (programming language) and The Computer Company · See more »

The Computer Journal

The Computer Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering computer science and information systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and The Computer Journal · See more »

Thomas J. Watson Research Center

The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the headquarters for IBM Research.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Thomas J. Watson Research Center · See more »


Tieto Oyj (until April 2009 TietoEnator) is an IT software and service company providing IT and product engineering services.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Tieto · See more »


The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Tilde · See more »

Time Sharing Option

Time Sharing Option (TSO) is an interactive time-sharing environment for IBM mainframe operating systems, including OS/360 MVT, OS/VS2 (SVS), MVS, OS/390, and z/OS.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Time Sharing Option · See more »


In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Time-sharing · See more »


Tron is a 1982 American science fiction action-adventure film written and directed by Steven Lisberger from a story by Lisberger and Bonnie MacBird.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Tron · See more »

Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".

New!!: APL (programming language) and Turing Award · See more »

Type system

In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Type system · See more »

Unary operation

In mathematics, a unary operation is an operation with only one operand, i.e. a single input.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Unary operation · See more »


Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Unicode · See more »

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

New!!: APL (programming language) and United Kingdom · See more »

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

New!!: APL (programming language) and United States · See more »

UNIVAC 1100/2200 series

The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series is a series of compatible 36-bit computer systems, beginning with the UNIVAC 1107 in 1962, initially made by Sperry Rand.

New!!: APL (programming language) and UNIVAC 1100/2200 series · See more »

University of Waterloo

The University of Waterloo (commonly referred to as Waterloo, UW, or UWaterloo) is a public research university with a main campus in Waterloo, Ontario.

New!!: APL (programming language) and University of Waterloo · See more »


Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Unix · See more »

Very-large-scale integration

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Very-large-scale integration · See more »

VideoBrain Family Computer

The VideoBrain Family Computer (model 101) (not to be confused with Nintendo’s Family Computer, or Famicom, known as the Nintendo Entertainment System or NES outside of Japan) is an 8-bit home computer manufactured by Umtech Incorporated, starting in 1977.

New!!: APL (programming language) and VideoBrain Family Computer · See more »

Virtual memory

In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Virtual memory · See more »

Virtual Storage Personal Computing

Virtual Storage Personal Computing (VSPC) was a service offered by IBM in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Virtual Storage Personal Computing · See more »

Wine (software)

Wine (recursive backronym for Wine Is Not an Emulator) is a free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow computer programs (application software and computer games) developed for Microsoft Windows to run on Unix-like operating systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Wine (software) · See more »

Wolfram Language

The Wolfram Language is a general multi-paradigm programming language developed by Wolfram Research and is the programming language of the mathematical symbolic computation program Mathematica and the Wolfram Programming Cloud.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Wolfram Language · See more »

Wolfram Mathematica

Wolfram Mathematica (usually termed Mathematica) is a modern technical computing system spanning most areas of technical computing — including neural networks, machine learning, image processing, geometry, data science, visualizations, and others.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Wolfram Mathematica · See more »

Working group

A working group or working party is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Working group · See more »


Xerox Corporation (also known as Xerox, stylized as xerox since 2008, and previously as XEROX or XeroX from 1960 to 2008) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document solutions, and document technology products in more than 160 countries.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Xerox · See more »

Yorktown Heights, New York

Yorktown Heights is a census-designated place (CDP) in the Town of Yorktown in Westchester County, New York, United States.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Yorktown Heights, New York · See more »


z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for IBM mainframes, produced by IBM.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Z/OS · See more »


z/VM is the current version in IBM's VM family of virtual machine operating systems.

New!!: APL (programming language) and Z/VM · See more »

.NET Framework

.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.

New!!: APL (programming language) and .NET Framework · See more »

Redirects here:

A Programming Language, A programming language, APL (language), APL language, APL programming language, APL programming language family, APL2, APL\360, Array Processing Language, Criticism of APL, Criticism of the APL programming language, Dyalog, Dyalog APL, ISO 13751, ISO 8485, Iverson notation (APL), X3J10.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/APL_(programming_language)

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »