The Acorn Archimedes is a family of personal computers designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge (England) and sold in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, Acorn's first general-purpose home computer based on its own ARM architecture (initially the CPU and architecture was known as Acorn RISC Machine, or ARM; it later became one of the most widely used CPU architectures in the world, used in most smartphones among many other uses).
The Acorn Business Computer (ABC) was a series of microcomputers announced at the end of 1983 by the British company Acorn Computers.
Acorn Computers Ltd. was a British computer company established in Cambridge, England, in 1978.
The Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR or AMR-NB or GSM-AMR) audio codec is an audio compression format optimized for speech coding.
An adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers.
In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.
Addressing modes are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
The Amber processor core is an ARM architecture-compatible 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor.
The AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU), formerly known as Fusion, is the marketing term for a series of 64-bit microprocessors from Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), designed to act as a central processing unit (CPU) and graphics accelerator unit (GPU) on a single die.
K12 was to be AMD's first custom microarchitecture based on the ARMv8-A (AArch64) instruction set with a planned release in 2017.
AMULET is a series of microprocessors implementing the ARM processor architecture.
Analog Devices, Inc., also known as ADI or Analog, is an American multinational semiconductor company specializing in data conversion and signal processing technology, headquartered in Norwood, Massachusetts.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Android "Lollipop" is a codename for the Android mobile operating system developed by Google, spanning versions between 5.0 and 5.1.1.
Annapurna Labs is an Israel-based microelectronics company that was acquired by Amazon.com for its Amazon Web Services division, reputedly for US$350–370M in January 2015.
The Apple A10 Fusion is a 64-bit ARM-based system on a chip (SoC), designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by TSMC.
The Apple A4 is a 32-bit package on package (PoP) system-on-a-chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung.
The Apple A5 is a 32-bit system-on-a-chip designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung and is the successor to the Apple A4.
The Apple A5X is a 32-bit system-on-a-chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc., introduced at the launch of the third generation iPad on March 7, 2012.
The Apple A6 is a 32-bit package on package (PoP) system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc. that was introduced on September 12, 2012 at the launch of the iPhone 5.
The Apple A7 is a 64-bit system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc. It first appeared in the iPhone 5S, which was introduced on September 10, 2013.
The Apple A8 is a 64-bit ARM-based system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc. It first appeared in the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, which were introduced on September 9, 2014.
The Apple A9 is a 64-bit ARM-based system-on-chip (SoC), designed by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
The Newton is a series of personal digital assistants (PDA) developed and marketed by Apple Computer, Inc. An early device in the PDA category – the Newton originated the term "personal digital assistant" – it was the first to feature handwriting recognition.
Apple Inc. has developed a range of "System on Chip" (SoC) as well as "System in Package" (SiP) processors for powering their mobile consumer devices and other tasks.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Applied Micro Circuits Corporation (also known as AppliedMicro, AMCC or APM) is a fabless semiconductor company designing network and embedded Power Architecture (including a Power Architecture license), and server processor ARM (including an ARMv8-A license), optical transport and storage products.
ARM Accredited Engineer (AAE) is a program of professional accreditations awarded by ARM Holdings.
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
ARM big.LITTLE is a heterogeneous computing architecture developed by ARM Holdings, coupling relatively battery-saving and slower processor cores (LITTLE) with relatively more powerful and power-hungry ones (big).
The ARM Cortex-A is a group of 32-bit and 64-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by Arm Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A12 is a 32-bit processor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture.
The ARM Cortex-A15 MPCore is a 32-bit processor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture.
The ARM Cortex-A17 is a 32-bit processor core implementing the ARMv7-A architecture, licensed by ARM Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A5 is a 32-bit processor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture announced in 2009.
The ARM Cortex-A53 is one of the first two microarchitectures implementing the ARMv8-A 64-bit instruction set designed by ARM Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A55 is a microarchitecture implementing the ARMv8.2-A 64-bit instruction set designed by ARM Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A57 is a microarchitecture implementing the ARMv8-A 64-bit instruction set designed by ARM Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A7 MPCore is a 32-bit microprocessor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture announced in 2011.
The ARM Cortex-A72 is a microarchitecture implementing the ARMv8-A 64-bit instruction set designed by ARM Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A73 is a microarchitecture implementing the ARMv8-A 64-bit instruction set designed by ARM Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A75 is a microarchitecture implementing the ARMv8.2-A 64-bit instruction set designed by ARM Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-A8 is a 32-bit processor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture.
The ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore is a 32-bit processor core licensed by ARM Holdings implementing the ARMv7-A architecture.
The ARM Cortex-M is a group of 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by Arm Holdings.
The ARM Cortex-R is a family of 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by Arm Holdings.
Arm Holdings (Arm) is a multinational semiconductor and software design company, owned by SoftBank Group and its Vision Fund.
ARM System-on-Chip Architecture is a book detailing the system-on-chip ARM architecture, as a specific implementation of reduced instruction set computing.
ARM11 is a group of older 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by ARM Holdings.
ARM7 is a group of older 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by ARM Holdings for microcontroller use.
ARM9 is a group of older 32-bit RISC ARM processor cores licensed by ARM Holdings for microcontroller use.
ARM Instruction Set Simulator, ARMulator, is one of the software development tools provided by the development systems business unit of ARM Limited to all users of ARM-based chips.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
AsusTek Computer Inc. (stylised as ASUSTeK or ΛSUS) is a Taiwanese multinational computer and phone hardware and electronics company headquartered in Beitou District, Taipei, Taiwan.
The Asus Eee Pad Transformer (TF101) is an Android tablet computer announced at CES 2011 and launched on 30 March 2011.
Atmel Corporation is an American-based designer and manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in 1984.
The attack surface of a software environment is the sum of the different points (the "attack vectors") where an unauthorized user (the "attacker") can try to enter data to or extract data from an environment.
Bada (stylized as bada; Korean: 바다) is a discontinued operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
A barrel shifter is a digital circuit that can shift a data word by a specified number of bits without the use of any sequential logic, only pure combinational logic.
BBC BASIC is a programming language, developed in 1981 as a native programming language for the MOS Technology 6502 based Acorn BBC Micro home/personal computer.
The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
A BBC Micro expansion unit, for the BBC Micro is one of a number of peripherals in a box with the same profile and styling as the main computer.
The BeagleBoard is a low-power open-source single-board computer produced by Texas Instruments in association with Digi-Key and Newark element14.
Berkeley RISC is one of two seminal research projects into RISC-based microprocessor design taking place under ARPA's VLSI project.
Black Hat Briefings (commonly referred to as Black Hat) is a computer security conference that provides security consulting, training, and briefings to hackers, corporations, and government agencies around the world.
BlackBerry 10 is a proprietary mobile operating system for the BlackBerry line of smartphones, both developed by BlackBerry Limited (formerly Research In Motion).
BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operating system developed by BlackBerry Limited for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handheld devices.
In computer architecture, a branch predictor is a digital circuit that tries to guess which way a branch (e.g. an if–then–else structure) will go before this is known definitively.
Broadcom Inc. (formerly Avago Technologies) is a designer, developer and global supplier of products based on analog and digital semiconductor technologies within four primary markets: wired infrastructure, wireless communications, enterprise storage, and industrial & others.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
C++11 is a version of the standard for the programming language C++.
C11 (formerly C1X) is an informal name for ISO/IEC 9899:2011, the current standard for the C programming language.
The PowerShot products is a line of consumer and prosumer grade digital cameras, launched by Canon in 1996.
Cavium is a fabless semiconductor company based in San Jose, California, specializing in ARM-based and MIPS-based network, video and security processors and SoCs.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
ChibiOS/RT is a compact and fast real-time operating system supporting multiple architectures and released under the GPL3 license.
Chrome OS is an operating system designed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and uses the Google Chrome web browser as its principal user interface.
A Chromebook is a laptop or tablet running the Linux-based Chrome OS as its operating system.
The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a chip like a central processing unit (CPU), one core of a multi-core processor, is running and is used as an indicator of the processor's speed.
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
This is a table comparing microarchitectures which implement the ARMv7-A (A means Application) instruction set architecture and mandatory or optional extensions of it, the last AArch32.
This is a table of 64/32-bit ARMv8-A architecture cores (i.e. most chips support 32-bit AArch32 for legacy applications, while e.g. data center chip Falkor does not; or vice versa ARM Cortex-A32 isn't 64-bit), comparing microarchitectures which implement the AArch64 instruction set and mandatory or optional extensions of it.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation is an American semiconductor design and manufacturing company.
Data structure alignment refers to the way data is arranged and accessed in computer memory.
A datapath is a collection of functional units such as arithmetic logic units or multipliers, that perform data processing operations, registers, and buses.
DDC-I, Inc. is a privately held company providing software development of real-time operating systems, software development tools, and software services for safety-critical embedded applications, headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program).
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).
Double-precision floating-point format is a computer number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point.
DRYOS is a real-time operating system made by Canon and is used in their latest digital cameras.
The Embedded Configurable Operating System (eCos) is a free and open source real-time operating system intended for embedded systems and applications which need only one process with multiple threads.
Electronics Weekly is a weekly trade journal for electronics professionals which was first published by Reed Business Information on 7 September 1960.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
An embedded operating system is an operating system for embedded computer systems.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.
. EXAMPLES CAN BE FOUND BELOW, E.G., IN THE "Matrix method" SECTION.
Exynos is a series of ARM-based (reduced instruction set) System-on-Chips (SoCs) developed and manufactured by Samsung Electronics and is a continuation of Samsung's earlier S3C, S5L and S5P line of SoCs.
Fabless manufacturing is the design and sale of hardware devices and semiconductor chips while outsourcing the fabrication (or "fab") of the devices to a specialized manufacturer called a semiconductor foundry.
Fast Interrupt Requests (FIQs) are a specialized type of Interrupt Request, a standard technique used in computer CPUs to deal with events which need to be processed as they occur such as receiving data from a network card, or keyboard or mouse actions.
Fedora is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
In mathematics, finite field arithmetic is arithmetic in a finite field (a field containing a finite number of elements) as opposed to arithmetic in a field with an infinite number of elements, like the field of rational numbers.
Firefox OS (project name: Boot to Gecko, also known as B2G) is a discontinued open-source operating system made for smartphones, tablet computers and smart TVs designed by Mozilla and external contributors.
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.
In microelectronics, the foundry model refers to the separation of a semiconductor fabrication plant operation (foundry) from an integrated circuit design operation, into separate companies or business units.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
FreeRTOS is a real-time operating system kernel for embedded devices that has been ported to 35 microcontrollers.
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. was an American multinational corporation headquartered in Austin, Texas, with design, research and development, manufacturing and sales operations in more than 75 locations in 19 countries.
The Game Boy Advance (GBA) is a 32-bit handheld video game console developed, manufactured and marketed by Nintendo as the successor to the Game Boy Color.
Gentoo Linux (pronounced) is a Linux distribution built using the Portage package management system.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
A GPS navigation device, GPS receiver, or simply GPS is a device that is capable of receiving information from GPS satellites and then to calculate the device's geographical position.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.
In computing, half precision is a binary floating-point computer number format that occupies 16 bits (two bytes in modern computers) in computer memory.
A handheld game console is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers.
Hermann Maria Hauser, KBE, FRS, FREng, FInstP, CPhys (born 1948) is an Austrian-born entrepreneur who is primarily associated with the Cambridge technology community in England.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
() is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
An integrated digital television (IDTV or iDTV) set is a television set with a built in digital Tuner, be it for DVB-T2, DVB-S2, DVB-C, DMB-T/H, ATSC standards or ISDB.
INTEGRITY and INTEGRITY-178B are real-time operating systems (RTOSes) produced and marketed by Green Hills Software.
The Intel 80286 (also marketed as the iAPX 286 and often called Intel 286) is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on 1 February 1982.
Intel Atom is the brand name for a line of ultra-low-voltage IA-32 and x86-64 microprocessors by Intel Corporation.
Intel's i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller.
In system programming, an interrupt is a signal to the processor emitted by hardware or software indicating an event that needs immediate attention.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
iOS 11 is the eleventh major release of the iOS mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc., being the successor to iOS 10.
iOS 7 is the seventh major release of the iOS mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc., being the successor to iOS 6.
iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS mobile operating system.
iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.
The iPhone 5S is a smartphone that was designed and marketed by Apple Inc. Part of the iPhone series, the device was unveiled on September 10, 2013, at Apple's Cupertino headquarters.
The iPod is a line of portable media players and multi-purpose pocket computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first version was released on October 23, 2001, about months after the Macintosh version of iTunes was released.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Java bytecode is the instruction set of the Java virtual machine (JVM).
Jazelle DBX (Direct Bytecode eXecution) is an extension that allows some ARM processors to execute Java bytecode in hardware as a third execution state alongside the existing ARM and Thumb modes.
JTAG (named after the Joint Test Action Group which codified it) is an industry standard for verifying designs and testing printed circuit boards after manufacture.
In computing, just-in-time (JIT) compilation, (also dynamic translation or run-time compilation), is a way of executing computer code that involves compilation during execution of a program – at run time – rather than prior to execution.
The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.
Krait is an ARM-based central processing unit included in Qualcomm Snapdragon S4 and Snapdragon 400/600/800/801/805 (Krait 200, Krait 300, Krait 400 and Krait 450) System on chips.
Qualcomm's Kryo is the brand name of a series of custom or semi-custom ARM-based CPUs.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
In concurrent programming, an operation (or set of operations) is atomic, linearizable, indivisible or uninterruptible if it appears to the rest of the system to occur at once without being interrupted.
A link register is a special-purpose register which holds the address to return to when a function call completes.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
This is a list of applications of ARM cores.
This is a list of microarchitectures based on the ARM family of instruction sets designed by ARM Holdings and 3rd parties, sorted by version of the ARM instruction set, release and name.
In computer engineering, a load/store architecture is an instruction set architecture that divides instructions into two categories: memory access (load and store between memory and registers), and ALU operations (which only occur between registers).
In electronics, logic synthesis is a process by which an abstract form of desired circuit behavior, typically at register transfer level (RTL), is turned into a design implementation in terms of logic gates, typically by a computer program called a synthesis tool.
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England.
LWN.net is a computing webzine with an emphasis on free software and software for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.
MACOM Technology Solutions is a developer and producer of radio, microwave, and millimeter wave semiconductor devices and components.
Marvell Technology Group, Limited, is a producer of storage, communications and consumer semiconductor products.
The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
MeeGo is a discontinued Linux distribution hosted by the Linux Foundation, using source code from the operating systems Moblin (produced by Intel) and Maemo (produced by Nokia).
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Meltdown is a hardware vulnerability affecting Intel x86 microprocessors, IBM POWER processors, and some ARM-based microprocessors.
A memory management unit (MMU), sometimes called paged memory management unit (PMMU), is a computer hardware unit having all memory references passed through itself, primarily performing the translation of virtual memory addresses to physical addresses.
Micro-Controller Operating Systems (MicroC/OS, stylized as µC/OS) is a real-time operating system (RTOS) designed by embedded software developer, Jean J. Labrosse in 1991.
Microcode is a computer hardware technique that imposes an interpreter between the CPU hardware and the programmer-visible instruction set architecture of the computer.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microware was a US corporation based in Clive, Iowa that produced the OS-9 real-time operating system.
RISC/os is a discontinued UNIX operating system developed by MIPS Computer Systems, Inc. from 1985 to 1992, for their computer workstations and servers, such as the MIPS M/120 server or MIPS Magnum workstation.
MIT Technology Review is a magazine published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
MMX is a single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 with its P5-based Pentium line of microprocessors, designated as "Pentium with MMX Technology".
Mobile computing is human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage, which allows for transmission of data, voice and video.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".
The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.
The Motorola 68020 ("sixty-eight-oh-twenty", "sixty-eight-oh-two-oh" or "six-eight-oh-two-oh") is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1984.
MQX RTOS is a real-time operating system developed by Precise Software Technologies Inc., and currently sold by Synopsys, Embedded Access Inc, and Freescale.
In computing, especially digital signal processing, the multiply–accumulate operation is a common step that computes the product of two numbers and adds that product to an accumulator.
The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange.
NetBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system that descends from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
In electronic design, a netlist is a description of the connectivity of an electronic circuit.
The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo.
The Nintendo Switch is the seventh major video game console developed by Nintendo.
The 320xx or NS32000 was a series of microprocessors from National Semiconductor.
Nucleus RTOS is a real-time operating system (RTOS) offered by the Embedded Software Division of Mentor Graphics, a Siemens Business, supporting 32 and 64 bit embedded platforms.
NuttX is a real-time operating system (RTOS) with an emphasis on standards compliance and small footprint.
Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.
The NX bit (no-execute) is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors.
NXP Semiconductors N.V. is a Dutch global semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
In computing, an opcode (abbreviated from operation code, also known as instruction syllable, instruction parcel or opstring) is the portion of a machine language instruction that specifies the operation to be performed.
OpenBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Research Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
OpenCores is an open source hardware community developing digital open source hardware through electronic design automation, with a similar ethos to the free software movement.
OpenSolaris is a discontinued, open source computer operating system based on Solaris created by Sun Microsystems.
openSUSE, formerly SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional, is a Linux-based project and distribution sponsored by SUSE Linux GmbH and other companies.
The Operating System Embedded (known by the acronym Enea OSE) is a real-time embedded operating system created by the Swedish information technology company ENEA AB.
An original design manufacturer (ODM) is a company that designs and manufactures a product, as specified, that is eventually rebranded by another firm for sale.
OS-9 is a family of real-time, process-based, multitasking, multi-user operating systems, developed in the 1980s, originally by Microware Systems Corporation for the Motorola 6809 microprocessor.
The PandaBoard is a low-power, low-cost single-board computer development platform based on the Texas Instruments OMAP4430 system on a chip (SoC).
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.
Phoronix is a technology website that offers insights regarding the development of the Linux kernel, product reviews, interviews, and news regarding free and open-source software by monitoring the Linux kernel mailing list or interviews.
PikeOS is a commercial, hard real-time operating system (RTOS) that offers a separation kernel based hypervisor with multiple partition types for many other operating systems (called GuestOS) and applications.
In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originating in the Computing Sciences Research Center (CSRC) at Bell Labs in the mid-1980s, and building on UNIX concepts first developed there in the late 1960s; until the Labs' final release at the start of 2015.
The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of conditions sufficient for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently.
A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files.
In computer science, predication is an architectural feature that provides an alternative to conditional branch instructions.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
Project Denver is the codename of a microarchitecture designed by Nvidia that implements the ARMv8-A 64/32-bit instruction sets using a combination of simple hardware decoder and software-based binary translation (dynamic recompilation) where "Denver's binary translation layer runs in software, at a lower level than the operating system, and stores commonly accessed, already optimized code sequences in a 128 MB cache stored in main memory".
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
QEMU (short for Quick Emulator) is a free and open-source emulator that performs hardware virtualization.
QNX is a commercial Unix-like real-time operating system, aimed primarily at the embedded systems market.
Qualcomm is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services.
Snapdragon is a suite of system on a chip (SoC) semiconductor products for mobile devices designed and marketed by Qualcomm Technologies Inc.
The Queen's Awards for Enterprise is an awards programme for British businesses and other organizations who excel at international trade, innovation or sustainable development.
The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
A real-time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system (OS) intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
A register file is an array of processor registers in a central processing unit (CPU).
In digital circuit design, register-transfer level (RTL) is a design abstraction which models a synchronous digital circuit in terms of the flow of digital signals (data) between hardware registers, and the logical operations performed on those signals.
Reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) is a computer hardware engineering term involving reliability engineering, high availability, and serviceability design.
is a Japanese semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Tokyo.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
RIOT is a small operating system for networked, memory-constrained systems with a focus on low-power wireless Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
RISC iX is a discontinued Unix operating system designed to run on the Acorn Archimedes.
RISC OS is a computer operating system originally designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge, England.
The RiscPC (stylised with a half-space as, also referred to as and codenamed Medusa) was Acorn Computers's next generation RISC OS/Acorn RISC Machine computer, launched on 15 April 1994, which superseded the Acorn Archimedes.
Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS), formerly Real-Time Executive for Missile Systems, and then Real-Time Executive for Military Systems, is a real-time operating system (RTOS) designed for embedded systems.
RTXC Quadros is a real time operating system (RTOS) written mainly in the C programming language.
Sailfish OS (also styled as SailfishOS or abbreviated to SFOS) is a general purpose Linux distribution used commonly as a mobile operating system combining the Linux kernel for a particular hardware platform, the open-source Mer core stack of middleware, a proprietary UI contributed by Jolla or an open source UI, and other third-party components.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korean: 삼성전자; Hanja: 三星電子 (Literally "tristar electronics")) is a South Korean multinational electronics company headquartered in Suwon, South Korea. Through having an extremely complicated ownership structure with some circular ownership, it is the flagship company of the Samsung Group, accounting for 70% of the group's revenue in 2012. Samsung Electronics has assembly plants and sales networks in 80 countries and employs around 308,745 people. It is the world's largest information technology company, consumer electronics maker and chipmaker by revenue. As of October 2017, Samsung Electronics' market cap stood at US$372.0 billion. Samsung has long been a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, semiconductors, chips, flash memory and hard drive devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia. It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones and smartphones, started with the original Samsung Solstice and later fueled by the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices. The company is also a major vendor of tablet computers, particularly its Android-powered Samsung Galaxy Tab collection, and is generally regarded as pioneering the phablet market through the Samsung Galaxy Note family of devices. Samsung has been the world's largest television manufacturer since 2006, and the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones since 2011. It is also the world's largest memory chips manufacturer. In July 2017, Samsung Electronics overtook Intel as the largest semiconductor chip maker in the world. Samsung, like many other South Korean family-run chaebols, has been criticized for low dividend payouts and other governance practices that favor controlling shareholders at the expense of ordinary investors. In 2012, Kwon Oh-hyun was appointed the company's CEO but announced in October 2017 that he would resign in March 2018, citing an "unprecedented crisis".
The Samsung Galaxy Note 4 is an Android phablet smartphone developed and produced by Samsung Electronics.
Samsung Knox is an enterprise mobile security solution pre-installed in most of Samsung's smartphones, tablets, and wearables.
Scorpion is a central processing unit (CPU) core designed by Qualcomm for use in their Snapdragon mobile systems on chips (SoCs).
SemiAccurate (S|A in short) is a U.S.-based technology-news and -opinion web site, founded in 2009 by Charlie Demerjian after his departure from The Inquirer.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
In the microelectronics industry a semiconductor fabrication plant (commonly called a fab; sometimes foundry) is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured.
In electronic design a semiconductor intellectual property core, IP core, or IP block is a reusable unit of logic, cell, or integrated circuit (commonly called a "chip") layout design that is the intellectual property of one party.
A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) (one type also colloquially known as a cable box) is an information appliance device that generally contains a TV-tuner input and displays output to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the source signal into content in a form that then be displayed on the television screen or other display device.
In cryptography, SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest - typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long.
SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy.
A single-board computer (SBC) is a complete computer built on a single circuit board, with microprocessor(s), memory, input/output (I/O) and other features required of a functional computer.
Single-precision floating-point format is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point.
SM4 (formerly SMS4) is a block cipher used in the Chinese National Standard for Wireless LAN WAPI (Wired Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure).
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
A software development kit (SDK or devkit) is typically a set of software development tools that allows the creation of applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating system, or similar development platform.
Sophie Wilson FRS FREng (born Roger Wilson in 1957) is a British computer scientist and software engineer.
Spectre is a vulnerability that affects modern microprocessors that perform branch prediction.
SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network Architecture) is a manycore computer architecture designed by the Advanced Processor Technologies Research Group (APT) at the School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, led by Steve Furber, to simulate the human brain (see Human Brain Project).
A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.
Stephen Byram Furber (born 21 March 1953) is ICL Professor of Computer Engineering in the School of Computer Science at the University of Manchester, UK.
STMicroelectronics is a French-Italian multinational electronics and semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
The StrongARM is a family of computer microprocessors developed by Digital Equipment Corporation and manufactured in the late 1990s which implemented the ARM v4 instruction set architecture.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
SuperH (or SH) is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hitachi and currently produced by Renesas.
The first-generation Surface (launched as Surface with Windows RT, later marketed as Surface RT) is a hybrid tablet computer developed and manufactured by Microsoft.
Surface 2 is a Surface-series Windows RT hybrid tablet computer created by Microsoft.
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) is a Linux-based operating system developed by SUSE.
Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones.
A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (also known as an "IC" or "chip") that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems.
A system on a module (SOM) is a board-level circuit that integrates a system function in a single module.
T-Kernel is an open source real-time operating system designed for 32-bit microcontrollers.
A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.
Tegra is a system on a chip (SoC) series developed by Nvidia for mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistants, and mobile Internet devices.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
ThreadX, developed and marketed by Express Logic of San Diego, California, United States, is a highly deterministic, embedded real-time operating system (RTOS) written mostly in the C (programming language).
Threat modeling is a process by which potential threats, such as structural vulnerabilities can be identified, enumerated, and prioritized – all from a hypothetical attacker’s point of view.
Tizen is a mobile operating system developed by Samsung that runs on a wide range of Samsung devices, including smartphones; tablets; in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) devices; smart televisions; smart cameras; smartwatches; Blu-ray players; smart home appliances (refrigerators, lighting, washing machines, air conditioners, ovens/microwaves); and robotic vacuum cleaners.
TomTom NV is a Dutch company that produces traffic, navigation and mapping products.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited (TSMC), also known as Taiwan Semiconductor, is the world's largest dedicated independent (pure-play) semiconductor foundry, with its headquarters and main operations located in the Hsinchu Science and Industrial Park in Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.
Ubuntu Touch (also known as Ubuntu Phone) is a mobile version of the Ubuntu operating system that was originally developed by Canonical Ltd. and is now being developed by the UBports community.
United Microelectronics Corporation, commonly known as UMC, is a Taiwanese company which is based in Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Unicore is the name of a computer instruction set architecture designed by Microprocessor Research and Development Center (MPRC) of Peking University in the PRC.
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, England, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.
Verilog, standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems.
VLSI Technology, Inc., was a company which designed and manufactured custom and semi-custom Integrated circuits (ICs).
VxWorks is a real-time operating system (RTOS) developed as proprietary software by Wind River Systems, an Intel subsidiary of Alameda, California, US.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
webOS, also known as LG webOS and previously known as Open webOS, HP webOS and Palm webOS, is a Linux kernel-based multitasking operating system for smart devices such as smart TVs and it has been used as a mobile operating system.
The Western Design Center (WDC), located in Mesa, Arizona, USA, is a company developing and manufacturing MOS 65xx-based microprocessors, microcontrollers (µCs), and related support devices.
Windows 10 (codenamed Redstone, formerly Threshold) is a personal computer operating system developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.
Windows 10 Mobile is a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft, released in 2015.
Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE and Windows CE, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products.* Unlike Windows Embedded Standard, which is based on Windows NT, Windows Embedded Compact uses a different hybrid kernel.
Windows IoT, formerly Windows Embedded, is a family of operating systems from Microsoft designed for use in embedded systems.
Windows Mobile is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs.
Windows Phone (WP) is a family of discontinued mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones as the replacement successor to Windows Mobile and Zune.
Windows RT is a discontinued mobile operating system developed by Microsoft.
Wine (recursive backronym for Wine Is Not an Emulator) is a free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow computer programs (application software and computer games) developed for Microsoft Windows to run on Unix-like operating systems.
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
XScale is a microarchitecture for central processing units initially designed by Intel implementing the ARM architecture (version 5) instruction set.
ZDNet is a business technology news website published by CBS Interactive, along with TechRepublic.
While there are currently no mainstream general-purpose processors built to operate on 128-bit integers or addresses, a number of processors do have specialized ways to operate on 128-bit chunks of data.
In computer architecture, 26-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 26 bits wide, and thus can represent values up to 64 mega (base 2).
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
AArch32, AArch64, ARM (processor), ARM Advanced SIMD, ARM Architecture, ARM Cortex-A32, ARM Cortex-A35, ARM Cortex-A53 MPCore, ARM NEON, ARM Thumb, ARM TrustZone, ARM architectures, ARM chip, ARM chips, ARM family, ARM hardfp, ARM instruction set, ARM instruction sets, ARM microprocessor, ARM port, ARM processor, ARM-64, ARM64, ARM8-A, ARMel, ARMhf, ARMv6, ARMv7, ARMv7-A, ARMv8, ARMv8-A, ARMv8-R, ARMv8.1, ARMv8.1-A, Aarch64, Acorn RISC Machine, Acorn Risc Machine, Advanced RISC Machine, Arm architecture, Arm instruction set, Arm port, Armhf, Armv6l, Armv7, CPSR register, CoreSight, Cortex-A35, Hardfp, Jazelle RCT, LPAE, Large Physical Address Extension, Large Physical Address Extensions, NEON (instruction set), Thumb code, Thumb-2, TrustZone, Unified Assembly Language, VFP (instruction set), VFP3-D16, VFPv1, VFPv2, VFPv3, VFPv3-D16, VFPv3-D32, VFPv3-F16, VFPv4, VFPv4-D16, VFPv4-D32, VFPv5-D16-M, Vector Floating Point, X86-ARM.