143 relations: Academic Press, Al Gore, Allen Kent, AN/FSQ-32, Application software, ASCII, Association for Computing Machinery, Augmentation Research Center, Auld Lang Syne, BBN Technologies, Benson (TV series), Bert Sutherland, Bleeding Edge, Bob Kahn, California State University, Dominguez Hills, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cengage, Charles Babbage Institute, Charles M. Herzfeld, Circuit switching, Communication protocol, Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing, Computer science, Computer scientist, Conference call, CSNET, CYCLADES, DARPA, Defense Data Network, Digital Equipment Corporation, Direct memory access, Donald Davies, Dotdash, Douglas Engelbart, Drexciya, Edward Elgar Publishing, Electronic music, Email, Fernando J. Corbató, File Transfer Protocol, Gateway (telecommunications), George W. Mitchell, Gerald Donald, Glen Culler, Halt and Catch Fire (TV series), Harold Finch (Person of Interest), High Performance Computing Act of 1991, Honeywell, Honeywell 316, Hypertext, ..., IBM, IBM System/360, Information Processing Techniques Office, Information superhighway, Inherent Vice, Interface Message Processor, Intergalactic Computer Network, Internet, Internet protocol suite, Internet Society, Internetworking, InterNIC, Ivan Sutherland, J. C. R. Licklider, Janet Abbate, John Pasta, John Wiley & Sons, Kilobit, Kilobyte, Lawrence Roberts (scientist), Leased line, Leonard Kleinrock, List of IEEE milestones, Louis Pouzin, Magnetic-core memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MILNET, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Modem, Multics, Multiprocessing, National Information Infrastructure, National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom), National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation Network, Network Control Program, Network packet, Network Voice Protocol, NIPRNet, NLS (computer system), NORSAR, NPL network, NTT DoCoMo, Nuclear weapon, OpenVMS, OS/360 and successors, OSI model, Packet switching, Paul Baran, PDP-10, Person of Interest (TV series), Pluribus, Project Cybersyn, Project Genie, Queueing theory, RAND Corporation, Ray Tomlinson, Request for quotation, Robert Taylor (computer scientist), Router (computing), Routledge, Rugged computer, SAGE Publications, Santa Monica, California, Scientific Data Systems, SDS 940, SDS Sigma series, Serial communication, SRI International, Stephen J. Lukasik, Supercomputer, System Development Corporation, Terminal server, The Americans (2013 TV series), The Internet during the Cold War, The X-Files, Thomas Pynchon, Top-level domain, TOPS-20, Transmission Control Protocol, United States, United States Department of Defense, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Utah School of Computing, Unusual Suspects (The X-Files), Usenet, Vint Cerf, Voice over IP, Wesley A. Clark, Wired (magazine), .arpa. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Allen Kent (October 24, 1921 – May 1, 2014) was an information scientist.
The AN/FSQ-32 SAGE Solid State Computer (AN/FSQ-7A before December 1958, colloq. "Q-32") was a planned military computer central for deployment to Super Combat Centers in nuclear bunkers and to some above-ground military installations.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
SRI International's Augmentation Research Center (ARC) was founded in the 1960s by electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart to develop and experiment with new tools and techniques for collaboration and information processing.
"Auld Lang Syne" (note "s" rather than "z") is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1788 and set to the tune of a traditional folk song (Roud # 6294).
BBN Technologies (originally Bolt, Beranek and Newman) is an American high-technology company which provides research and development services.
Benson is an American sitcom that originally aired on ABC from September 13, 1979, to April 19, 1986.
William Robert "Bert" Sutherland (born May 10, 1936), older brother of Ivan Sutherland, was the longtime manager of three prominent research labs, including Sun Microsystems Laboratories (1992–1998), the Systems Science Laboratory at Xerox PARC (1975–1981), and the Computer Science Division of Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc.
Bleeding Edge is a novel by American author Thomas Pynchon, published by Penguin Press on September 17, 2013.
Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.
California State University, Dominguez Hills (also known as CSUDH, Dominguez Hills, or Cal State Dominguez Hills) is a public university within the 23-school California State University (CSU) system.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The Charles Babbage Institute is a research center at the University of Minnesota specializing in the history of information technology, particularly the history of digital computing, programming/software, and computer networking since 1935.
Charles M. Herzfeld (June 29, 1925 – February 23, 2017) was an American scientist and scientific manager, particularly for the US Government.
Circuit switching is a method of implementing a telecommunications network in which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through the network before the nodes may communicate.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing is a short documentary film from 1972, produced by Steven King and directed/edited by Peter Chvany, about ARPANET, an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.
A conference call is a telephone call in which someone talks to several people at the same time.
The Computer Science Network (CSNET) was a computer network that began operation in 1981 in the United States.
The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
The Defense Data Network (DDN) was a computer networking effort of the United States Department of Defense from 1983 through 1995.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of computer systems that allows certain hardware subsystems to access main system memory (Random-access memory), independent of the central processing unit (CPU).
Donald Watts Davies, CBE, FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL).
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.
Drexciya was an American electronic music duo from Detroit, Michigan, consisting of James Stinson (1969 - 2002) and Gerald Donald.
Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
Fernando José "Corby" Corbató (born July 1, 1926) is a prominent American computer scientist, notable as a pioneer in the development of time-sharing operating systems.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
A gateway is the piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications via communications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another.
George Wilder Mitchell (February 23, 1904 – January 25, 1997) was an American economist, who served as the Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from May 1973 to February 1976.
Gerald Donald is a Detroit techno producer and artist.
Glen Jacob Culler (July 7, 1927 – May 3, 2003) was a professor of electrical engineering and an important early innovator in the development of the Internet.
Halt and Catch Fire is an American period drama television series created by Christopher Cantwell and Christopher C. Rogers that aired on AMC from June 1, 2014, to October 14, 2017.
Harold Finch is a fictional character from the CBS crime drama television series Person of Interest.
The High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (HPCA) is an Act of Congress promulgated in the 102nd United States Congress as (Pub.L. 102–194) on December 9, 1991.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
The Honeywell 316 was a popular 16-bit minicomputer built by Honeywell starting in 1969.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText).
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), originally "Command and Control Research",Lyon, Matthew; Hafner, Katie (1999-08-19).
The information superhighway or infobahn was a popular term used through the 1990s to refer to digital communication systems and the Internet telecommunications network.
Inherent Vice is a novel by American author Thomas Pynchon, originally published in August 2009.
The Interface Message Processor (IMP) was the packet switching node used to interconnect participant networks to the ARPANET from the late 1960s to 1989.
Intergalactic Computer Network or Galactic Network was a computer networking concept similar to today's Internet.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
The Internet Society (ISOC) is an American non-profit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet-related standards, education, access, and policy.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
The Network Information Center (NIC), also known as InterNIC from 1993 until 1998, was the organization primarily responsible for Domain Name System (DNS) domain name allocations and X.500 directory services.
Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics." His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 – June 26, 1990), known simply as J. C. R. or "Lick", was an American psychologistMiller, G. A.
Janet Abbate is an associate professor of science, technology, and society at Virginia Tech.
John R. Pasta (October 22, 1918 – June 5, 1981) was an American computational physicist and computer scientist who is remembered today for the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou experiment, the result of which was much discussed among physicists and researchers in the fields of dynamical systems and chaos theory, and as the head of the department of Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1964 to 1970.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The kilobit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Lawrence G. Roberts (born December 21, 1937 in Connecticut) is an American scientist who received the Draper Prize in 2001 "for the development of the Internet", and the Principe de Asturias Award in 2002.
A leased line is a private bidirectional or symmetric telecommunications circuit between two or more locations provided in exchange for a monthly rent.
Leonard Kleinrock (born June 13, 1934) is an American computer scientist.
This list of IEEE Milestones describes the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) milestones, representing key historical achievements in electrical and electronic engineering.
Louis Pouzin (born 1931 in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert, Nièvre, France) invented the datagram and designed an early packet communications network, CYCLADES.
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In computer networking, MILNET (Military Network) was the name given to the part of the ARPANET internetwork designated for unclassified United States Department of Defense traffic.
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.
The National Information Infrastructure (NII) was the product of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991.
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, London, England.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States.
The Network Control Program (NCP) provided the middle layers of the protocol stack running on host computers of the ARPANET, the predecessor to the modern Internet.
A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.
The Network Voice Protocol (NVP) was a pioneering computer network protocol for transporting human speech over packetized communications networks.
The Non-classified Internet Protocol (IP) Router Network (NIPRNet) is a private IP network used to exchange unclassified information, including information subject to controls on distribution, among the private network's users.
NLS, or the "oN-Line System", was a revolutionary computer collaboration system from the 1960s.
NORSAR or Norwegian Seismic Array was established in 1968 as part of the Norwegian-US agreement for the detection of earthquakes and nuclear explosions.
The NPL Network or NPL Data Communications Network was a local area computer network operated by a team from the National Physical Laboratory in England that pioneered the concept of packet switching.
is the predominant mobile phone operator in Japan.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.
The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.
Person of Interest is an American science fiction crime drama television series that aired on CBS from September 22, 2011, to June 21, 2016, its five seasons comprising 103 episodes.
The Pluribus multiprocessor was an early multi-processor computer designed by BBN for use as a packet switch in the ARPANET.
Project Cybersyn was a Chilean project from 1971–1973 during the presidency of Salvador Allende aimed at constructing a distributed decision support system to aid in the management of the national economy.
Project Genie was a computer research project started in 1964 at the University of California, Berkeley.
Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Raymond Samuel Tomlinson (April 23, 1941 – March 5, 2016) was a pioneering American computer programmer who implemented the first email program on the ARPANET system, the precursor to the Internet, in 1971; he is internationally known and credited as the inventor of email.
A request for quotation (RfQ) is a standard business process whose purpose is to invite suppliers into a bidding process to bid on specific products or services.
Robert William Taylor (February 10, 1932 – April 13, 2017), known as Bob Taylor, was an American Internet pioneer, who led teams that made major contributions to the personal computer, and other related technologies.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
A rugged (or ruggedized, but also ruggedised) computer is a computer specifically designed to operate reliably in harsh usage environments and conditions, such as strong vibrations, extreme temperatures and wet or dusty conditions.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, United States.
Scientific Data Systems, or SDS, was an American computer company founded in September 1961 by Max Palevsky and Robert Beck, veterans of Packard Bell and Bendix, along with eleven other computer scientists.
The SDS 940 was Scientific Data Systems' (SDS) first machine designed to directly support time-sharing.
The SDS Sigma series is a series of computers that were introduced by Scientific Data Systems in 1966.
In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus.
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
Stephen (Steve) J. Lukasik (born in 1931) is an American physicist who served in multiple high-level defense and scientific related positions for advancing the technologies and techniques for national defense and the detection and control of diverse types of weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear devices.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
System Development Corporation (SDC) was a computer software company based in Santa Monica, California.
A terminal server enables organizations to connect devices with an RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485 serial interface to a local area network (LAN).
The Americans is an American period drama television series created by Joe Weisberg for the FX television network.
The development of ways to interconnect computers in the United States was heavily affected by needs and demands arising from the Cold War.
The X-Files is an American science fiction drama television series created by Chris Carter.
Thomas Ruggles Pynchon Jr. (born May 8, 1937) is an American novelist.
A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System of the Internet.
The TOPS-20 operating system by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) was a proprietary OS used on some of DEC's 36-bit mainframe computers.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.
The School of Computing is a school within the College of Engineering at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah.
"Unusual Suspects" is the third episode of the fifth season of the American science fiction television series The X-Files.
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Wesley Allison Clark (April 10, 1927 – February 22, 2016) was an American physicist who is credited for designing the first modern personal computer.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The domain name arpa is a top-level domain (TLD) in the Domain Name System of the Internet.