281 relations: A, Acknowledgement (data networks), Addison-Wesley, Alphabet, Alt code, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, American National Standards Institute, Amiga, Ampersand, ANSI C, ANSI escape code, Apostrophe, Apple DOS, Apple ProDOS, ARPANET, Arrow (symbol), ASCII, ASCII art, ASCII ribbon campaign, Ascii85, Asterisk, At sign, AT&T Corporation, ATASCII, Émile Baudot, ß, Ł, B, Backslash, Backspace, Backward compatibility, Basic Latin (Unicode block), Baudot code, Bell character, Binary number, Binary-coded decimal, Bit, Bit numbering, Bit-paired keyboard, Bob Bemer, Bracket, C, C (programming language), C0 and C1 control codes, Cancel character, Caret, Caret notation, Carriage return, Case sensitivity, Character (computing), ..., Character encoding, Character encodings in HTML, CNN, Code page 437, Code point, Collation, Colon (punctuation), Comma, Commodore International, Communications of the ACM, Computer (magazine), Computer terminal, Control character, Control key, Control-C, Control-V, CP/M, CRC Press, D, Data stream, Data transmission, Decimal, Delete character, Delete key, Digital data, Digital Equipment Corporation, Digital Research, Digraphs and trigraphs, Dollar sign, DOS, E, EBCDIC, Electronics World, Emoticon, End of message, End-of-file, End-of-Text character, End-of-Transmission character, End-of-Transmission-Block character, English alphabet, English language, Enquiry character, Equals sign, Error detection and correction, Escape character, Escape sequence, Exclamation mark, Exit (system call), Extended ASCII, F, Federation, Fieldata, File Transfer Protocol, Forward compatibility, Full stop, G, Gary Kildall, GNU Compiler Collection, Google, Grapheme, Graphical user interface, Grave accent, Greater-than sign, H, Hamming distance, Hexadecimal, Hugh McGregor Ross, Hyphen-minus, I, IBM, IBM 2260, IBM PC DOS, IBM Personal Computer, IBM Selectric typewriter, Indian Script Code for Information Interchange, International Committee for Information Technology Standards, International Organization for Standardization, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Engineering Task Force, ISO 2047, ISO/IEC 646, ISO/IEC 8859, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Italic type, ITU-T, J, Jargon File, Java (programming language), John Wiley & Sons, Joint Computer Conference, K, Kaypro, KOI-8, L, Less-than sign, Letter case, List of IEEE milestones, List of information system character sets, List of Unicode characters, Lyndon B. Johnson, M, Mac OS Roman, Macintosh operating systems, MacOS, Markup language, Metadata, Microsoft Windows, Mnemonic, Model M keyboard, MS-DOS, Multics, Multinational Character Set, N, Natural number, Negation, Newline, Nibble, Null character, Null-terminated string, Number sign, Numerical digit, O, O'Reilly Media, Octal, Octet (computing), Operating system, OS/360 and successors, OS/8, Out-of-band data, P, Page break, Parity bit, PC Magazine, Percent sign, Perl, PETSCII, Plain text, Plus and minus signs, Pound sign, Pound sterling, Printer (computing), Punched card, Punched tape, Punctuation, Q, Question mark, Quotation mark, R, RSTS/E, RSX-11, RT-11, S, S&P Global, Semicolon, Shift key, Shift Out and Shift In characters, Six-bit character code, Slash (punctuation), Software flow control, Sorting algorithm, Space (punctuation), Standardization, String (computer science), Substitute character, Synchronous Idle, T, Tab key, TECO (text editor), Telecommunications equipment, Telegraph code, Teleprinter, Teletype Corporation, Teletype Model 33, Telex, Telnet, Text editor, Three-letter acronym, Tilde, Tim Paterson, TOPS-10, TRS-80, Typewriter, U, Underscore, Unicode, Unicode Consortium, United States Secretary of Commerce, Universal Coded Character Set, Unix, Unix-like, Usenet, UTF-16, UTF-32, UTF-8, V, Vertical bar, Vi, VISCII, VT220, W, Whitespace character, Window (computing), Windows code page, Windows-1252, World Wide Web, World Wide Web Consortium, X, Y, Yen sign, YUSCII, Z, Ziff Davis, ZX Spectrum character set, 0, 1, 16-bit, 18-bit, 2, 3, 32-bit, 3568 ASCII, 36-bit, 4, 5, 6, 64-bit computing, 7, 8, 8-bit, 9, 9 track tape. Expand index (231 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In data networking, telecommunications, and computer buses, an acknowledgement (ACK) is a signal passed between communicating processes, computers, or devices to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of message, as part of a communications protocol.
Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
On IBM compatible personal computers, many characters not directly associated with a key can be entered using the Alt Numpad input method or Alt code: pressing and holding the ''Alt'' key while typing the number identifying the character with the keyboard's numeric keypad.
The American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) was an umbrella organization of professional societies established on May 10, 1961 and dissolved in 1990.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.
The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".
ANSI C, ISO C and Standard C refer to the successive standards for the C programming language published by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
ANSI escape sequences are a standard for in-band signaling to control the cursor location, color, and other options on video text terminals.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Apple DOS is the family of disk operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from late 1978 through early 1983.
ProDOS is the name of two similar operating systems for the Apple II series of personal computers.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
An arrow is a graphical symbol such as ← or →, used to point or indicate direction, being in its simplest form a line segment with a triangle affixed to one end, and in more complex forms a representation of an actual arrow (e.g. ➵ U+27B5).
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
ASCII art is a graphic design technique that uses computers for presentation and consists of pictures pieced together from the 95 printable (from a total of 128) characters defined by the ASCII Standard from 1963 and ASCII compliant character sets with proprietary extended characters (beyond the 128 characters of standard 7-bit ASCII).
The ASCII ribbon campaign was an Internet phenomenon started in 1998 advocating that email be sent only in plain text, because of inefficiencies or dangers of using HTML email.
Ascii85, also called Base85, is a form of binary-to-text encoding developed by Paul E. Rutter for the btoa utility.
An asterisk (*); from Late Latin asteriscus, from Ancient Greek ἀστερίσκος, asteriskos, "little star") is a typographical symbol or glyph. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star. Computer scientists and mathematicians often vocalize it as star (as, for example, in the A* search algorithm or C*-algebra). In English, an asterisk is usually five-pointed in sans-serif typefaces, six-pointed in serif typefaces, and six- or eight-pointed when handwritten. It is often used to censor offensive words, and on the Internet, to indicate a correction to a previous message. The asterisk is derived from the need of the printers of family trees in feudal times for a symbol to indicate date of birth. The original shape was seven-armed, each arm like a teardrop shooting from the center. In computer science, the asterisk is commonly used as a wildcard character, or to denote pointers, repetition, or multiplication.
The at sign, @, is normally read aloud as "at"; it is also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
The ATASCII character set, from ATARI Standard Code for Information Interchange, alternatively ATARI ASCII, is the variation on ASCII used in the Atari 8-bit family of home computers.
Jean-Maurice-Émile Baudot (11 September 1845 – 28 March 1903), French telegraph engineer and inventor of the first means of digital communication Baudot code, was one of the pioneers of telecommunications.
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
Ł or ł, described in English as L with stroke, is a letter of the West Slavic (Polish, Kashubian, and Sorbian), Łacinka (Latin Belarusian), Łatynka (Latin Ukrainian), Wymysorys, Navajo, Dene Suline, Inupiaq, Zuni, Hupa, and Dogrib alphabets, several proposed alphabets for the Venetian language, and the ISO 11940 romanization of the Thai alphabet.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The backslash (\) is a typographical mark (glyph) used mainly in computing and is the mirror image of the common slash (/).
Backspace is the keyboard key that originally pushed the typewriter carriage one position backwards, and in modern computer systems moves the display cursor one position backwards,"Backwards" means to the left for left-to-right languages.
Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.
The Basic Latin or C0 Controls and Basic Latin Unicode block is the first block of the Unicode standard, and the only block which is encoded in one byte in UTF-8.
The Baudot code, invented by Émile Baudot, is a character set predating EBCDIC and ASCII.
A bell code (sometimes bell character) is a device control code originally sent to ring a small electromechanical bell on tickers and other teleprinters and teletypewriters to alert operators at the other end of the line, often of an incoming message.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value.
A bit-paired keyboard is a keyboard where the layout of shifted keys corresponds to columns in the ASCII (1963) table, archetypally the Teletype Model 33 (1963) keyboard.
Robert William Bemer (February 8, 1920 – June 22, 2004) was a computer scientist best known for his work at IBM during the late 1950s and early 1960s.
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The C0 and C1 control code or control character sets define control codes for use in text by computer systems that use the ISO/IEC 2022 system of specifying control and graphic characters.
In telecommunication, the term cancel character has the following meanings.
The caret is an inverted V-shaped grapheme.
Caret notation is a notation for control characters in ASCII encoding.
A carriage return, sometimes known as a cartridge return and often shortened to CR, or return, is a control character or mechanism used to reset a device's position to the beginning of a line of text.
In computers, upper case and lower case text may be treated as distinct (case sensitivity) or equivalent (case insensitivity).
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) has been in use since 1991, but HTML 4.0 (December 1997) was the first standardized version where international characters were given reasonably complete treatment.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Code page 437 is the character set of the original IBM PC (personal computer), or DOS.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
Computer is an IEEE Computer Society practitioner-oriented magazine issued to all members of the society.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
In computing and telecommunication, a control character or non-printing character is a code point (a number) in a character set, that does not represent a written symbol.
In computing, a Control key is a modifier key which, when pressed in conjunction with another key, performs a special operation (for example, C); similar to the Shift key, the Control key rarely performs any function when pressed by itself.
Control-C is a common computer command.
In computing, Control-V is a key stroke with a variety of uses including generation of a control character in ASCII code, also known as the synchronous idle (SYN) character.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In connection-oriented communication, a data stream is a sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals (packets of data or data packets) used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted.
Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
In computing, the delete character (sometimes also called rubout) is the last character in the ASCII repertoire, with the code 127 (decimal).
The delete key is a key on most computer keyboards which typically is used to delete either (in text mode) the character ahead of or beneath the cursor, or (in GUI mode) the currently-selected object.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Digital Research, Inc. (also known as DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
In computer programming, digraphs and trigraphs are sequences of two and three characters, respectively, that appear in source code and, according to a programming language's specification, should be treated as if they were single characters.
The dollar sign ($ or) is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
Electronics World (Wireless World, founded in 1913, and in September 1984 renamed Electronics & Wireless World) is a technical magazine in electronics and RF engineering aimed at professional design engineers.
An emoticon (rarely pronounced) is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using characters—usually punctuation marks, numbers, and letters—to express a person's feelings or mood, or as a time-saving method.
End of message or EOM (as in "(EOM)" or "") signifies the end of a message, often an e-mail message.
In computing, end-of-file (commonly abbreviated EOF) is a condition in a computer operating system where no more data can be read from a data source.
The End-of-Text character (ETX) (hex value of 0x03, often displayed as ^C) is an ASCII control character used to inform the receiving computer that the end of the data stream has been reached.
In telecommunication, an End-of-Transmission character (EOT) is a transmission control character.
In the C0 control code set used in ASCII, ETB is a short name for the End-of-Transmission-Block character (code 23, or 0x17, or ^W in caret notation).
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In computer communications, enquiry is a transmission-control character that requests a response from the receiving station with which a connection has been set up.
The equals sign or equality sign is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
In computing and telecommunication, an escape character is a character which invokes an alternative interpretation on subsequent characters in a character sequence.
An escape sequence is a series of characters used to change the state of computers and their attached peripheral devices, rather than to be displayed or printed as regular data bytes would be.
The exclamation mark (British English) or exclamation point (some dialects of American English) is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence.
On many computer operating systems, a computer process terminates its execution by making an exit system call.
Extended ASCII (EASCII or high ASCII) character encodings are eight-bit or larger encodings that include the standard seven-bit ASCII characters, plus additional characters.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
FIELDATA (also written as Fieldata) was a pioneering computer project run by the US Army Signal Corps in the late 1950s that intended to create a single standard (as defined in MIL-STD-188A/B/C) for collecting and distributing battlefield information.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
Forward compatibility or upward compatibility is a design characteristic that allows a system to accept input intended for a later version of itself.
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Gary Arlen Kildall (May 19, 1942 – July 11, 1994) was an American computer scientist and microcomputer entrepreneur who created the CP/M operating system and founded Digital Research, Inc. (DRI).
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The greater-than sign is a mathematical symbol that denotes an inequality between two values.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
In information theory, the Hamming distance between two strings of equal length is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different.
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
Hugh McGregor Ross (31 August 1917 – 1 September 2014) was an early pioneer in the history of British computing.
The hyphen-minus (-) is a character used in digital documents and computing to represent a hyphen (‐) or a minus sign (−).
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The text-only monochrome IBM 2260 cathode ray tube (CRT) video display terminal (Display Station) plus keyboard was a 1964 predecessor to the more-powerful IBM 3270 terminal line which eventually was extended to support color text and graphics.
IBM PC DOS (an acronym for IBM personal computer disk operating system) is a discontinued operating system for the IBM Personal Computer, manufactured and sold by IBM from the early 1980s into the 2000s.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
The IBM Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on 31 July 1961.
Indian Script Code for Information Interchange (ISCII) is a coding scheme for representing various writing systems of India.
The InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS), (pronounced "insights"), is an ANSI-accredited standards development organization composed of Information technology developers.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
ISO 2047 (Information processing – Graphical representations for the control characters of the 7-bit coded character set) ISO/IEC 646 describes a graphical representation of the control characters for debugging purposes, such as may be found in the character generator of a computer terminal; it also establishes a two-letter abbreviation of each control character.
ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964.
ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings.
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Joint Computer Conferences were a series of computer conferences in the USA held under various names between 1951 and 1987.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Kaypro Corporation was an American home/personal computer manufacturer of the 1980s.
KOI-8 (КОИ-8) is a 8-bit character set standardized in GOST 19768-74.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
The less-than sign is a mathematical symbol that denotes an inequality between two values.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
This list of IEEE Milestones describes the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) milestones, representing key historical achievements in electrical and electronic engineering.
This list provides an inventory of character coding standards mainly before modern standards like ISO/IEC 646 etc.
This is a list of Unicode characters.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Mac OS Roman is a character encoding primarily used by the classic Mac OS to represent text.
The family of Macintosh operating systems developed by Apple Inc. includes the graphical user interface-based operating systems it has designed for use with its Macintosh series of personal computers since 1984, as well as the related system software it once created for compatible third-party systems.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
Model M is a designation for a group of computer keyboards manufactured by IBM starting in 1984, and later by Lexmark, Unicomp and MaxiSwitch.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
The Multinational Character Set (DMCS or MCS) is a character encoding created in 1983 by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for use in the popular VT220 terminal.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
Newline (frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, e.g. ASCII or EBCDIC.
In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet.
The null character (also null terminator or null byte), abbreviated NUL, is a control character with the value zero.
In computer programming, a null-terminated string is a character string stored as an array containing the characters and terminated with a null character ('\0', called NUL in ASCII).
The symbol # is most commonly known as the number sign, hash, or pound sign.
A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.
The octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.
OS/8 was the primary operating system used on the Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-8 minicomputer.
In computer networking, out-of-band data is the data transferred through a stream that is independent from the main in-band data stream.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A page break is a marker in an electronic document that tells the document interpreter that the content which follows is part of a new page.
A parity bit, or check bit, is a bit added to a string of binary code to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the string is even or odd.
PC Magazine (shortened as PCMag) is an American computer magazine published by Ziff Davis.
The percent (per cent) sign (%) is the symbol used to indicate a percentage, a number or ratio as a fraction of 100.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PETSCII (PET Standard Code of Information Interchange), also known as CBM ASCII, is the character set used in Commodore Business Machines (CBM)'s 8-bit home computers, starting with the PET from 1977 and including the C16, C64, C116, C128, CBM-II, Plus/4, and VIC-20.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.
The pound sign (£) is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom and previously of Great Britain and the Kingdom of England.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The question mark (also known as interrogation point, query, or eroteme in journalism) is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause or phrase in many languages.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
RSTS is a multi-user time-sharing operating system, initially developed by Evans, Griffiths, & Hart of Boston, and acquired by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, now part of Hewlett Packard) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers.
RSX-11 is a discontinued family of multi-user real-time operating systems for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation.
RT-11 ("RT" for real-time) is a discontinued small, single-user real-time operating system for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 family of 16-bit computers.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
The shift key is a modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate "upper" characters.
Shift Out (SO) and Shift In (SI) are ASCII control characters 14 and 15, respectively (0x0E and 0x0F).
A six-bit character code is a character encoding designed for use on computers with word lengths a multiple of 6.
The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.
Software flow control is a method of flow control used in computer data links, especially RS-232 serial.
In computer science, a sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters).
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
A substitute character (␚) is a control character that is used in the place of a character that is recognized to be invalid or erroneous, or that cannot be represented on a given device.
Synchronous Idle (SYN) is the ASCII control character 22 (0x16), represented as ^V in caret notation.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The tab key (abbreviation of tabulator key or tabular key) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.
TECO (Tee'koh /), Text Editor & COrrector"A powerful and sophisticated text editor, TECO (Text Editor and Corrector)...
Telecommunications equipment (also telecoms equipment or communications equipment) is hardware used for the purposes of telecommunications.
A telegraph code is one of the character encodings used to transmit information through telegraphy machines.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.
The Teletype Model 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office.
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages.
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.
A three-letter acronym (TLA), or three-letter abbreviation, is an abbreviation, specifically an acronym, alphabetism, or initialism, consisting of three letters.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Tim Paterson (born 1956) is an American computer programmer, best known for creating 86-DOS, an operating system for the Intel 8086.
The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total Operating System-10) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967.
The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The symbol underscore (_), also called underline, low line or low dash, is a character that originally appeared on the typewriter and was primarily used to underline words.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
The United States Secretary of Commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce.
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
UTF-16 (16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points of Unicode.
UTF-32 stands for Unicode Transformation Format in 32 bits.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The vertical bar (|) is a computer character and glyph with various uses in mathematics, computing, and typography.
vi is a screen-oriented text editor originally created for the Unix operating system.
VISCII is a character encoding for using the Vietnamese language with computers.
The VT220 is an ANSI standard computer terminal introduced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1983.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
In computing, a window is a graphical control element.
Windows code pages are sets of characters or code pages (known as character encodings in other operating systems) used in Microsoft Windows from the 1980s and 1990s.
Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The yen sign (¥) or the yuan sign (¥/元) is a currency sign used by the Chinese yuan (CNY) and the Japanese yen (JPY) currencies.
YUSCII is an informal name for several JUS standards for 7-bit character encoding.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ziff Davis, LLC is an American publisher and Internet company.
The ZX Spectrum character set is the variant of ASCII used in the British Sinclair ZX Spectrum family computers.
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.
18 binary digits have (1000000 octal, 40000 hexadecimal) distinct combinations.
2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
3 (three) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.
3568 ASCII, provisional designation, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately in diameter.
Prior to the introduction of computers, the state of the art in precision scientific and engineering calculation was the ten-digit, electrically powered, mechanical calculator, such as those manufactured by Friden, Marchant and Monroe.
4 (four) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
5 (five) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
6 (six) is the natural number following 5 and preceding 7.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8.
8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9.
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.
9 (nine) is the natural number following and preceding.
The IBM System/360, released in 1964, introduced what is now generally known as 9 track tape.
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