46 relations: American Revolutionary War, Ashkenazi Jews, Atlantic Ocean, Bavaria, Bécancour, Quebec, Benjamin Hart (businessman), Businessperson, Commissariat, Congregation Shearith Israel, Ezekiel Hart, Fief, Frederick Haldimand, Fur trade, Harvest House, History of the Jews in Canada, J. M. Dent, Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, Jewish Encyclopedia, Kingdom of Great Britain, Lester & Orpen Dennys, London, Lower Canada, Manorialism, Masonic lodge, McClelland & Stewart, Montreal, Moses Hart, Oxford University Press, Papal legate, Portsmouth, Postmaster, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, Quebec, Queen Victoria, Retail, Richard Montgomery, Saint-Maurice River, Sephardi Jews, Seven Years' War, Sorel-Tracy, Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal, Trois-Rivières, University of Toronto Press, University Press of New England, Wholesaling, Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
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Bécancour is a city in the Centre-du-Québec region of Québec, Canada; it is the seat of the Bécancour Regional County Municipality.
Benjamin Hart (August 10, 1779 – February 27, 1855) was a Canadian businessman, militia officer, and justice of the peace.
A business person (also businessman or businesswoman) is a person involved in the business sector – in particular someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth.
A commissariat is a department or organization commanded by a commissary or by a corps of commissaries.
The Congregation Shearith Israel (Hebrew: קהילת שארית ישראל Kehilat She'arit Yisra'el "Congregation Remnant of Israel") – often called The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue – is the oldest Jewish congregation in the United States.
Ezekiel Hart (May 15, 1770 – September 16, 1843) was an entrepreneur and politician in British North America.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
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Sir Frederick Haldimand, KB (August 11, 1718 – June 5, 1791) was a military officer best known for his service in the British Army in North America during the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
Harvest House Publishers is a Christian publishing company founded in 1974 in Irvine, California, United States, and is now located in Eugene, Oregon.
Canadian Jews or, alternatively, Jewish Canadians are Canadian citizens of the Jewish faith and/or Jewish ethnicity.
Joseph Malaby Dent (30 August 1849 – 9 May 1926) was a British book publisher who produced the Everyman's Library series.
Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst, (29 January 1717 – 3 August 1797) served as an officer in the British Army and as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Lester & Orpen Dennys was a Canadian book publishing company based in Toronto, originally as Lester & Orpen.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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The Province of Lower Canada (province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791–1841).
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.
McClelland & Stewart Limited is a Canadian publishing company.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Moses Hart (November 26, 1768 – October 15, 1852) was a Canadian businessman and seigneur, eldest son of Aaron Hart.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A woodcut showing Henry II of England greeting the pope's legate. A papal legate or Apostolic legate (from the Ancient Roman title legatus) is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
A postmaster is the head of an individual post office.
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, (Edward Augustus; 2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
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Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
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Richard Montgomery (December 2, 1738 – December 31, 1775) was an Irish soldier who first served in the British Army.
The Saint-Maurice River (Atikamekw: Tapiskwan sipi) flows North to South in central Quebec from Gouin Reservoir to empty into the Saint Lawrence River at Trois-Rivières, in province of Quebec, in Canada.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Sorel-Tracy is a city in southwestern Quebec, Canada and the geographical end point of the Lake Champlain Valley at the confluence of the Richelieu River and the St. Lawrence River, on the western edge of Lac Saint-Pierre downstream and east of nearby Montreal.
The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal, also known as Shearith Israel, is a Montreal synagogue, located on St.
Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
The University Press of New England (UPNE), located in Lebanon, New Hampshire and founded in 1970, is a university press consortium including Brandeis University, Dartmouth College (its host member), Tufts University, the University of New Hampshire, and Northeastern University.
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, based in Waterloo, Ontario, is a publisher of scholarly writing and is part of Wilfrid Laurier University.
Aaron Hirsh, Aaron M. Hart, Aaron M.U.E. Hart, Aaron Moses Hart, Aaron Moses Hirsh, Aaron Moses Uri Ezekiel Hart, Aaron Moshe Hart, Aaron Moshe Hirsh, Aaron Moshe Uri Yehezkel Hart, Aaron P. Hart, Aaron Philip Hart, Aaron Phillip Hart, Aharon Hart, Aharon Hirsh, Aharon M. Hart, Aharon Moshe Hart, Aharon Moshe Hirsh, Leut Aaron Hart, Lieutenant Aaron Hart, Lieutenant Aaron M. Hart, Lieutenant Aaron P. Hart, Lt Aaron Hart, אהרן הרט.