143 relations: Abbas Helmi I of Egypt, Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, Abdeen Palace, Abdulmejid I, Agricultural science, Agriculture, Al Qubbah, Al-Mu'ayyad (newspaper), Albert Order, Alexandria, Alfred Mitchell-Innes, Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Assiut Barrage, Aswan Low Dam, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bezmiâlem Sultan, Boutros Ghali, Cairo, Caucasus, Central Powers, Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Chums (paper), Constantinople, Crimea, Damad Prince Ibrahim Ilhamy Pasha, De jure, Denmark, Earl of Cromer, Egypt, Eldon Gorst, Emina Ilhamy, Ethiopian Empire, Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, Fatma Neslişah, French protectorate in Morocco, French Third Republic, Geneva, German Empire, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, Hoshiar Kadinefendi, House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis, Hungary, Hussein Kamel of Egypt, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Ikbal Hanimefendi, ..., Isma'il Pasha, Istanbul, Jerusalem, Kâmil Pasha, Khedivate of Egypt, Khedive, Khitan (circumcision), Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Saxony, Kingdom of the Netherlands, Lausanne, Legion of Honour, List of Grand Cordons of the Order of Leopold, Ludwig Order, Mahmud II, Mahmud Muhtar Pasha, Marianna Török, Münire Sultan, Mehmed Ferid Pasha, Mohamed Abdel Moneim, Mohamed Said Pasha, Mohammed Ali Tewfik, Montaza Palace, Montreux, Muhammad Ali dynasty, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Mustafa Kamil Pasha, Order of Carol I, Order of Charles III, Order of Chula Chom Klao, Order of Franz Joseph, Order of Leopold (Austria), Order of Leopold (Belgium), Order of Osmanieh, Order of Ouissam Alaouite, Order of Pope Pius IX, Order of Prince Danilo I, Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky, Order of Saint Stanislaus (House of Romanov), Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Order of St Michael and St George, Order of the Bath, Order of the Black Eagle, Albania, Order of the Dannebrog, Order of the Medjidie, Order of the Netherlands Lion, Order of the Polar Star, Order of the Red Eagle, Order of the Redeemer, Order of the Royal House of Chakri, Ottoman Egypt, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17), Pasha, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Principality of Albania, Principality of Montenegro, Protectorate, Prussia, Rattanakosin Kingdom (1782–1932), Regent, Royal Victorian Chain, Royal Victorian Order, Russian Empire, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Saxe-Meiningen, Shafaq Nur Hanim, Spain, Sudan, Suez Canal, Sultan of Egypt, Sultanate of Zanzibar, Sweden, Switzerland, Tawfiq of Egypt, Theresianum, Turkey, Turkish language, Tusun Pasha, Umma Party (Egypt), United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Valide sultan, Vatican City, Verdicenan Kadın, Vienna, World War I. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Helmy I of Egypt (also known as Abbas Pasha, عباس الأول, I. 1 July 181213 July 1854) was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan.
Sayyid Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, KBE (عبد الرحمن المهدي) (15 July 1885 – 24 March 1959) was one of the leading religious and political figures during the colonial era in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1898–1955), and continued to exert great authority as leader of the Neo-Mahdists after Sudan became independent.
Abdeen Palace (قصر عابدين) is a historic Cairo palace, and one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt.
Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Al Qubbah or El Gubba (القبة) is a town in eastern Libya.
Al-Mu'ayyad was a nationalistic daily newspaper from 19th century Egypt.
The Albert Order (Albrechts-Orden) was created on 31 December 1850 by King Frederick Augustus II of Saxony to commemorate Albert III, Duke of Saxony (known as Albert the Bold).
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alfred Mitchell-Innes (30 June 1864 – 13 February 1950) was a British diplomat, economist and author.
The Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan in 1896–1899 was a reconquest of territory lost by the Khedives of Egypt in 1884 and 1885 during the Mahdist War.
Franz Ferdinand Carl Ludwig Joseph Maria (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia and, from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895.
The Assiut Barrage is a dam on the Nile River in the city of Assiut in Upper Egypt (250 miles to the south of Cairo).
The Aswan Low Dam or Old Aswan Dam is a gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bezmiâlem Sultan (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Bezmiâlem Valide Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 1807 – 2 May 1853) (Bezm-î Âlem or Bazim-î Âlam, meaning "feast of the world") was the second wife of Ottoman Sultan Mahmut II, and the mother of Sultan Abdülmecit I of the Ottoman Empire.
Boutros Ghali (1846 – 21 February 1910;, بطرس غالى; styled Boutros Ghali Bey, later Pasha or Boutros Bey, later Pasha Ghali) was the prime minister of Egypt from 1908 to 1910.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Chambers Biographical Dictionary provides concise descriptions of over 18,000 notable figures from Britain and the rest of the world.
Chums was a boys' weekly newspaper started in 1892 by Cassell & Company and later, from 1927, published by Amalgamated Press.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Damad Prince Ibrahim Ilhami Pasha (3 January 1836 in Cairo – 9 September 1860 at Bebek Palace in Istanbul), was the only surviving son of Abbas I of Egypt and his wife Mahvash Khanum Effendi (Turkish: Mahveş Hanımefendi).
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Earl of Cromer is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, held by members of the Baring family, of German descent.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Sir John Eldon Gorst, GCMG, KCB (25 June 1861 – 12 July 1911) was Consul-General in Egypt from 1907-1911.
Emina Ilhamy or Amina al-Hamy (Emine Necibe İlhami; 24 May 1858 – 19 June 1931) was an Egyptian and Ottoman princess and a member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer (26 February 1841 – 29 January 1917), was a British statesman, diplomat and colonial administrator.
Princess Fatma Neslişah Sultan (Osmanoğlu) (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Fatma Neslişah Sultan Aliyyetü'ş-Şân Hazretleri; 4 February 1921 – 2 April 2012) was a granddaughter of the last Ottoman Caliph Abdülmecid II and his first wife, Şehsuvar Kadın and granddaughter of the last Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI and his first wife, Nazikeda Kadın.
The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) was a state in western Germany that existed from the German mediatization to the end of the German Empire.
The Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (also known as Holstein-Oldenburg) was a grand duchy within the German Confederation, North German Confederation and German Empire which consisted of three widely separated territories: Oldenburg, Eutin and Birkenfeld.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916), was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won notoriety for his imperial campaigns, most especially his scorched earth policy against the Boers and his establishment of concentration camps during the Second Boer War, and later played a central role in the early part of the First World War.
Hoshiar Kadinefendi (c. 1813 – 21 June 1886) was a consort to Ibrahim Pasha and was Walida Pasha to their son Isma'il Pasha.
The House and Merit Order of Duke Peter Frederick Louis (German: Haus und Verdienstorden von Herzog Peter Friedrich Ludwig) or proper German Oldenburg House and Merit Order of Duke Peter Frederick Louis (German: Oldenburgische Haus- und Verdienstorden des Herzogs Peter Friedrich Ludwig) was a civil and military order of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, a member state of the German Empire.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Sultan Hussein Kamel (السلطان حسين كامل, Sultan Hüseyin Kamil Paşa; November 1853 – 9 October 1917) was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Ikbal Hanimefendi (İkbal Hanımefendi; 22 October 1876 – 10 February 1941), originally a Circassian slave brought to Egypt, became the Khediva consort of Egypt from 1895 to 1900 as the first wife of Abbas Hilmi II Pasha, the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Isma'il Pasha (إسماعيل باشا Ismā‘īl Bāshā, Turkish: İsmail Paşa), known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Mehmed Kâmil Pasha (محمد كامل پاشا; Kıbrıslı Mehmet Kâmil Paşa, "Mehmed Kamil Pasha the Cypriot"), also spelled as Kiamil Pasha (1833 – 14 November 1913), was an Ottoman statesman of Turkish Cypriot origin in the late-19th-century and early-20th-century, who became, as aside regional or international posts within the Ottoman state structure.
The Khedivate of Egypt (خدیویت مصر) was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt.
The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.
Khitan (ختان) or Khatna (ختنة) is the term for male circumcision carried out as an Islamic rite by Muslims.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).
Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
The Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold is the highest and oldest rank of chivalrie and a formal diplomatic gift of the Kingdom of Belgium.
The Ludwig Order (German:"Ludwigsorden"), was an order of the Grand Duchy of Hesse which was awarded to meritorious soldiers and civilians from 1807 to 1918.
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Mahmud Muhtar Pasha (Mahmut Muhtar Paşa; 1867 – 15 March 1935), known as Mahmut Muhtar Katırcıoğlu after 1934, was an Ottoman-born Turkish military officer and diplomat, the son of the Grand Vizier Ahmed Muhtar Pasha.
Marianna Török de Szendrő (May Torok von Szendro; June 15, 1877 in Philadelphia, US – August 5, 1968 in Graz) was a Hungarian noble, second spouse of the Khedive Abbas II of Egypt.
Münire Sultan (منیرہ سلطان; 9 December 1844 – 29 June 1862) was an Ottoman princess, daughter of Sultan Abdulmejid I and his wife Verdicenan Kadın.
Mehmed Ferid Pasha (Avlonyalı Ferit Paşa or Avlonyalı Mehmet Ferit Paşa) (1851, Yanya (Ioannina) - 1914, Sanremo) was an Ottoman statesman of ethnic Albanian background.
Damat Prince Mohamed Abdel Moneim Beyefendi (20 February 1899 – 1 December 1979) was an Egyptian prince and former heir apparent to the throne of Egypt and Sudan from 1899 to 1914.
Mohamed Said Pasha (محمد سعيد باشا) (1863-1928), was Prime Minister of Egypt from 1910 to 1914, and again in 1919.
Prince Mohammed Ali Tewfik (محمد علي توفيق) (November 9, 1875 - March 18, 1955) was the heir presumptive of Egypt and Sudan from 1892-1899 and 1936-1952.
Montaza Palace (قصر المنتزة) is a palace, museum and extensive gardens in the Montaza district of Alexandria, Egypt.
Montreux is a municipality in the district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
Mustafa Kamil Pasha (مصطفى كامل) (August 14, 1874, Cairo, Egypt – February 10, 1908, Cairo) was an Egyptian lawyer, journalist, and nationalist activist.
The Order of Carol I (Romanian: Ordinul Carol I) was the highest ranking of the Romanian honours of the Kingdom of Romania until the abolition of the monarchy in 1947.
The Royal and Distinguished Spanish Order of Charles III (Real y Distinguida Orden Española de Carlos III) was established by the King of Spain Carlos III by means of the Royal Decree of 19 September 1771, with the motto Virtuti et mérito.
The Most Illustrious Order of Chula Chom Klao (เครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์จุลจอมเกล้า) was established on 16 November 1873 by King Rama V of The Kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) to commemorate the 90th Jubilee of the Chakri Dynasty, and bears his name (จุลจอมเกล้า Chula Chom Klao).
The Imperial Austrian Order of Franz Joseph (Kaiserlich-Österreichischer Franz-Joseph-Orden) was founded by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria on December 2, 1849, on the first anniversary of his accession to the imperial throne.
The Austrian Imperial Order of Leopold (Österreichisch-kaiserlicher Leopold-Orden) was founded by Franz I of Austria on 8 January 1808.
The Order of Leopold (Leopoldsorde, Ordre de Léopold) is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood.
The Order of Osmanieh or Osmaniye (Osmanlı Devlet Nişanı) was a military decoration of the Ottoman Empire.
The Order of Ouissam Alaouite or the Sharifian Order of Al-Alaoui is a military decoration of Morocco which is bestowed by the King of Morocco upon those civilians and military officers who have displayed heroism in combat or have contributed meritorious service to the Moroccan state.
The Order of Pope Pius IX (Ordine di Pio IX), also referred as the Pian Order (Ordine Piano), is a papal order of knighthood founded on 17 June 1847 by Pope Pius IX.
The Order of Prince Danilo I of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Орден Књаза Данила I, Orden Knjaza Danila I) was an order of the Principality, and later Kingdom, of Montenegro.
The Imperial Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky was an order of chivalry of the Russian Empire first awarded on by Empress Catherine I of Russia.
The Order of Saint Stanislaus (Polish: Order św. Stanisława, Russian: Орденъ Св. Станислава), also spelled Stanislas, is a Russian dynastic order of knighthood founded as Order of the Knights of Saint Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr in 1765 by King Stanisław II Augustus of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen (Magyar Királyi Szent István Iovagrend; Königlich Ungarischer Sankt-Stephans-Orden) was an order of knighthood founded by Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa in 1764.
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor.
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent, later King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Black Eagle, (Urdhri i Shqiponjës) was the highest title that could be bestowed on a citizen of the Principality of Albania.
The Order of the Dannebrog (Dannebrogordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry instituted in 1671 by Christian V.
Medjidie or Mejidie (Mecidiye Nişanı, August 29, 1852 – 1922) is the name of a military and knightly order of the Ottoman Empire.
The Order of the Netherlands Lion, also referred to as the Order of the Lion of the Netherlands (De Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, L'Ordre du Lion Néerlandais) is a Dutch order of chivalry founded by King William I of the Netherlands on 29 September 1815.
The Order of the Polar Star (Swedish: Nordstjärneorden) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim.
The Order of the Red Eagle (Roter Adlerorden) was an order of chivalry of the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Order of the Redeemer (translit), also known as the Order of the Saviour, is an order of merit of Greece.
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri (เครื่องขัตติยราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันมีเกียรติคุณรุ่งเรืองยิ่งมหาจักรีบรมราชวงศ์) was established in 1882 by King Rama V of the Kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) to commemorate the Bangkok Centennial.
Ottoman Egypt covers two main periods of the history of Egypt from the 16th through early 20th centuries, when under the rule of or allied to the Ottoman Empire that was based in (present day) Turkey.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 was the second major conflict between the Egypt-based Mamluk Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire, which led to the fall of the Mamluk Sultanate and the incorporation of the Levant, Egypt and the Hejaz as provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Principality of Albania (Albanian: Principata e Shqipërisë or Shteti Shqiptar) refers to the short-lived monarchy in Albania, headed by William, Prince of Albania, that lasted from the Treaty of London of 1913 which ended the First Balkan War, through the invasions of Albania during World War I and the subsequent disputes over Albanian independence during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, until 1925, when the monarchy was abolished and the Albanian Republic declared.
The Principality of Montenegro (Књажевина Црнa Горa/Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) is the fourth and present traditional centre of power in the history of Thailand (or Siam).
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The Royal Victorian Chain is a decoration instituted in 1902 by King Edward VII as a personal award of the monarch (i.e. not an award made on the advice of any Commonwealth realm government).
The Royal Victorian Order (Ordre royal de Victoria) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Saxe-Altenburg (Sachsen-Altenburg) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia.
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was an Ernestine duchy ruled by a branch of the House of Wettin, consisting of territories in the present-day states of Bavaria and Thuringia in Germany.
The Saxe-Ernestine House Order (Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden).
Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia.
Shafaq Nur Hanim (1836 - 17 March 1884) was the Princess consort of Khedive Isma'il Pasha and was Walida Pasha to their son Tewfik Pasha, the next Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517.
The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Usultani wa Zanzibar, translit), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar is the sovereign.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Mohamed Tewfik Pasha (محمد توفيق باشا, Muhammed Tevfik Paşa; April 30 or November 15, 1852 – January 7, 1892), also known as Tawfiq of Egypt, was khedive of Egypt and the Sudan between 1879 and 1892 and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
Theresianum (or Theresian Academy; German: Stiftung Theresianische Akademie) is a private boarding and day school governed by the laws for public schools in Vienna, Austria.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Tusun Pasha (1794–28 September 1816) — (Tosun Paşa, Ahmet Tosun Paşa, طوسون پاشا, طوسون باشا) — was the son of Muhammad Ali Pasha, wali of Egypt between 1805-1849.
The Umma Party (Arabic: حزب الأمة, Hizb Al-Umma) is a small Egyptian political party.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Valide sultan (والده سلطان, lit. "mother sultan") was the title held by the "legal mother" of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Verdicenan Kadın (18309 December 1889) was a consort of Sultan Abdülmecid I of the Ottoman Empire.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
'Abbas Hilmi, 'Abbas Hilmi II, 'Abbas II, Abbas Helmi 2, Abbas Helmi II, Abbas Helmy, Abbas Helmy II, Abbas Hilmi II, Abbas Hilmi Pasha, Abbas II Hilmi, Abbas II of Egypt, Do' abbas Hilmi Pasha, `Abbas Hilmi Pasha.