181 relations: Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns, Afghanistan, Ahmed I, Akbar, Al-Mansur, Alamut, Alexander II of Imereti, Alexander II of Kakheti, Ali al-Ridha, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Ali-Qoli Khan Shamlu, Allahverdi Khan, Anthony Jenkinson, Anthony Shirley, Ardabil, Armenia, Armenians, Azerbaijan, Ālī Qāpū, Baghdad, Bagrat VII of Kartli, Bahrain, Balkh, Bandar Abbas, Battle of Dimdim, Behbud Khan Cherkes, Capture of Ormuz (1622), Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Chehel Sotoun, Christianity, Circassians, Coup d'état, Crimean Khanate, Crown prince, Dagestan, Dilaram Khanum, East India Company, Eastern Anatolia Region, Farah, Afghanistan, Farahabad, Mazandaran, Farhad Beg Cherkes, Farhad Khan Qaramanlu, Fars Province, Ganj Ali Khan, Ganja, Azerbaijan, García de Silva Figueroa, George Bournoutian, Georgia (country), Georgian language, ..., Georgians, Germany, Ghilman, Gilan Province, Giorgi Saakadze, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand vizier, Greater Khorasan, Habsburg Spain, Harem, Herat, High-heeled shoe, History of Iran, Hormuz Island, Humayun, Husayn ibn Ali, Imam-Quli Khan, Iran, Iranian Armenia (1502–1828), Isa Khan Safavi, Isfahan, Iskandar Beg Munshi, Ismail II, Jahangir, Jahangir III, Jahangir IV, Janissaries, Jesse of Kakheti, Julfa, Azerbaijan (city), Juma Mosque, Ganja, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kandahar, Karabakh, Kashan, Ketevan the Martyr, Khalifeh Soltan, Khan Ahmad Khan, Khanate of Khiva, Khayr al-Nisa Begum, Khorshidi dynasty, Kingdom of Imereti, Kingdom of Kakheti, Kingdom of Kartli, Kojur, Kurdistan, Kutaisi, Lake Van, Lar, Iran, List of monarchs of Persia, Lorestan Province, Luarsab II of Kartli, Marashis, Mashhad, Mausoleum of Shah Abbas I, Mazandaran Province, Meritocracy, Mesopotamia, Michael Axworthy, Military of the Safavid dynasty, Mirza Salman Jaberi, Mohammad Baqer Mirza, Mohammad Khodabanda, Moscow, Mughal Empire, Murad IV, Nahavand, Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Nesa, Hormozgan, New Julfa, North Caucasus, Norway, Nur, Iran, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–55), Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18), Paduspanids, Peace of Amasya, Peoples of the Caucasus, Persian carpet, Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602), Persian embassy to Europe (1609–15), Persian Gulf, Persian pottery, Philip III of Spain, Pietro Della Valle, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pope Clement VIII, Portugal, Portuguese Empire, Princess Marta of Kakheti, Qajar dynasty, Qazvin, Qizilbash, Rasht, Reza Abbasi, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Robert Shirley, Roger Savory, Rome, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Sabzevar, Safavid dynasty, Safi of Persia, Saveh, Shah, Shah Abbas Mosque, Yerevan, Shah Mosque, Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque, Shia Islam, Shiraz, Simon II of Kartli, Suleiman II of Persia, Suleiman of Persia, Sunni Islam, Tabriz, Tahmasp I, Teimuraz I of Kakheti, The Cambridge History of Iran, Transcaucasia, Treaty of Constantinople (1590), Treaty of Nasuh Pasha, Turkish bath, Twelfth Night, Undiladze, University of California Press, University of Michigan, Uzbeks, Uzun Hasan, Venice, Yakhan Begum, Yerevan. Expand index (131 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas I's Kakhetian and Kartlian campaigns refers to the four campaigns Safavid king Abbas I led between 1614-1617, in his East Georgian vassal kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti during the Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18).
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahmed I (احمد اول; I.; 18 April 1590 – 22 November 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death in 1617.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.
The Alamut geographic region (الموت; Alamūt) is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north.
Alexander II (ალექსანდრე II) (died April 1, 1510) was a king of Georgia in 1478 and of Imereti from 1483 to 1510.
Alexander II (ალექსანდრე II) (1527 – March 12, 1605) of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1574 to 1605.
'Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Riḍā (علي ابن موسى الرّضا), also called Abu al-Hasan, Ali al-Reza (29 December 765 – 23 August 818) or in Iran (Persia) as Imam Reza (امام رضا), was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad and the eighth Shi'ite Imam, after his father Musa al-Kadhim, and before his son Muhammad al-Jawad.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
Ali-Qoli Khan Shamlu (علی قلی خان شاملو; died 1589) was a Safavid officer of Turkoman origin.
Allahverdi Khan (اللّه وردی خان, ალავერდი-ხანი) (ca. 1560 – June 3, 1613) was an Iranian general and statesman of Georgian origin who, initially a ghulām ("military slave"), rose to high office in the Safavid state.
Anthony Jenkinson (1529 – 1610/1611) was born at Market Harborough, Leicestershire.
Sir Anthony Shirley (or Sherley) (1565–1635) was an English traveller, whose imprisonment in 1603 by King James I caused the English House of Commons to assert one of its privileges—freedom of its members from arrest—in a document known as The Form of Apology and Satisfaction.
Ardabil (اردبیل., اردبیل, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl) is an ancient city in Iranian Azerbaijan.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Ali Qapu (عالی قاپو, ‘Ālī Qāpū) is a grand palace in Isfahan, Iran.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bagrat Khan also known as Bagrat VII (ბაგრატ VII) (1569–1619), was King of Kartli, eastern Georgia, effectively serving as a khan for the Persian shah Abbas I from 1615/1616 to 1619.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
Bandar Abbas (بندرعباس,, or Bandar-e ‘Abbās; also romanized as Bandar ‘Abbās and Bandar ‘Abbāsī; formerly known as Cambarão and Porto Comorão to Portuguese traders, as Gombroon to English traders and as Gamrun or Gumrun to Dutch merchants; also Jaroon (to the Arabs) and Cameron (to the English)) is a port city and capital of Hormozgān Province on the southern coast of Iran, on the Persian Gulf.
The Battle of Dimdim is the name for the battle between the Safavid Empire and the Sunni Kurds of the Ottoman Empire between 1609 and 1610.
Behbud Khan Cherkes, also known as Behbud Beg, was a Safavid official and gholam of Circassian origin, who served during the reign of king Abbas I (1588-1629).
In the 1622 Capture of Ormuz (Persian: بازپس گیری هرمز) an Anglo-Persian force combined to take over the Portuguese garrison at Hormuz Island after a ten-week siege, thus opening up Persian trade with England in the Persian Gulf.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Chehel Sotoun (also Chihil Sutun or Chehel Sotoon; چهل ستون, literally: “Forty Columns”) is a pavilion in the middle of a park at the far end of a long pool, in Isfahan, Iran, built by Shah Abbas II to be used for his entertainment and receptions.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Dilaram Khanum (دلارام خانم, also spelled Del Aram or Delaram; died c. 1647) was a Safavid crown princess of Georgian origin.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Anatolia Region (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) is a geographical region of Turkey.
Farah (Pashto / Dari Persian: فراه) is the capital of Farah Province, located in western Afghanistan.
Farahabad (English: "abode of joy") was a palace and city built by Shah Abbas I in Mazandaran, Iran.
Farhad Beg Cherkes (died 1614) was a Circassian favourite at the Safavid court of king (shah) Abbas I (r. 1588-1629).
Farhad Khan Qaramanlu (قره مرد تو ل فرهاد خان; died 1598), also known by his honorific title of Rokn al-Saltana (رکن الدین السلطنه, "Pillar of the state"), was a Turkoman military officer from the Qaramanlu family, and was the last member of the Qizilbash to serve as commander-in-chief (sipah-salar) of the Safavid Empire.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
Ganj Ali Khan (گنج علی خان or گنجعلیخان) was a military officer in Safavid Iran of Kurdish origin, who served as governor in various provinces and was known for his loyal service to king (shah) Abbas I. Ganj Ali Khan continuously aided the shah on almost all of his military campaigns until his own death in 1624/5.
Ganja (Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's second largest city, with a population of around 331,400.
Don García de Silva Figueroa (December 29, 1550 – July 22, 1624) was a Spanish diplomat, and the first Western traveller to correctly identify the ruins of Takht-e Jamshid in Persia as the location of Persepolis, the ancient capital of the Achaemenid Empire and one of the great cities of antiquity.
George A. Bournoutian (جورج بورنوتیان., 25 September 1943, Isfahan, Iran) is an Iranian-American professor, historian, and author of Armenian descent.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghilman (singular غُلاَم,Other standardized transliterations: /.. plural غِلْمَان)Other standardized transliterations: /..
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Giorgi Saakadze the Grand Mouravi (გიორგი სააკაძე) (c. 1570 – October 3, 1629) was a Georgian politician and military commander who played an important but contradictory role in the politics of the early 17th-century Georgia.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier (Sadrazam) was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.
Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Harem (حريم ḥarīm, "a sacred inviolable place; harem; female members of the family"), also known as zenana in South Asia, properly refers to domestic spaces that are reserved for the women of the house in a Muslim family and are inaccessible to adult males except for close relations.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
High heels are a type of shoe in which the heel, compared to the toe, is significantly higher off of the ground.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Hormuz Island (جزیره هرمز Jazireh-ye Hormoz), also spelled Hormoz, is an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf.
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Imam-Quli Khan (امامقلی خان، Emāmqolī Khan) (died 1632) was an Iranian military and political leader of Georgian origin who served as a governor of Fars, Lar and Bahrain for the shahs Abbas I and Safi.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iranian Armenia (1502–1828) refers to the period of Eastern Armenia during the early-modern and late-modern era when it was part of the various Iranian empires, up to 1828.
Isa Khan Safavi (عیسی خان صفوی), also known as Isa Khan Shaykhavand (آوند عیسی خان شیخ) was a Safavid prince, who occupied high offices under king (shah) Abbas I (r. 1588–1629).
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
Iskandar Beg Munshi, a.k.a. Iskandar Beg Turkman (c. 1560 – c. 1632), was a Persian historian of Turkmen origin of the Safavid emperor Shah Abbas I. Iskandar Beg began as an accountant in the bureaucracy, but later became a privileged secretary of the Shahs.
Ismail Mirza (اسماعیل میرزا) later known by his first dynastic name of Ismail II (شاه اسماعیل دوم) (31 May 1537– 24 November 1577) was the third Safavid Shah of Iran, ruling from 1576 to 1577.
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Jahangir III (جهانگیر), was the last ruler of the Paduspanid branch of Nur.
Jahangir IV (جهانگیر), was the last ruler of the Paduspanid branch of Kojur.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jesse (იესე) or Isā Khān (ისა-ხანი) (died September 15, 1615), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a Safavid-appointed ruler of Kakheti in eastern Georgia from 1614 to 1615.
Julfa (Culfa, Ҹулфа, جولفا), formerly Jugha (Ջուղա, sometimes transliterated as Djugha) and also rendered as Djulfa, Dzhul’fa, Jolfa, Dzhulfa, Džulfa, Jolfā, Jolfā-ye Nakhjavān (جلفای نخجوان), is the administrative capital of the Julfa Rayon administrative region of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan.
Juma Mosque of Ganja or Friday Mosque of Ganja – is a mosque located in the centre of Ganja.
The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ, Ķêbêrdej-Baĺķêr Respublikê; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика, Qabartı-Malqar Respublika), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the North Caucasus.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
Karabakh (Ղարաբաղ Gharabagh; Qarabağ) is a geographic region in present-day eastern Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras.
Kashan (کاشان, also Romanized as: Kāshān) is a city in Isfahan province, Iran.
Ketevan the Martyr (ქეთევან წამებული, ketevan tsamebuli) (c. 1560 – September 13, 1624) was a queen of Kakheti, a kingdom in eastern Georgia.
Sayyed Ala al-Din Hoseyn (سید علاء الدین حسین), better known as Khalifeh Soltan (خلیفه سلطان), and also known as Sultan al-Ulama (سلطانالعلماء), was an Iranian statesman and cleric, who served as the grand vizier of the Safavid king (shah) Abbas I (r. 1588–1629), the latter's grandson Safi (r. 1629–1642), and Abbas II (r. 1642–1666).
Khan Ahmad Khan (Gilaki/خان احمد خان), was the last king of the Karkiya dynasty in Gilan, ruling from 1538 to 1592.
The Khanate of Khiva (Xiva xonligi, خانات خیوه) was a Central Asian Turkic state that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nadir Shah between 1740 and 1746.
Khayr al-Nisa Begum (known under the royal title Mahd-i Ulya, "the highest-ranked cradle") (died 26 July 1579) was an Iranian Mazandarani princess from the Marashi dynasty, who was the wife of the Safavid shah (king) Mohammed Khodabanda (r. 1578–1587) and mother of Abbas I. During the early part of her husband's reign she was a powerful political figure in her own right and governed Iran de facto between February 1578 and July 1579.
The Khorshidi dynasty (Ḵoršīdī, Xurşîdiyan, 1184? - 1597B. Spuller, in Encyclopædia Iranica.) was a dynasty that ruled Little Lorestan (لر کوچک, Lor-e kūchek, Lori: Lor-e Kūček, Kurdish: Lûrê Piçûk) between 1155 - 1597 from Khorramabad.
The Kingdom of Imereti (იმერეთის სამეფო) was a Georgian monarchy established in 1455 by a member of the house of Bagrationi when the Kingdom of Georgia was dissolved into rival kingdoms.
The Second Kingdom of Kakheti (კახეთის სამეფო, k'axetis samepo; also spelled Kaxet'i or Kakhetia) was a late medieval/early modern monarchy in eastern Georgia, centered at the province of Kakheti, with its capital first at Gremi and then at Telavi.
The Kingdom of Kartli (ქართლის სამეფო) was a feudal Georgian state that existed from 1466/84 to 1762, with the city of Tbilisi as its capital.
Kojur (كوجور, also Romanized as Kujur; also known as Baladeh-ye Kujūr, Kujūr, Dehe Kujūr) is a city in Tavabe-e Kojur Rural District, Kojur District, Nowshahr County, Mazandaran Province, Iran.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
Kutaisi (ქუთაისი; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kotais, Kutatisi, Kutaïsi) is the legislative capital of Georgia, and its 3rd most populous city.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
Lar (لار, also Romanized as Lār; also known as Larestan) is a city and capital of Larestan County, Fars Province, Iran.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.
Luarsab II the Holy Martyr (ლუარსაბ II) (1592 – 21 June (O.S.), 1 July (N.S.), 1622), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Kartli (eastern Georgia) from 1606 to 1615.
The Marashiyan or Marashis (Mazandarani: مرعشیون, مرعشیان) were an Iranian Shiʿite dynasty of Mazandarani origin, ruling in Mazandaran from 1359 to 1596.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
The Mausoleum of Shah Abbas I (آرامگاه شاه عباس بزرگ) is the burial place of Abbas I, the Safavid king of Persia.
Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.
Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Michael George Andrew Axworthy (born 26 September 1962) is a British academic, author, and commentator.
The Military of the Safavid dynasty covers the military history of the Safavid dynasty from 1501 to 1736.
Mirza Salman Jaberi Isfahani (میرزا سلمان جابری اصفهانی; also spelled Jabiri) was a prominent Persian statesman in Safavid Iran, who served as the grand vizier of Ismail II (r. 1576-77) and Mohammad Khodabanda (r. 1577-1588).
Mohammad Baqer Mirza better known in the West as Safi Mirza (15 September 1587, Mashhad – 2 February 1614, Rasht) was the oldest son of king (shah) Abbas the Great (r. 1588-1629), and the crown prince of the Safavid Dynasty during Abbas' reign and his own short life.
Mohammad Khodābandeh or Khudābanda, also known as Mohammad Shah or Sultan Mohammad (شاه محمد خدابنده, born 1532; died 1595 or 1596), was Shah of Persia from 1578 until his overthrow in 1587 by his son Abbas I. He was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran and succeeded his brother, Ismail II.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Murad IV (مراد رابع, Murād-ı Rābiʿ; 26/27 July 1612 – 8 February 1640) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1623 to 1640, known both for restoring the authority of the state and for the brutality of his methods.
Nahavand (نهاوند, also Romanized as Nahāvand and Nehāvend) is a city and capital of Nahavand County, Hamadan Province, Iran.
Naqsh-e Jahan Square (میدان نقش جهان Maidān-e Naqsh-e Jahān; trans: "Image of the World Square"), also known as Meidan Emam, is a square situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran.
Nesa (نسا, also Romanized as Nesā’; also known as Neyseh and Nīsa) is a village in Fareghan Rural District, Fareghan District, Hajjiabad County, Hormozgan Province, Iran.
New Julfa (نو جلفا – Now Jolfā, جلفای نو – Jolfā ye Now; Նոր Ջուղա – Nor Jugha) is the Armenian quarter of Isfahan, Iran, located along the south bank of the Zayande River.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nur (Nursar, formerly, Suldeh) is a city and capital of Nur County, located on the Caspian Sea in Mazandaran Province of northern Iran.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555 was one of the many military conflicts fought between the two arch rivals, the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent, and the Safavid Empire led by Tahmasp I.
The Ottoman–Safavid War was a war between Safavid Persia under Abbas I of Persia and the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Ahmed I. It began in 1603 and ended with a decisive Safavid victory in 1618.
The Paduspanids or Baduspanids (Persian: پادوسبانیان) were a local dynasty of Tabaristan which ruled over Royan, Nur and Rostamdar.
The Peace of Amasya (پیمان آماسیه ("Qarārdād-e Amasiyeh"); Amasya Antlaşması) was a treaty agreed to on May 29, 1555 between Shah Tahmasp of Safavid Iran and Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire at the city of Amasya, following the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
A Persian carpet or Persian rug (Persian: قالی ايرانى qālī-ye īranī),Savory, R., Carpets,(Encyclopaedia Iranica); accessed January 30, 2007.
The Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602) was dispatched by the Persian Shah Abbas I in 1599 to obtain an alliance against the Ottoman Empire.
The Persian embassy to Europe (1609–1615) was dispatched by the Persian Shah Abbas I in 1609 to obtain an alliance with Europe against the Ottoman Empire.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian pottery or Iranian pottery refers to the pottery works made by the artists of Persia (Iran) and its history goes back to early Neolithic Age (7th millennium BCE).
Philip III (Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain.
Pietro della Valle (2 April 1586 – 21 April 1652) was an Italian composer, musicologist, and author who traveled throughout Asia during the Renaissance period.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pope Clement VIII (Clemens VIII; 24 February 1536 – 5 March 1605), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from 2 February 1592 to his death in 1605.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Marta was a Georgian princess royal of the Bagrationi dynasty, and a wife of the Safavid Iranian king (shah) Abbas I (r. 1588-1629).
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
Qazvin (قزوین,, also Romanized as Qazvīn, Caspin, Qazwin, or Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
Rasht (رشت; Rəsht; also Romanized as Resht and Rast, and often spelt Recht in French and older German manuscripts) is the capital city of Gilan Province, Iran.
Reza Abbasi, Riza yi-Abbasi or Reza-e Abbasi, رضا عباسی in Persian, usually Reza Abbasi also Aqa Reza (see below) or Āqā Riżā Kāshānī (– 1635) was the leading Persian miniaturist of the Isfahan School during the later Safavid period, spending most of his career working for Shah Abbas I. He is considered to be the last great master of the Persian miniature, best known for his single miniatures for muraqqa or albums, especially single figures of beautiful youths.
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC (10 November 1565 – 25 February 1601), was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599.
Sir Robert Shirley (c. 1581 – 13 July 1628) was an English traveller and adventurer, younger brother of Sir Anthony Shirley and Sir Thomas Shirley.
Roger Savory is a British-born Professor Emeritus at the University of TorontoRoger Savory, "Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations"- University of Toronto" who is an Iranologist and specialist on the Safavids.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).
Sabzevar (سبزوار), previously known as Beyhagh (also spelled "Beihagh"; بيهق), is a city and capital of Sabzevar County, in Razavi Khorasan Province, approximately 220 kilometres west of the provincial capital Mashhad, in northeastern Iran.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sam Mirza (سام میرزا), better known by his dynastic name of Shah Safi (شاه صفی) was the sixth Safavid shah (king) of Iran, ruling from 1629 to 1642.
Saveh (translit, also transliterated as Sāwa) is a city & capital of Saveh County in Markazi Province of Iran.
Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).
The Shah Abbas Mosque was a 16th-century mosque in Ganja, Azerbaijan.
The Shah Mosque (مسجد شاه), also known as Royal Mosque or Imam Mosque after the Iranian Revolution, is a mosque in Isfahan, Iran, standing in south side of Naghsh-e Jahan Square.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque (مسجد شیخ لطف الله) is one of the architectural masterpieces of Iranian architecture that was built during the Safavid Empire, standing on the eastern side of Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Esfahan, Iran.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Simon II (სიმონ II), also known as Svimon or Semayun Khan (born c. early 1610s – died 1630), was a Persian-appointed king (actually, khan) of Kartli, eastern Georgia, from 1619 to 1630/1631.
Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi, better known by his dynastic name of Suleiman II (شاه سلیمان), was a Safavid pretender who managed to briefly become ruler of some parts of Iran from 1749 to 1750.
Sam Mirza (سام میرزا), later known by his first dynastic name of Safi II (شاه صفی), and thereafter known by his more famous second dynastic name of Suleiman I (شاه سلیمان), was the eighth Safavid shah (king) of Iran, ruling from 1 November 1666 to 29 July 1694.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tahmasp I (شاه تهماسب یکم) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty.
Teimuraz I (თეიმურაზ I) (1589–1661), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a Georgian monarch who ruled, with intermissions, as King of Kakheti from 1605 to 1648 and also of Kartli from 1625 to 1633.
The Cambridge History of Iran is a multi-volume survey of Iranian history published by Cambridge University Press.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Ottoman Empire the aftermath of the Treaty of Constantinople. The Treaty of Constantinople, also known as the Peace of Istanbul or the Treaty of Ferhad Pasha (Ferhat Paşa Antlaşması), was a treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire ending the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1578–1590.
Treaty of Nasuh Pasha (عهدنامه نصوح پاشا, Nasuh Paşa Antlaşması) was a treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia after the war of 1603–1612, signed on 20 November 1612.
A Turkish bath (hamam, translit) is a type of public bathing associated with the culture of the Ottoman Empire and more widely the Islamic world.
Twelfth Night, or What You WillUse of spelling, capitalization, and punctuation in the First Folio: "Twelfe Night, Or what you will" is a comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1601–1602 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment for the close of the Christmas season.
The Undiladze (უნდილაძე) were a Georgian noble family whose members rose in prominence in the service of Iran’s Safavid dynasty and dominated the Shah’s court at a certain period of the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Uzun Hasan or Uzun Hassan (1423 – January 6, 1478) (اوزون حسن, Uzun Həsən; Uzun Hasan, where uzun means "tall"; اوزون حسن) was the 9th shahanshah of the Oghuz Turkic Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, also known as the White Sheep Turkomans, and generally considered to be its strongest ruler.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Yakhan Begum (یاکهان بیگم) was a Karkiya princess, who was the daughter of the last Karkiya ruler Khan Ahmad Khan (r. 1538–1592), and the Safavid princess Maryam Begum.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
'Abbas I, Abbas I (Shah of Persia), Abbas I of Iran, Abbas I of Safavid, Abbas the Great, Abbās I, Pasha Abbas I, Shah Abassi, Shah Abbas I, Shah Abbas I the Great, Shah Abbas the Great, Shah ʿAbbas, Shah ʿAbbās, شاه عباس بزرگ.