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Index Abbot

Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. [1]

175 relations: Abbé, Abbé Pierre, Abbess, Abbey, Abbot (Buddhism), Abbot of Cluny, Abingdon Abbey, Abthain, Ancient Greek, Anglican Communion, Aramaic language, Arbroath Abbey, Archbishop of Canterbury, Archimandrite, Archpriest, Bardney Abbey, Basilica of St Denis, Battle Abbey, Benedict of Nursia, Benediction, Benefice, Bishop, Bishop of Norwich, Bury St Edmunds Abbey, Cambuskenneth Abbey, Canon (priest), Canon law, Canterbury, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Carthusians, Catherine the Great, Celibacy, Chair of St Augustine, Chaplain, Chapter (religion), Charlemagne, Christian monasticism, Christianity, Church of England, Cistercians, Clerical celibacy, Cluniac Reforms, Cluny Abbey, Codex Justinianus, Commendation ceremony, Commendatory abbot, Commissary, Concordat, Consuetudinary (book), Corpus Juris Civilis, ..., Councils of Clovesho, Coupar Angus Abbey, Courtesy title, Crosier, Crowland Abbey, Danse Macabre, Deacon, Dean (Christianity), Diocesan bishop, Diocese, Dunfermline Abbey, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiology, Egypt, Enthronement, Evangelical Church in Germany, Evesham Abbey, Feoffment, Feudalism, Fief, First Council of Constantinople, First Council of the Lateran, Francis I of France, French Revolution, Fulda monastery, Genoa, Gerald of Wales, Glastonbury Abbey, Gloucester Abbey, Hagiography, Hanover, Hegumen, Henry VIII of England, Heresy, Holy Land, Holyrood Abbey, Hugh Capet, Hyde Abbey, In commendam, Iona Abbey, John Cassian, Joseph Volotsky, Kelso Abbey, Kilwinning Abbey, Kinloss Abbey, Latin, Latrobe, Pennsylvania, Lay abbot, Leicester, Lindores Abbey, Loccum Abbey, Male, Malmesbury Abbey, Mauro-Giuseppe Lepori, Mediterranean Basin, Melrose Abbey, Mitre, Monastery, Monsignor, Nave, Office, Old English, Order of Saint Benedict, Ordination, Paisley Abbey, Parliament of Scotland, Patriarch of Antioch, Peterborough Cathedral, Philanthropy, Pilgrimage, Pontifical vestments, Pope Adrian IV, Pope Alexander II, Pope Gregory I, Pope Innocent IV, Pope Leo X, Primate (bishop), Prior, Ramsey Abbey, Reading Abbey, Redwall, Refectory, Religious order, Retinue, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne, Rome, Rule of Saint Benedict, Russia, RZA, Sacrament, Saint Vincent Archabbey, Sant'Anselmo all'Aventino, Scone Abbey, Second Council of Nicaea, Selby Abbey, Septuagint, Shrewsbury Abbey, Sinecure, Spirituality, St Albans Cathedral, St Andrews Cathedral Priory, St Augustine's Abbey, St Benet's Abbey, St Mary's Abbey, York, St. John's Abbey, Colchester, Staff of office, Sweetheart Abbey, Synod, Synods of Aachen (816–819), Syria, Tavistock Abbey, Territorial abbey, Thebaid, Thorney Abbey, Title, Tonsure, Trinity Abbey, Vendôme, Valaam Monastery, Vestry, Volokolamsk, Westminster Abbey, Widow, Winchcombe Abbey, Wu-Tang Clan. Expand index (125 more) »


Abbé (from Latin abbas, in turn from Greek ἀββᾶς, abbas, from Aramaic abba, a title of honour, literally meaning "the father, my father", emphatic state of abh, "father") is the French word for abbot.

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Abbé Pierre

Abbé Pierre, OFM Cap, (born Henri Marie Joseph Grouès; 5 August 1912 – 22 January 2007) was a French Catholic priest, member of the Resistance during World War II, and deputy of the Popular Republican Movement (MRP).

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In Christianity, an abbess (Latin abbatissa, feminine form of abbas, abbot) is the female superior of a community of nuns, which is often an abbey.

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An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess.

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Abbot (Buddhism)

In addition to its use in a Christian context, abbot is a term used in English-speaking countries for a monk who holds the position of administrator of a Buddhist monastery or large Buddhist temple.

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Abbot of Cluny

The Abbot of Cluny was the head of the powerful monastery of the Abbey of Cluny in medieval France.

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Abingdon Abbey

Abingdon Abbey was a Benedictine monastery also known as St Mary's Abbey located in Abingdon, historically in the county of Berkshire but now in Oxfordshire, England.

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Abthain (or abthane) is an English or Lowland Scots form of the middle-Latin word abthania (Gaelic abdhaine), meaning abbacy.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Arbroath Abbey

Arbroath Abbey, in the Scottish town of Arbroath, was founded in 1178 by King William the Lion for a group of Tironensian Benedictine monks from Kelso Abbey.

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Archbishop of Canterbury

The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.

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The title archimandrite (ἀρχιμανδρίτης archimandritis), primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic churches, originally referred to a superior abbot whom a bishop appointed to supervise several 'ordinary' abbots (each styled hegumenos) and monasteries, or to the abbot of some especially great and important monastery.

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An archpriest is an ecclesiastical title for certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes.

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Bardney Abbey

Bardney Abbey in Lincolnshire, England, was a Benedictine monastery founded in 697 by King Æthelred of Mercia, who was to become the first abbot.

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Basilica of St Denis

The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.

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Battle Abbey

Battle Abbey is a partially ruined Benedictine abbey in Battle, East Sussex, England.

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Benedict of Nursia

Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.

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A benediction (Latin: bene, well + dicere, to speak) is a short invocation for divine help, blessing and guidance, usually at the end of worship service.

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A benefice or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services.

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A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

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Bishop of Norwich

The Bishop of Norwich is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Norwich in the Province of Canterbury.

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Bury St Edmunds Abbey

The Abbey of Bury St Edmunds was once among the richest Benedictine monasteries in England, until the Dissolution of the monasteries in 1539.

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Cambuskenneth Abbey

Cambuskenneth Abbey is a ruined Augustinian monastery located on an area of land enclosed by a meander of the River Forth near Stirling in Scotland.

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Canon (priest)

A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.

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Canon law

Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.

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Cardinal (Catholic Church)

A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.

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The Carthusian Order (Ordo Cartusiensis), also called the Order of Saint Bruno, is a Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.

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Chair of St Augustine

The Chair of St Augustine or Cathedra Augustini (Latin) is the ceremonial enthronement chair of the Archbishop of Canterbury in Canterbury Cathedral, Kent.

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A chaplain is a cleric (such as a minister, priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam), or a lay representative of a religious tradition, attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, school, business, police department, fire department, university, or private chapel.

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Chapter (religion)

A chapter (capitulum or capitellum) is one of several bodies of clergy in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Nordic Lutheran churches or their gatherings.

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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Christian monasticism

Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.

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Clerical celibacy

Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religions that some or all members of the clergy be unmarried.

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Cluniac Reforms

The Cluniac Reforms (also called the Benedictine Reform) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor.

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Cluny Abbey

Cluny Abbey (formerly also Cluni, or Clugny) is a former Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.

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Codex Justinianus

The Codex Justinianus (Latin for "The Code of Justinian") is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople.

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Commendation ceremony

A commendation ceremony (commendatio) is a formal ceremony that evolved during the Early Medieval period to create a bond between a lord and his fighting man, called his vassal.

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Commendatory abbot

A commendatory abbot is an ecclesiastic, or sometimes a layman, who holds an abbey in commendam, drawing its revenues but not exercising any authority over its inner monastic discipline.

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A commissary is a government official charged with oversight or an ecclesiastical official who exercises in special circumstances the jurisdiction of a bishop.

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A concordat is a convention between the Holy See and a sovereign state that defines the relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in matters that concern both,René Metz, "What is Canon Law?" (New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960), pg.

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Consuetudinary (book)

A consuetudinary (Med. Lat. consuetudinarius) is the name given to a ritual book containing the consuetudines—forms and ceremonies—used in the service of a particular monastery, religious order, or cathedral.

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Corpus Juris Civilis

The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.

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Councils of Clovesho

The Councils of Clovesho or Clofesho were a series of synods attended by Anglo-Saxon kings, bishops, abbots and nobles in the 8th and 9th centuries.

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Coupar Angus Abbey

Coupar Angus Abbey was a Cistercian monastery near Coupar Angus, in central Scotland, on the boundary between Angus and Gowrie.

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Courtesy title

A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children of members of the nobility (c.f. substantive title).

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A crosier (also known as a crozier, paterissa, pastoral staff, or bishop's staff) is a stylized staff carried by high-ranking Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and some Lutheran, United Methodist and Pentecostal prelates.

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Crowland Abbey

Crowland Abbey (also spelled Croyland Abbey, Latin: Croilandia) is a Church of England parish church, formerly part of a Benedictine abbey church, in Crowland in the English county of Lincolnshire.

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Danse Macabre

The Danse Macabre (from the French language), also called the Dance of Death, is an artistic genre of allegory of the Late Middle Ages on the universality of death: no matter one's station in life, the Dance Macabre unites all.

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A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.

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Dean (Christianity)

A dean, in a church context, is a cleric holding certain positions of authority within a religious hierarchy.

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Diocesan bishop

A diocesan bishop, within various religious denominations, is a bishop (or archbishop) in pastoral charge of a(n arch)diocese (his (arch)bishopric), as opposed to a titular bishop or archbishop, whose see is only nominal, not pastoral.

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The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".

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Dunfermline Abbey

Dunfermline Abbey is a Church of Scotland Parish Church in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.

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Eastern Catholic Churches

The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of the Christian Church, the origins of Christianity, its relationship to Jesus, its role in salvation, its polity, its discipline, its destiny, and its leadership.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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An enthronement is a ceremony of inauguration, involving a person—usually a monarch or religious leader—being formally seated for the first time upon their throne.

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Evangelical Church in Germany

The Evangelical Church in Germany (Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated EKD) is a federation of twenty Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist) and United (Prussian Union) Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country.

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Evesham Abbey

Evesham Abbey was founded by Saint Egwin at Evesham in Worcestershire, England between 700 and 710 AD following an alleged vision of the Virgin Mary by a swineherd by the name of Eof.

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In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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First Council of Constantinople

The First Council of Constantinople (Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church,Richard Kieckhefer (1989).

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First Council of the Lateran

The Council of 1123 is reckoned in the series of Ecumenical councils by the Catholic Church.

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Francis I of France

Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Fulda monastery

Fulda Abbey, or the Princely Abbey of Fulda, or the Imperial Abbey of Fulda (German: Fürstabtei Fulda, Hochstift Fulda, Kloster Fulda) was a Benedictine abbey as well as an ecclesiastical principality centered on Fulda, in the present-day German state of Hesse.

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Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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Gerald of Wales

Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.

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Glastonbury Abbey

Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England.

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Gloucester Abbey

Gloucester Abbey was a Benedictine abbey in the city of Gloucester, England.

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A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.

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Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Hegumen, hegumenos, or igumen (ἡγούμενος, trans.) is the title for the head of a monastery in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, similar to the title of abbot.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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Holy Land

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

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Holyrood Abbey

Holyrood Abbey is a ruined abbey of the Canons Regular in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Hugh Capet

Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.

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Hyde Abbey

Hyde Abbey was a medieval Benedictine monastery just outside the walls of Winchester, Hampshire, England.

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In commendam

In canon law, commendam (or in commendam) was a form of transferring an ecclesiastical benefice in trust to the custody of a patron.

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Iona Abbey

Iona Abbey is located on the Isle of Iona, just off the Isle of Mull on the West Coast of Scotland.

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John Cassian

John Cassian (–), John the Ascetic, or John Cassian the Roman (Ioannes Eremita Cassianus, Ioannus Cassianus, or Ioannes Massiliensis), was a Christian monk and theologian celebrated in both the Western and Eastern Churches for his mystical writings.

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Joseph Volotsky

Joseph Volotsky — also known as Joseph of Volotsk or Joseph of Volokolamsk (Ио́сиф Во́лоцкий); secular name Ivan Sanin (Ива́н Са́нин) (1439 or 1440 – September 9, 1515) — was a prominent Russian theologian and early proponent of tsarist autocracy, who led the party defending monastic landownership.

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Kelso Abbey

Kelso Abbey is a ruined Scottish abbey in Kelso, Scotland.

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Kilwinning Abbey

Kilwinning Abbey is a ruined abbey located in the centre of the town of Kilwinning, North Ayrshire.

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Kinloss Abbey

Kinloss Abbey is a Cistercian abbey at Kinloss in the county of Moray, Scotland.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latrobe, Pennsylvania

Latrobe is a city in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania in the United States and part of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area.

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Lay abbot

Lay abbot (abbatocomes, abbas laicus, abbas miles) is a name used to designate a layman on whom a king or someone in authority bestowed an abbey as a reward for services rendered; he had charge of the estate belonging to it, and was entitled to part of the income.

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Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.

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Lindores Abbey

Lindores Abbey was a Tironensian abbey on the outskirts of Newburgh in Fife, Scotland.

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Loccum Abbey

Loccum Abbey (Kloster Loccum) is a Lutheran monastery in the town of Rehburg-Loccum, Lower Saxony, near Steinhude Lake.

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Malmesbury Abbey

Malmesbury Abbey, at Malmesbury in Wiltshire, England, is a religious house dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul.

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Mauro-Giuseppe Lepori

Mauro-Giuseppe Lepori O cist, born 1959 is since 2010 the Current General Abbot of the Common Observance.

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Mediterranean Basin

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

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Melrose Abbey

St Mary's Abbey, Melrose is a partly ruined monastery of the Cistercian order in Melrose, Roxburghshire, in the Scottish Borders.

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The mitre (British English) (Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.

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A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Monsignor is an honorific form of address for those members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church including bishops, honorary prelates and canons.

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The nave is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church (whether aisled or not) between its rear wall and the far end of its intersection with the transept at the chancel.

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An office is generally a room or other area where administrative work is done by an organization's users in order to support and realize objects and goals of the organization.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Order of Saint Benedict

The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.

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Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.

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Paisley Abbey

Paisley Abbey is a former Cluniac monastery, and current Church of Scotland Protestant parish kirk, located on the east bank of the White Cart Water in the centre of the town of Paisley, Renfrewshire, about west of Glasgow, in Scotland.

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Parliament of Scotland

The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.

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Patriarch of Antioch

Patriarch of Antioch is a traditional title held by the Bishop of Antioch.

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Peterborough Cathedral

Peterborough Cathedral, properly the Cathedral Church of St Peter, St Paul and St Andrew – also known as Saint Peter's Cathedral in the United Kingdom – is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Peterborough, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the three high gables of the famous West Front.

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Philanthropy means the love of humanity.

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A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.

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Pontifical vestments

Pontifical vestments, also referred to as episcopal vestments or pontificals, are the liturgical vestments worn by bishops (and by concession some other prelates) in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and some Lutheran churches, in addition to the usual priestly vestments for the celebration of the Mass and the other sacraments.

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Pope Adrian IV

Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.

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Pope Alexander II

Pope Alexander II (1010/1015 – 21 April 1073), born Anselm of Baggio (Anselmo da Baggio), was Pope from 30 September 1061 to his death in 1073.

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Pope Gregory I

Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.

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Pope Innocent IV

Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.

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Pope Leo X

Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.

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Primate (bishop)

Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.

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Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", (or prioress for nuns) is an ecclesiastical title for a superior, usually lower in rank than an abbot or abbess.

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Ramsey Abbey

Ramsey Abbey was a Benedictine abbey in Ramsey, Huntingdonshire (now part of Cambridgeshire), England.

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Reading Abbey

Reading Abbey is a large, ruined abbey in the centre of the town of Reading, in the English county of Berkshire.

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Redwall is a series of children's fantasy novels by Brian Jacques.

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A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions.

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Religious order

A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion, usually characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice.

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A retinue is a body of persons "retained" in the service of a noble, royal personage, or dignitary, a suite (literal French meaning: what follows) of "retainers".

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne

The Archdiocese of Cologne (Archidioecesis Coloniensis; Erzbistum Köln) is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rule of Saint Benedict

The Rule of Saint Benedict (Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Robert Fitzgerald Diggs (born July 5, 1969), better known by his stage name RZA, is an American rapper, record producer, musician, actor, filmmaker and author.

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A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.

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Saint Vincent Archabbey

Saint Vincent Archabbey, is a Roman Catholic Benedictine Monastery in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania in the city of Latrobe.

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Sant'Anselmo all'Aventino

Sant'Anselmo all'Aventino (Italian:St Anselm on the Aventine) is a Roman Catholic church, monastery and college located on Cavalieri di Malta Square on the Aventine Hill in Rome's Ripa rione.

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Scone Abbey

Scone Abbey (originally Scone Priory) was a house of Augustinian canons located in Scone, Perthshire (Gowrie), Scotland.

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Second Council of Nicaea

The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church.

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Selby Abbey

Selby Abbey is an Anglican parish church in the town of Selby, North Yorkshire, England.

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The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Shrewsbury Abbey

The Abbey Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Shrewsbury (commonly known as Shrewsbury Abbey) is an ancient foundation in Shrewsbury, the county town of Shropshire, England.

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A sinecure (from Latin sine.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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St Albans Cathedral

St Albans Cathedral, sometimes called the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban, and referred to locally as "the Abbey", is a Church of England cathedral in St Albans, England.

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St Andrews Cathedral Priory

St Andrews Cathedral Priory was a priory of Augustinian canons in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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St Augustine's Abbey

St Augustine's Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in Canterbury, Kent, England.

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St Benet's Abbey

St Benet's Abbey was a medieval monastery of the Order of Saint Benedict, also known as St Benet's at Holme or Hulme.

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St Mary's Abbey, York

The Abbey of St Mary is a ruined Benedictine abbey in York, England and a Grade I listed building.

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St. John's Abbey, Colchester

St John's Abbey, also called Colchester Abbey,Ashdown-Hill, John (2009) Mediaeval Colchester's Lost Landmarks.

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Staff of office

A staff of office is a staff, the carrying of which often denotes an official's position, a social rank or a degree of social prestige.

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Sweetheart Abbey

The Abbey of Dulce Cor, better known as Sweetheart Abbey (Gd: An Abaid Ur), or New Abbey Pow, was a Cistercian monastery founded in 1275 in what is now the town of New Abbey, Dumfries and Galloway, south of Dumfries, near to the Nith in south-west Scotland.

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A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.

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Synods of Aachen (816–819)

The Synods of Aachen between 816 and 819 were a landmark in regulations for the monastic life in the Frankish realm.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tavistock Abbey

Tavistock Abbey, also known as the Abbey of Saint Mary and Saint Rumon, is a ruined Benedictine abbey in Tavistock, Devon.

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Territorial abbey

A territorial abbey (or territorial abbacy) is a particular church of the Catholic Church comprising defined territory which is not part of a diocese but surrounds an abbey or monastery whose abbot or superior functions as ordinary for all Catholics and parishes in the territory.

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The Thebaid or Thebais (Θηβαΐς, Thēbaïs) was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.

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Thorney Abbey

Thorney Abbey, now the Church of St Mary and St Botolph, was a medieval monastic house established on the island of Thorney in The Fens of Cambridgeshire, England.

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A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts.

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Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.

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Trinity Abbey, Vendôme

Trinity Abbey, Vendôme, was a Benedictine monastery founded in 1035 in Vendôme by Geoffrey Martel and his first wife, Agnes of Burgundy.

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Valaam Monastery

The Valaam Monastery, or Valamo Monastery is a stauropegic Orthodox monastery in Russian Karelia, located on Valaam, the largest island in Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe.

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A vestry was a committee for the local secular and ecclesiastical government for a parish in England and Wales, which originally met in the vestry or sacristy of the parish church, and consequently became known colloquially as the "vestry".

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Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск) is a town and the administrative center of Volokolamsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Gorodenka River, not far from its confluence with the Lama River, northwest of Moscow.

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Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.

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A widow is a woman whose spouse has died and a widower is a man whose spouse has died.

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Winchcombe Abbey

Winchcombe Abbey is a now-vanished Benedictine abbey in Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, this abbey was once in the capital of Mercia, an Anglo Saxon kingdom at the time of the Heptarchy in England.

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Wu-Tang Clan

Wu-Tang Clan is an American hip hop group from Staten Island, New York City, originally composed of East Coast rappers RZA, GZA, Ol' Dirty Bastard, Method Man, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, Inspectah Deck, U-God and Masta Killa.

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Abbacie, Abbacies, Abbas castrensis, Abbas palatinus, Abbas populi, Abbatial blessing, AbboT, Abbot Primate, Abbot-General, Abbotcy, Abbots, Abbotship, Arch-abbot, Archabbot.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbot

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