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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

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Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph. [1]

102 relations: Aban ibn al-Walid ibn Uqba, Abbasid Caliphate, Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan, Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik, Abu Qubays, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, Al-Mansur, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Masudi, Al-Sinnabra, Al-Tabari, Al-Walid I, Anatolia, Aniconism in Islam, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Armenia, Atikah bint Yazid, Atlas Mountains, Basra, Battle of Carthage (698), Battle of Mamma, Battle of Maskin, Battle of Sebastopolis, Beit She'an, Berbers, Byzantine Empire, Caliphate, Carthage, Catapult, Ceuta, Christian, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Cilicia, Cyprus, Cyrenaica, Damascus, Dihya, Dome of the Rock, Egypt, Elaiussa Sebaste, Fiqh, Foundation Stone, Gold dinar, Hajj, Hasan ibn al-Nu'man, Hejaz, ..., Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Ibn Khaldun, Ifriqiya, Iraq, Jerusalem, John Bagot Glubb, Justinian II, Kaaba, Kairouan, Khawarij, Kufa, Kusaila, Lebanon, Leontios, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Caliphs, Maghreb, Maronite Church, Marwan, Marwan I, Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, Mecca, Medina, Mosque, Muawiya II, Musa bin Nusayr, North Africa, Nubians, Official language, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Palestine Exploration Fund, Raja ibn Haywah, Sahabah, Sahn, Salih ibn Ali, Second Fitna, Shia Islam, Slavs, Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, Sulusaray, Syria, Ta'if, Tabarka, Tiberios III, Tunis, Turkestan, Umar, Umar II, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Darda as Sughra, Wasit, Iraq, Yazid II. Expand index (52 more) »

Aban ibn al-Walid ibn Uqba

Aban ibn al-Walid ibn Uqba was a member of the Umayyad family who served as governor of Hims, Qinnasrin (with the Jazira) and Armenia for the caliphs Marwan I (r. 684–685) and Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705).

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Marwān (عبد العزيز بن مروان; died 705) was the Umayyad governor and de facto viceroy of Egypt between 685 and his death.

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Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ashʿath (عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن الأشعث), commonly known as Ibn al-Ashʿath after his grandfather, was a distinguished Arab nobleman and general under the early Umayyad Caliphate, most notable for leading a failed rebellion against the Umayyad viceroy of the east, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, in 700–703.

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Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr

`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (عبد الله بن الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr.

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Abdallah ibn Abd al-Malik

ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān (in Greek sources Ἀβδελᾶς, Abdelas) was an Umayyad prince, the son of Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (r. 685–705), a general and governor of Egypt.

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Abu Qubays

Abu Qubays (أبو قبيس also spelled Abu Qobeis, Abu Qubais or Bu Kubais; also known as Qartal) is a former medieval castle and currently an inhabited village in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located northwest of Hama.

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Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf

Abū Muhammad al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥakam ibn ʿAqīl al-Thaqafī (أبو محمد الحجاج بن يوسف بن الحكم بن عقيل الثقفي; Ta'if 661 – Wasit, 714), known simply as al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf (الحجاج بن يوسف / ALA: (or otherwise transliterated), was perhaps the most notable governor who served the Umayyad Caliphate. An extremely capable though ruthless statesman, a strict in character, but also a harsh and demanding master, he was widely feared by his contemporaries and became a deeply controversial figure and an object of deep-seated enmity among later, pro-Abbasid writers, who ascribed to him persecutions and mass executions.

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Al-Mansur

Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.

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Al-Maqdisi

Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).

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Al-Masudi

Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.

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Al-Sinnabra

Al-Sinnabra or Sinn en-Nabra, is the Arabic place name for a historic site on the southern shore of the Sea of Galilee in modern-day Israel.

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Al-Tabari

Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.

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Al-Walid I

Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (الوليد بن عبد الملك) or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Aniconism in Islam

Aniconism is a proscription in Islam against the creation of images of sentient beings.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Atikah bint Yazid

Atikah bint Yazid was an Umayyad princess.

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Atlas Mountains

The Atlas Mountains (jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb.

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Basra

Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.

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Battle of Carthage (698)

The Battle of Carthage was fought in 698 between a Byzantine expeditionary force and the armies of the fifth Umayyad Caliphate.

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Battle of Mamma

The Battle of Mamma took place in 690 between the Arab Muslim forces of the Umayyad Caliphate and the Berbers of king Caecilius.

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Battle of Maskin

The Battle of Maskin (معركة مسكن), also known as Battle of Dayr al-Jathaliq (معركة دير الجثاليق) from a nearby Nestorian monastery, was a decisive battle of the Second Islamic Civil War (680s-690s), fought near Baghdad on the western bank of the river Tigris between the army of the Umayyads under Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and the forces of Mus'ab ibn al-Zubayr, governor of Iraq for his brother, the Meccan anti-Caliph Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr.

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Battle of Sebastopolis

The Battle of Sebastopolis was fought at Sebastopolis (mostly identified with Elaiussa Sebaste in Cilicia but also with modern Sulusaray) in 692 between the Byzantine Empire and Umayyads under the caliphate of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.

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Beit She'an

Beit She'an (בֵּית שְׁאָן; بيسان,, Beisan or Bisan), is a city in the Northern District of Israel which has played an important role in history due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley.

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Berbers

Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Catapult

A catapult is a ballistic device used to launch a projectile a great distance without the aid of explosive devices—particularly various types of ancient and medieval siege engines.

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Ceuta

Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Cilicia

In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.

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Cyprus

Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Cyrenaica

Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.

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Damascus

Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Dihya

Dihya or Kahina (Berber: Daya Ult Yenfaq Tajrawt, ⴷⵉⵀⵢⴰ Dihya, or ⴷⴰⵎⵢⴰ Damya) was a Berber warrior queen and a religious and military leader who led indigenous resistance to the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the region then known as Numidia.

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Dome of the Rock

The Dome of the Rock (قبة الصخرة Qubbat al-Sakhrah, כיפת הסלע Kippat ha-Sela) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elaiussa Sebaste

Elaiussa Sebaste or Elaeousa Sebaste (Ελαιούσα Σεβαστή) was an ancient Roman town located from Mersin in the direction of Silifke in Cilicia on the southern coast of Anatolia (in modern-day Turkey).

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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Foundation Stone

The Foundation Stone (אבן השתייה Even ha-Shtiyya or סֶּלַע‏ Selā‛, صخرة Sakhrah "Rock") is the name of the rock at the centre of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.

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Gold dinar

The gold dinar (ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي) is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 (696–697 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.

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Hajj

The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Hasan ibn al-Nu'man

Hasan ibn an-Nu`uman al-Ghasani (حسان بن النعمان الغساني Hasān ibn an-Nu‘umān al-Ghasānī) (d. c. 700), amir (general) of the Umayyad army in North Africa.

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Hejaz

The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.

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Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik

Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.

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Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

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Ifriqiya

Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Jerusalem

Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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John Bagot Glubb

Lieutenant-General Sir John Bagot Glubb, KCB, CMG, DSO, OBE, MC, KStJ, KPM (16 April 1897 – 17 March 1986), known as Glubb Pasha, was a British soldier, scholar and author, who led and trained Transjordan's Arab Legion between 1939 and 1956 as its commanding general.

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Justinian II

Justinian II (Ἰουστινιανός Β΄, Ioustinianos II; Flavius Iustinianus Augustus; 668 – 11 December 711), surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus (ὁ Ῥινότμητος, "the slit-nosed"), was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711.

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Kaaba

The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

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Kairouan

Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.

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Khawarij

The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.

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Kufa

Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.

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Kusaila

Caecilius (Berber: ⴰⴾⵙⵉⵍ, Aksil or Aksel, Latin: Caecilius, Arabic: Kusailaarticle by Modéran cited below), his name means "leopard" in the Berber language, died in the year 690 AD fighting Muslim invaders, was a 7th-century Berber Christian king of the kingdom of Altava and leader of the Awraba tribe of the Imazighen and possibly Christian King of the Sanhadja confederation.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Leontios

Leontios (or Leontius) (Λεόντιος, Leontius Augustus) (d. 15 February 706) was Byzantine emperor from 695 to 698.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of Caliphs

This is a list of people who have held the title of Caliph, the supreme religious and political leader of an Islamic state known as the Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, as the political successors to Muhammad.

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Maghreb

The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

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Maronite Church

The Maronite Church (الكنيسة المارونية) is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.

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Marwan

Marwan (also spelled Maruan, Marouane, Merouane, Mervan, or Merwan, مروان) is an Arabic male name.

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Marwan I

Marwān ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling for less than a year in 684–685, and founder of its Marwanid ruling house, which remained in power until 750.

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Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik

Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik (in Greek sources Μασαλμᾶς, Masalmas) was an Umayyad prince and one of the most prominent Arab generals of the early decades of the 8th century, leading several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and the Khazar Khaganate.

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Mecca

Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Medina

Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.

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Mosque

A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Muawiya II

Muawiya II or Muawiya ibn Yazid (Mu‘āwiyah ibn Yazīd; 664–684 CE) succeeded his father Yazid I as the third Umayyad caliph and last caliph of the Sufyanid line.

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Musa bin Nusayr

Musa bin Nusayr (موسى بن نصير Mūsá bin Nuṣayr; 640–716) served as a governor and general under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I. He ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania (Spain, Portugal, Andorra and part of France).

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Nubians

Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.

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Palestine Exploration Fund

The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.

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Raja ibn Haywah

Raja ibn Haywah al-Kindi was a leading Islamic jurist and Arabic calligraphist from Baysan who is probably best known as the artist most likely responsible for the detailed inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which was completed in 692.

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Sahabah

The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Sahn

A sahn, (صحن), is a courtyard in Islamic architecture.

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Salih ibn Ali

Salih ibn Ali ibn Abdallah ibn al-Abbas (711–769 CE) was a member of the Abbasid dynasty who served as general and governor in Syria and Egypt.

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Second Fitna

The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. Historians date its start variously as 680 AD and its end as being somewhere between 685 and 692.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Slavs

Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik

Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (سليمان بن عبد الملك) (c. 674 – 22 September 717) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717.

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Sulusaray

Sulusaray or Çiftlik, in Antiquity and the early Middle Ages known as Sebastopolis (Σεβαστούπολις) or Heracleopolis (Ἡρακλειούπολις), is a town and a district of Tokat Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Ta'if

Ta'if (الطائف) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of on the slopes of Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains).

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Tabarka

Tabarka (طبرقة, Berber: Tbarga or Tabarka, Phoenician: Ṭabarqa, Latin: Thabraca, Θαύβρακα in Ancient Greek also called Tbarga by locals) is a coastal town located in north-western Tunisia, at about, close to the border with Algeria.

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Tiberios III

Tiberius III (Τιβέριος Γʹ, Tiberios III; Tiberius Augustus; 15 February 706)Kazhdan, pg.

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Tunis

Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Turkestan

Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.

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Umar

Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.

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Umar II

Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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Umm Darda as Sughra

Umm al Darda as Sughra al Dimashqiyyah or Umm al Darda the Younger, was a 7th-century jurist and scholar of Islam in Damascus and Jerusalem.

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Wasit, Iraq

Wasit (واسط) is a place in Wasit Governorate, south east of Kut in eastern Iraq.

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Yazid II

Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 – 26 January 724) (يزيد بن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724.

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Redirects here:

'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abd Al-Mallik Ibn Marwan, Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan, Abd-al-malik, Abd-ul-malik, Abdu l-Malik ibn Marwan, Abdul Malik bin Marwan, Abdul Malik ibn Marwan, Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan, Caliph Abdalmelic, ʿAbdu l-Malik ibn Marwan, ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, ‘Abdu l-Malik ibn Marwan.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abd_al-Malik_ibn_Marwan

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