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The A499 road is the major road of the Llŷn peninsula in North Wales.
Aberdaron is a community, electoral ward and former fishing village at the western tip of the Llŷn Peninsula (Penrhyn Llŷn) in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
Abersoch is a village in the community of Llanengan in Gwynedd, Wales.
Aberystwyth (Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre, and holiday resort within Ceredigion, West Wales, often colloquially known as Aber.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The post of Archbishop of Wales was created in 1920 when the Church in Wales was separated from the Church of England (of which the four Welsh dioceses had previously been part), and disestablished.
Armeria maritima, commonly known as thrift, sea thrift or sea pink, is a species of flowering plant in the family Plumbaginaceae.
Arriva Buses Wales (Bysiau Arriva Cymru) is a bus operator providing services in North Wales and Chester.
Arriva Trains Wales (Trenau Arriva Cymru) (ATW) is a British train operating company owned by Arriva UK Trains that operates the Wales & Borders franchise.
Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is a herring in the family Clupeidae.
The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), also known as Boston mackerel, Norwegian mackerel, Scottish mackerel or just mackerel, is a species of mackerel found in the temperate waters of the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the northern Atlantic Ocean, where it is extremely common and occurs in huge shoals in the pelagic zone down to about.
The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family.
The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century, and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St.
B roads are numbered routes in Great Britain of lesser importance than A roads.
Bangor University (Prifysgol Bangor) is a university in Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
Bangor is a city in Gwynedd, northwest Wales.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Bardsey Island (Ynys Enlli), known as the legendary "Island of 20,000 Saints", lies off the Llŷn Peninsula in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.
Barry Cennydd Morgan (born 31 January 1947) is a Welsh Anglican bishop and academic.
Basal-cell carcinoma (BCC), also known as basal-cell cancer, is the most common type of skin cancer.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae.
Bodferin is a former civil parish in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
Bodyboarding is a water sport in which the surfer rides a bodyboard on the crest, face, and curl of a wave which is carrying the surfer towards the shore.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Botwnnog is a village and community in Gwynedd in Wales, located on the Llŷn Peninsula west-north-west of Abersoch.
Boulder clay, in geology, is a deposit of clay, often full of boulders, which is formed out of the ground moraine material of glaciers and ice-sheets wherever they are found.
Brenda Irene Chamberlain (17 March 1912 – 11 July 1971) was a Welsh artist, poet and novelist.
The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brownhills is a town in the West Midlands, England.
Bryncroes is a hamlet and former civil parish in Gwynedd in Wales, and lies on the Llŷn Peninsula approximately 2 km west of Sarn Mellteyrn.
Caernarfon is a royal town, community, and port in Gwynedd, Wales, with a population of 9,615.
Caernarfon was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Caernarfon in Wales.
Caernarfonshire (Sir Gaernarfon), historically spelled as Caernarvonshire or Carnarvonshire in English, is one of the thirteen historic counties, a vice-county and a former administrative county of Wales.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Calluna vulgaris (known as common heather, ling, or simply heather) is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae.
Calvinistic Methodists were born out of the Methodist Revival in 18th-century Wales and survive as a body of Christians now forming the Presbyterian Church of Wales.
The Cambrian Line (Welsh: Rheilffordd y Cambrian) is a railway that runs from Shrewsbury (in Shropshire, England) to Aberystwyth (in Ceredigion) and Pwllheli (in Gwynedd), both on the west coast of Wales.
The Cambrian News is a weekly newspaper distributed in Wales.
A campsite or camping pitch is a place used for overnight stay in an outdoor area.
The ancient Welsh cantref of Llŷn in north-west Wales was part of the kingdom of Gwynedd for much of its history until it was included in the new county of Caernarfonshire, together with Arfon and Arllechwedd under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Cardigan Bay (Bae Ceredigion) is a large inlet of the Irish Sea, indenting the west coast of Wales between Bardsey Island, Gwynedd in the north, and Strumble Head, Pembrokeshire at its southern end.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christine Evans (born 1943) is a British poet who was born in West Riding, Yorkshire, and lives in North Wales.
The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses.
The Church of St Hywyn, Aberdaron, Gwynedd, Wales is a parish church dating from the 12th century.
In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority.
Clinker built (also known as lapstrake) is a method of boat building where the edges of hull planks overlap each other, called a "land" or "landing." In craft of any size shorter planks can be joined end to end into a longer strake or hull plank.
Sir Bertram Clough Williams-Ellis, CBE, MC (28 May 1883 – 9 April 1978) was a British architect known chiefly as the creator of the Italianate village of Portmeirion in North Wales.
Clwyd is a preserved county of Wales, situated in the north-east corner of the country; it is named after the River Clwyd, which runs through the county.
The common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is a bird of prey species belonging to the kestrel group of the falcon family Falconidae.
The common ling (Molva molva), also known as the white ling or simply the ling, is a large member of the family Lotidae, a group of cod-like fishes.
The common murre or common guillemot (Uria aalge) is a large auk.
A commote (Welsh cwmwd, sometimes spelt in older documents as cymwd, plural cymydau, less frequently cymydoedd),Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (University of Wales Dictionary), p. 643 was a secular division of land in Medieval Wales.
A community (cymuned) is a division of land in Wales that forms the lowest tier of local government in Wales.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Conwy ((south), (north); traditionally known in English as Conway) is a walled market town and community in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales.
A cove is a small type of bay or coastal inlet.
Dafydd Elis-Thomas, Baron Elis-Thomas, PC (born 18 October 1946) is a Welsh politician, representing the Dwyfor Meirionnydd constituency in the National Assembly for Wales.
Dafydd Nanmor (fl. 1450 – 1490) was a Welsh language poet born at Nanmor (or Nantmor), in Gwynedd, north-west Wales.(Cymru) He is one of the most significant poets of this period.
Deheubarth (lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia).
Dic Aberdaron (Richard Robert Jones) (1780–1843), also known as Dick of Aberdaron, was a Welsh traveller and polyglot.
Dilys Cadwaladr (19 March 1902 – January 1979) was a Welsh-language poet and fiction writer.
Distribution network operators (DNOs) are companies licensed to distribute electricity in Great Britain by the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets.
Domestic ducks are ducks that are raised for meat, eggs and down.
Domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus or Anser cygnoides domesticus) are domesticated grey geese (either greylag geese or swan geese) that are kept by humans as poultry for their meat, eggs, and down feathers since ancient times.
Dragoons originally were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility but dismounted to fight on foot.
Dwyfor was one of the five local government districts of Gwynedd, Wales from 1974 to 1996, covering the Llŷn peninsula.
Dwyfor Meirionnydd is a constituency of the National Assembly for Wales, created for the 2007 Assembly election.
Dwyfor Meirionnydd is a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (at Westminster).
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Efailnewydd is a village on the Llŷn Peninsula (Welsh: Penrhyn Llŷn) in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
In Welsh culture, an eisteddfod (plural eisteddfodau) is a Welsh festival of literature, music and performance.
The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales.
Elfyn Llwyd (born 26 September 1951) is a Welsh barrister and politician.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Estyn is the education and training inspectorate for Wales.
The European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a primarily ocean-going fish native to the waters off Europe's western and southern and Africa's northern coasts, though it can also be found in shallow coastal waters and river mouths during the summer months.
The European conger (Conger conger) is a species of conger of the family Congridae.
The European shag or common shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) is a species of cormorant.
The European stonechat (Saxicola rubicola) is a small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a subspecies of the common stonechat.
A fairy (also fata, fay, fey, fae, fair folk; from faery, faerie, "realm of the fays") is a type of mythical being or legendary creature in European folklore, a form of spirit, often described as metaphysical, supernatural, or preternatural.
Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together.
Fflur Dafydd is an award-winning novelist, singer/songwriter and musician.
Fishguard (Abergwaun, meaning "Mouth of the River Gwaun") is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, south-west Wales, with a population of 3,419 recorded in the 2011 Census.
A fishing village is a village, usually located near a fishing ground, with an economy based on catching fish and harvesting seafood.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fulling, also known as tucking or walking (spelt waulking in Scotland), is a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to eliminate oils, dirt, and other impurities, and making it thicker.
Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue.
The Gangani (Γαγγανοι) were a people of ancient Ireland who are referred to in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography as living in the south-west of the island, probably near the mouth of the River Shannon, between the Auteini to the north and the Uellabori to the south.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), known as the great black cormorant across the Northern Hemisphere, the black cormorant in Australia, the large cormorant in India and the black shag further south in New Zealand, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds.
A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill or flour mill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.
Gruffudd ap Cynan (c. 1055 – 1137), sometimes written as Gruffydd ap Cynan, was King of Gwynedd from 1081 until his death in 1137.
Gruffydd ap Rhys (c. 1081 – 1137)http://www.mathematical.com/gruffyddgwenllian1085.html was King of Deheubarth, in Wales.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Gwynedd is a county in Wales, sharing borders with Powys, Conwy, Anglesey over the Menai Strait, and Ceredigion over the River Dyfi.
Gwynedd Council (Cyngor Gwynedd) is the governing body for the principal area of Gwynedd, one of the subdivisions of Wales within the United Kingdom.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Her Majesty's Coastguard (HMCG) is a section of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency responsible for the initiation and co-ordination of all maritime search and rescue (SAR) within the UK Maritime Search and Rescue Region.
A heritage coast is a strip of coastline in England and Wales, the extent of which is defined by agreement between the relevant statutory national agency and the relevant local authority.
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.
Hillforts in Britain refers to the various hillforts within the island of Great Britain.
In archeology, a hut circle is a circular or oval depression in the ground with evidence of a low stone wall around it that used to be the foundation of a round house.
Iberdrola is a Spanish public multinational electric utility company based in Bilbao, Basque Country.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
The Inclosure Acts were a series of Acts of Parliament that empowered enclosure of open fields and common land in England and Wales, creating legal property rights to land that was previously held in common.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to determine the cause of a person's death.
Irish Travellers (an lucht siúil, meaning 'the walking people') are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group who maintain a set of traditions.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,Kostov, R. I. 2010.
Kayaking is the use of a kayak for moving across water.
Keep Wales Tidy is a Welsh national voluntary environmental charity which works towards achieving "a clean, safe and tidy Wales".
A kettle (kettle hole, pothole) is a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Medieval Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to the Roman Empire that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leinster (— Laighin / Cúige Laighean — /) is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland.
Lewys Daron (fl. c. 1495 - c. 1530) was a Welsh-language professional poet from the Llŷn area of Gwynedd, Wales.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
A lime kiln is a kiln used for the calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate) to produce the form of lime called quicklime (calcium oxide).
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
The Liverpool Post was a newspaper published by Trinity Mirror in Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
Llanbedrog is a village and community on the Llŷn peninsula of Gwynedd in Wales.
Llandudno is a seaside resort, town and community in Conwy County Borough, Wales, located on the Creuddyn peninsula, which protrudes into the Irish Sea.
Llanfaelrhys is a village and former civil parish in the Welsh county of Gwynedd, located on the Llŷn Peninsula.
Llangwnnadl is a village and former civil parish in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
Llaniestyn is a village and former civil parish in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
The Llŷn Peninsula (Penrhyn Llŷn or italic) extends into the Irish Sea from north west Wales, south west of the Isle of Anglesey.
Lobsters are widely fished around the world for their meat.
Local boards or local boards of health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894.
The Local Government Act 1894 (56 & 57 Vict. c. 73) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales outside the County of London.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Machynlleth, sometimes referred to colloquially as Mach, is a market town, community and electoral ward in Powys, Wales and within the historic boundaries of Montgomeryshire (Sir Drefaldwyn).
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae.
A Marilyn is a mountain or hill in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland or Isle of Man with a prominence of at least 150 metres (492 ft), regardless of absolute height or other merit.
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Merseyside Maritime Museum is a museum based in the city of Liverpool, Merseyside, England, UK.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Methodist Church of Great Britain is the fourth-largest Christian denomination in Britain and the mother church to Methodists worldwide.
Mid and West Wales is an electoral region of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of eight constituencies.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mordred or Modred (Medrawt) is a character in the Arthurian legend, known as a notorious traitor who fought King Arthur at the Battle of Camlann, where he was killed and Arthur was fatally wounded.
The mullets or grey mullets are a family (Mugilidae) of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and some species in fresh water.
Mynytho is a small village in the parish of Llangian near the southern coast of the Llŷn Peninsula in north-west Wales.
The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru; commonly known as the Welsh Assembly) is a devolved parliament with power to make legislation in Wales.
National Assembly for Wales constituencies and electoral regions were first used for the 1999 elections.
The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh: Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru) is the most important of several eisteddfodau that are held annually, mostly in Wales.
The National Library of Wales (Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru), Aberystwyth, is the national legal deposit library of Wales and is one of the Welsh Government sponsored bodies.
Some statutory nature reserves are designated by national bodies in the United Kingdom, and are known as national nature reserves.
A National school was a school founded in 19th-century England and Wales by the National Society for Promoting Religious Education.
The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.
Nefyn is a small town and community on the north west coast of the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd, Wales.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales.
The North Wales Fire and Rescue Service (Gwasanaeth Tân ac Achub Gogledd Cymru) is the fire and rescue service covering the predominantly rural principal areas of Anglesey, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd and Wrexham in the north of Wales.
North Wales Police (Heddlu Gogledd Cymru) is the territorial police force responsible for policing North Wales.
The North Wales Weekly News is one of a group of newspapers published weekly in Llandudno.
The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Ordnance Survey (OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Penllech is a village and former civil parish in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
A picnic is a meal taken outdoors (''al fresco'') as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theatre performance, and usually in summer.
Pillow lavas are lavas that contain characteristic pillow-shaped structures that are attributed to the extrusion of the lava under water, or subaqueous extrusion.
Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for Welsh independence from the United Kingdom within the European Union.
Plas yn Rhiw is an early 17th-century manor house in Y Rhiw, Gwynedd in northwestern Wales.
Pollachius pollachius (Atlantic or European pollock) is a species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus.
The saithe, (Pollachius virens) is a species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus.
The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey.
Porth Neigwl, also known in English as "Hell's Mouth", is a broad bay, about 3 miles (5 km) wide, on the south coast of the Llŷn Peninsula in North Wales.
Porthmadog, known locally as "Port", is a small coastal town and community in the Eifionydd area of Gwynedd, in Wales.
Portmeirion is a tourist village in Gwynedd, North Wales.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
The preserved counties of Wales are the current areas used in Wales for the ceremonial purposes of lieutenancy and shrievalty.
The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales is the Speaker of the National Assembly for Wales, elected by the Members of the National Assembly for Wales to chair their meetings (plenary sessions); to maintain order; and to protect the rights of Members.
Primary education in Wales has a similar structure to Primary education in England, but teaching of the Welsh language is compulsory and it is used as the medium of instruction in many schools.
A prison ship, often more precisely described as a prison hulk, is a current or former seagoing vessel that has been modified to become a place of substantive detention for convicts, prisoners of war or civilian internees.
In British and Irish company law, a company limited by guarantee (LBG) is an alternative type of corporation used primarily for non-profit organisations that require legal personality.
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pwllheli is a community and the main market town of the Llŷn Peninsula (Penrhyn Llŷn) in Gwynedd, north-western Wales.
Pwllheli railway station is a railway station serving the small coastal town of Pwllheli on the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd, Wales.
The courts of quarter sessions or quarter sessions were local courts traditionally held at four set times each year in the Kingdom of England (including Wales) from 1388 until 1707, then in 18th-century Great Britain, in the later United Kingdom, and in other dominions of the British Empire.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
Ronald Stuart Thomas (29 March 1913 – 25 September 2000), published as R. S. Thomas, was a Welsh poet and Anglican priest who was noted for his nationalism, spirituality and deep dislike of the anglicisation of Wales.
The razorbill (Alca torda) is a colonial seabird that comes to land only to breed.
Recreational fishermen usually fish either from a boat or from a shoreline or river bank.
The red-billed chough, Cornish chough or simply chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax.
A regatta is a series of boat races.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
Ignatius Royston Dunnachie Campbell, better known as Roy Campbell, (2 October 1901 – 23 April 1957) was a South African poet and satirist.
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.
The rutabaga (from Swedish dialectal word rotabagge), swede (from Swedish turnip, being introduced from Sweden), or neep (from its Latin name Brassica napobrassica) is a root vegetable that originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip.
Saint Cadfan (Catamanus), sometimes Anglicized as Gideon, was the 6th century founder-abbot of Tywyn (whose church is dedicated to him) and Bardsey, both in Gwynedd, Wales.
Maelrhys is honoured as a saint on Bardsey Island in Wales.
Samson (Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.
Sarn Meyllteyrn is a village and former civil parish (known at the time as Mellteyrn) in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
A school meal or school lunch (also known as hot lunch, a school dinner, or school breakfast) is a meal provided to students at school, typically in the middle or beginning of the school day.
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
ScottishPower Ltd. is a vertically integrated energy company with its headquarters in Glasgow, Scotland.
Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces.
Sea bathing is swimming in the sea or in sea water and a sea bath is a protective enclosure for sea bathing.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week in Christian and Jewish calendars, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent Second Coming (advent) of Jesus Christ.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.
A sloop (from Dutch sloep, in turn from French chaloupe) is a sailing boat with a single mast and a fore-and-aft rig.
Snowdonia (Eryri) is a mountainous region in northwestern Wales and a national park of in area.
South Stack (Ynys Lawd) is an island situated just off Holy Island on the northwest coast of Anglesey.
The spiny dogfish, spurdog, mud shark, or piked dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is one of the best known species of the Squalidae (dogfish) family of sharks, which is part of the Squaliformes order.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
St Fagans National Museum of History (Sain Ffagan: Amgueddfa Werin Cymru), commonly referred to as St Fagans after the village where it is located, is an open-air museum in Cardiff chronicling the historical lifestyle, culture, and architecture of the Welsh people.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
Teloschistes is a genus of lichens in the family Teloschistaceae.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
Thymus serpyllum, known by the common names of Breckland thyme, Breckland wild thyme, wild thyme, creeping thyme, or elfin thyme, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to most of Europe and North Africa.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot (see below) is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight.
The Triglidae, commonly known as sea robins or gurnard, are a family of bottom-feeding scorpaeniform fish.
Tuberaria guttata, the spotted rock-rose or annual rock-rose, is an annual plant of the Mediterranean region which also occurs very locally in Wales and Ireland.
Tudur Aled (c. 1465 – 1525) was a late medieval Welsh poet, born in Llansannan, Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych).
Tudweiliog (or Dweiliog for short) is a small, predominantly Welsh-speaking village, community and electoral ward on the northern coast of the Llŷn Peninsula in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
Tylwyth Teg (Middle Welsh for "Fair Family") is the most usual term in Wales for the mythological creatures corresponding to the fairy folk of English and Continental folklore and the Irish Aos Sí.
Ulex europaeus (gorse, common gorse, furze or whin) is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae, native to portions of Europe from the northern United Kingdom south to Portugal, and from the western Republic of Ireland east to Galicja in Poland and Ukraine.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.
A unitary authority is a type of local authority that has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area or performs additional functions which elsewhere in the relevant country are usually performed by national government or a higher level of sub-national government.
The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.
An urn is a vase, often with a cover, that usually has a somewhat narrowed neck above a rounded body and a footed pedestal.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The Wales Coast Path (Llwybr Arfordir Cymru) is a long-distance footpath which follows, or runs close to, the majority of the coastline of Wales.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
The wards and electoral divisions in the United Kingdom are electoral districts at sub-national level represented by one or more councillors.
Warrenpoint is a small town and civil parish in County Down, Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Ambulance Service, formally the Welsh Ambulance Services NHS Trust (Ymddiriedolaeth GIG Gwasanaethau Ambiwlans Cymru), is the national ambulance service for Wales and one of the three NHS trusts in the country.
The Welsh Black is a dual-purpose breed of cattle native to Wales.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water (DCWW) is a company which supplies drinking water and wastewater services to most of Wales and parts of western England.
Wexford (Yola: Weiseforth) is the county town of County Wexford, Ireland.
Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC) is a wildlife charity that is dedicated solely to the worldwide conservation and welfare of all whales, dolphins and porpoises (cetaceans).
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The Wicklow Mountains (archaic: Cualu) form the largest continuous upland area in Ireland.
The woollen industry in Wales was at times the country's most important industry, though it often struggled to compete with the better-funded woollen mills in the north of England, and almost disappeared during the 20th century.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored.
Y Rhiw is a small village on the south west tip of the Llŷn Peninsula in Gwynedd in Wales.
The yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) is a passerine bird in the bunting family that is native to Eurasia and has been introduced to New Zealand and Australia.
Ystrad Tywi (English: Vale of Tywi) is an area of south-west Wales situated on the banks of the Tywi river as it approaches the sea to join the Bristol Channel at Carmarthen.
Aberdaron Beach, Aberdaron, Gwynedd, Afon Cyll-y-felin, Afon Daron, Anelog, Bodverin, Braich y Pwll, Braich-y-pwll, Carreg, Carreg Ddu, Castell Odo, Clip y Gylfinhir, Dinas Bach, Dinas Mawr, Gwynedd, Gwylan Islands, Llanvaelrhys, Maen Gwenonwy, Mynydd Anelog, Mynydd Bychestyn, Mynydd Carreg, Mynydd Mawr, Aberdaron, Mynydd Penarfynydd, Mynydd Rhiw, Mynydd Ystum, Mynydd y Graig, Mynydd y Gwyddel, Nant y Gadwen, Parwyd, Pen y Cil, Penycaerau, Pistyll y Gaseg, Porth Alwm, Porth Cadlan, Porth Iago, Porth Meudwy, Porth Oer, Porth Orion, Porth Ysgo, Porth y Pistyll, Porthoer, Porthor, Rhoshirwaun, Rhydlios, River Daron, Trwyn Bychestyn, Trwyn Talfarach, Trwyn y Penrhyn, Uwchmynydd, Whistling Sands, Y Parwyd, Ynys Gwylan-fach, Ynys Gwylan-fawr, Ynysoedd Gwylanod, Ysgo.