114 relations: Acceleration, Aether drag hypothesis, Albert Einstein, Apocrypha, Apparent magnitude, Apparent place, Arctic Circle, Astronomical nutation, Astronomy, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric refraction, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Boundary value problem, Cauchy–Riemann equations, Charles Hutton, Classical physics, Colure, Corpuscular theory of light, Culmination, D'Alembert's paradox, Declination, Dover Publications, Earth, Earth's rotation, Ecliptic, Ecliptic coordinate system, Electromagnetism, Ellipse, Epoch (astronomy), Equatorial coordinate system, Equinox, Extragalactic astronomy, Fizeau experiment, François Arago, Galactic year, Galaxy, Galileo Galilei, Gamma Draconis, George Biddell Airy, George Graham (clockmaker), George Green (mathematician), Giovanni Battista Riccioli, Groombridge 1830, HD 40873, Heinrich Hertz, Heliocentrism, Hendrik Lorentz, Inertial frame of reference, Isaac Newton, ..., James Bradley, James Clerk Maxwell, Jean Picard, Johannes Kepler, John Flamsteed, Kew, Latitude, Length contraction, Light, Light-time correction, Light-year, Longitude, Lorentz ether theory, Lorentz transformation, Luminiferous aether, March equinox, Maxwell's equations, Michelson–Morley experiment, Milky Way, Minute and second of arc, Moving magnet and conductor problem, Nicolaus Copernicus, Objective (optics), Oliver Heaviside, Orbit, Orbital pole, Plumb bob, Polaris, Polarization (waves), Potential flow, Proper motion, Refractive index, Relativistic beaming, Right ascension, Robert Hooke, Robert S. Shankland, Royal Society, Samuel Molyneux, Scientific method, September equinox, Sidereal time, Sir George Stokes, 1st Baronet, Snell's law, Solar System, Solstice, Special relativity, Speed of light, Stellar aberration (derivation from Lorentz transformation), Stellar parallax, Stephen Peter Rigaud, Sun, Thomas Digges, Thomas Simpson, Thomas Young (scientist), Timeline of electromagnetism and classical optics, Transit instrument, Tycho Brahe, Uraniborg, Vector space, Velocity, Velocity-addition formula, Wanstead, Year, Zenith. Expand index (64 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
In the 19th century, the theory of the luminiferous aether as the hypothetical medium for the propagation of light was widely discussed.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
The apparent place of an object is its position in space as seen by an observer.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
Astronomical nutation is a phenomenon which causes the orientation of the axis of rotation of a spinning astronomical object to vary over time.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height.
Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.
Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy FRS FRSE (21 August 178923 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including: mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics.
In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.
In the field of complex analysis in mathematics, the Cauchy–Riemann equations, named after Augustin Cauchy and Bernhard Riemann, consist of a system of two partial differential equations which, together with certain continuity and differentiability criteria, form a necessary and sufficient condition for a complex function to be complex differentiable, that is, holomorphic.
Charles Hutton FRS FRSE LLD (14 August 1737 – 27 January 1823) was a British mathematician and surveyor.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Colure, in astronomy, is either of the two principal meridians of the celestial sphere.
In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes (1637) states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.
In astronomy, the culmination of a planet, star, or constellation is its transit over an observer's meridian.
In fluid dynamics, d'Alembert's paradox (or the hydrodynamic paradox) is a contradiction reached in 1752 by French mathematician Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
The ecliptic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system commonly used for representing the apparent positions and orbits of Solar System objects.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
The equatorial coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system widely used to specify the positions of celestial objects.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
Extragalactic astronomy is the branch of astronomy concerned with objects outside the Milky Way galaxy.
The Fizeau experiment was carried out by Hippolyte Fizeau in 1851 to measure the relative speeds of light in moving water.
Dominique François Jean Arago (Domènec Francesc Joan Aragó), known simply as François Arago (Catalan: Francesc Aragó) (26 February 17862 October 1853), was a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, freemason, supporter of the carbonari and politician.
The galactic year, also known as a cosmic year, is the duration of time required for the Sun to orbit once around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gamma Draconis (γ Draconis, abbreviated Gamma Dra, γ Dra), also named Eltanin, is a star in the northern constellation of Draco.
Sir George Biddell Airy (27 July 18012 January 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.
George Graham (7 July 1673 – 20 November 1751) was an English clockmaker, inventor, and geophysicist, and a Fellow of the Royal Society.
George Green (14 July 1793 – 31 May 1841) was a British mathematical physicist who wrote ''An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism'' (Green, 1828).
Giovanni Battista Riccioli (17 April 1598 – 25 June 1671) was an Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest in the Jesuit order.
Groombridge 1830 (also known as 1830 Groombridge or Argelander's Star) is a star in the constellation Ursa Major.
HD 40873 is a star in the northern constellation of Auriga.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.
An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Bradley FRS (March 1693 – 13 July 1762) was an English astronomer and priest and served as Astronomer Royal from 1742, succeeding Edmond Halley.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Jean-Félix Picard (21 July 1620 – 12 July 1682) was a French astronomer and priest born in La Flèche, where he studied at the Jesuit Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal.
Kew is a suburban district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, north-east of Richmond and west by south-west of Charing Cross; its population at the 2011 Census was 11,436.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Length contraction is the phenomenon that a moving object's length is measured to be shorter than its proper length, which is the length as measured in the object's own rest frame.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Light-time correction is a displacement in the apparent position of a celestial object from its true position (or geometric position) caused by the object's motion during the time it takes its light to reach an observer.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
What is now often called Lorentz ether theory (LET) has its roots in Hendrik Lorentz's "theory of electrons", which was the final point in the development of the classical aether theories at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century.
In physics, the Lorentz transformations (or transformation) are coordinate transformations between two coordinate frames that move at constant velocity relative to each other.
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
The Michelson–Morley experiment was performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
The moving magnet and conductor problem is a famous thought experiment, originating in the 19th century, concerning the intersection of classical electromagnetism and special relativity.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
An orbital pole is either point at the ends of an imaginary line segment that runs through the center of an orbit (of a revolving body like a planet) and is perpendicular to the orbital plane.
A plumb bob, or plummet, is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
In fluid dynamics, potential flow describes the velocity field as the gradient of a scalar function: the velocity potential.
Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Relativistic beaming (also known as Doppler beaming, Doppler boosting, or the headlight effect) is the process by which relativistic effects modify the apparent luminosity of emitting matter that is moving at speeds close to the speed of light.
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Robert Sherwood Shankland (January 11, 1908 – March 1, 1982) was an American physicist and historian.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Samuel Molyneux FRS (16 July 1689 – 13 April 1728), son of William Molyneux, was an 18th-century member of the British parliament from Kew and an amateur astronomer whose work with James Bradley attempting to measure stellar parallax led to the discovery of the aberration of light.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
The September equinox (or Southward equinox) is the moment when the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading southward.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
Sir George Gabriel Stokes, 1st Baronet, (13 August 1819 – 1 February 1903), was an Irish physicist and mathematician.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
Stellar aberration is an astronomical phenomenon "which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects".
Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
Stephen Peter Rigaud (12 August 1774–16 March 1839) FRAS was an English mathematical historian and astronomer.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Thomas Digges (c. 1546 – 24 August 1595) was an English mathematician and astronomer.
Thomas Simpson FRS (20 August 1710 – 14 May 1761) was a British mathematician and inventor known for the eponymous Simpson's rule to approximate definite integrals.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Timeline of electromagnetism and classical optics lists, within the history of electromagnetism, the associated theories, technology, and events.
In astronomy, transit instruments are used for the precise observation of star positions.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
Uraniborg (Uranienborg, Uraniborg) was a Danish astronomical observatory and alchemical laboratory established and operated by Tycho Brahe.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
In relativistic physics, a velocity-addition formula is a three-dimensional equation that relates the velocities of objects in different reference frames.
Wanstead is a suburban area in east London (E.11), forming part of the London Borough of Redbridge.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere.
Abberation of light, Aberration (astronomy), Aberration of light (non-dependence of star's velocity), Aberration of starlight, Annual aberration, Astronomical aberration, Constant of aberration, Planetary Aberration, Planetary aberration, Stellar Aberration, Stellar aberration.