35 relations: Australasia, Battle of Singapore, British Malaya, Chawinda, Colvin Taluqdars' College, Command and Staff College, Dehradun, English literature, Gurkha, Hilal-i-Jur'at, India, Indian Military Academy, Indian National Army, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Khalid Mahmud Arif, Lucknow, Major general, Malayan Campaign, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, New Britain, Order of the British Empire, Oudh State, Pakistan, Pakistan Movement, Political science, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Taluqdar, University of Allahabad, World War II, 10th Baluch Regiment, 126th Baluchistan Infantry, 19 Baloch Regiment, 6th Armoured Division (Pakistan).
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
Chawinda is a town of the tehsil Pasrur of Sialkot District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Colvin Taluqdars' College in Lucknow is one of the oldest public schools in India.
The Command and Staff College is a Pakistani military training institution where officers receive staff training and education.
Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
The Hilal-i-Jur'at (ہلال جرات, as if it were Halāl-e-Jurāt; English: Crescent of Courage, sometimes spelled as Hilal-e-Jur'at, Hilal-e-Jurat, Hilal-i-Jurrat and Hilal-i-Juraat)Various official sources that are highly reputable spell the name of the medal differently, so the Pakistan Army website spelling is being taken as the official spelling construction.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Military Academy, Dehradun (also known as IMA) is the officer training Academy of the Indian Army.
The Indian National Army (INA; Azad Hind Fauj; lit.: Free Indian Army) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
General Khalid Mahmud Arif(خالد محمود عارف b. in 1930), popularly known as K.M. Arif, was a four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, serving as the vice-chief of army staff under President Zia-ul-Haq, who retained the command of the army since 1976.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
Major general (abbreviated MG, Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries.
The Malayan Campaign was a military campaign fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (محمد علی جناح ALA-LC:, born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
New Britain (Niu Briten) is the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago (named after Otto von Bismarck) of Papua New Guinea.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
The Oudh State (also Kingdom of Oudh, or Awadh State) was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until 1858.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (تحریک پاکستان –) was a religious political movement in the 1940s that aimed for and succeeded in the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim-majority areas of the British Indian Empire.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.
Rawalpindi (Punjabi, راولپِنڈى), commonly known as Pindi (پِنڈی), is a city in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Sialkot (سيالكوٹ and سيالكوٹ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
The Taluqdars or Talukders (تعلقدار, तालुक़दार, তালুকদার, তালুকদাৰ) (from Arabic ta'alluq, "attachment " + dar "land owner"), were aristocrats who formed the ruling class during the Mughal Empire and British times.
The University of Allahabad, informally known as Allahabad University, is a public central university located in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 10th Baluch or Baluch Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947.
The 126th Baluchistan Infantry was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1825 as the 2nd Extra Battalion of Bombay Native Infantry.
19th Battalion The Baloch Regiment is one of the oldest Light Anti-Tank Regiment of Pakistan Army.
The 6th Armoured Division is a Pakistan Army armoured division currently based in Gujranwala, in Punjab Province.