77 relations: Abscisic aldehyde, Abscission, Animal, Antitranspirant, Arabidopsis thaliana, Botrytis cinerea, Carotenoid, Cercospora rosicola, Cytochrome P450, Desiccation, Dioxygenase, Dormancy, Drought, ELISA, Endodermis, Enzyme, Epoxide, Farnesyl pyrophosphate, Förster resonance energy transfer, Freezing tolerance, Fruit, Gene, Gene expression, Germination, Gibberellin, Heavy metals, High-performance liquid chromatography, Hyperthermia, Hypocotyl, Isomerization, Kinase, Kinetin, LANCL2, Lanthionine, Leaf, Macrophage, Magnaporthe grisea, Mammal, Mevalonate pathway, Mevalonic acid, Mutant, Naturopathy, Non-mevalonate pathway, Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre, Nutraceutical, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Pharmacognosy, Phaseic acid, Phosphatase, Photosynthesis, ..., Plant hormone, Plant stem, Plastid, Pyrabactin, Ripening, Root, Science Signaling, Seed, Seed dormancy, Sesquiterpene, Soil compaction, Soil salinity, Sponge, Stoma, Stress (biology), Terpenoid, Transcription factor, Transpiration, Vascular cambium, Violaxanthin, Vomifoliol dehydrogenase, Water potential, Wheatgrass, Xanthoxin, Xylem, Zeaxanthin, (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase. Expand index (27 more) » « Shrink index
Abscisic aldehyde is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone abscisic acid.
Abscission (from Latin ab, "away", and scindere, "to cut'") is the shedding of various parts of an organism, such as a plant dropping a leaf, fruit, flower, or seed.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Antitranspirants are compounds applied to the leaves of plants to reduce transpiration.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Botrytis cinerea ("botrytis" from Ancient Greek botrys (βότρυς) meaning "grapes" plus the New Latin suffix -itis for disease) is a necrotrophic fungus that affects many plant species, although its most notable hosts may be wine grapes.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Cercospora rosicola is a fungal plant pathogen.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
Dioxygenases are oxidoreductase enzymes.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), also known as farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), is an intermediate in both the mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols.
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).
Freezing tolerance describes the ability of plants to withstand subzero temperatures through the formation of ice crystals in the xylem and intercellular space, or apoplast, of their cells.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
The hypocotyl (short for "hypocotyledonous stem", meaning "below seed leaf") is the stem of a germinating seedling, found below the cotyledons (seed leaves) and above the radicle (root).
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Kinetin (/'kaɪnɪtɪn/) is a type of cytokinin, a class of plant hormone that promotes cell division.
LanC-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LANCL2 gene.
Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid with the chemical formula (HOOC-CH(NH2)-CH2-S-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH).
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnaporthe grisea, also known as rice blast fungus, rice rotten neck, rice seedling blight, blast of rice, oval leaf spot of graminea, pitting disease, ryegrass blast, and Johnson spot, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.
Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key organic compound in biochemistry; the name is a contraction of dihydroxymethylvalerolactone.
In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is an alteration of the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome of an organism.
Naturopathy or naturopathic medicine is a form of alternative medicine that employs an array of pseudoscientific practices branded as "natural", "non-invasive", and as promoting "self-healing".
The non-mevalonate pathway—also appearing as the mevalonate-independent pathway and the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway—is an alternative metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP).
The Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre (NASC) provides seed and information resources to the International Arabidopsis Genome Project and the wider research community.
A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources.
Phaseic acid is a terpenoid catabolite of abscisic acid.
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.
Pyrabactin is a synthetic sulfonamide that mimics abscisic acid (ABA), a naturally produced stress hormone in plants that helps them cope with drought conditions by inhibiting growth.
Ripening is a process in fruits that causes them to become more palatable.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Science Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published weekly by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A dormant seed is one that is unable to germinate in a specified period of time under a combination of environmental factors that are normally suitable for the germination of the non-dormant seed.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units and often have the molecular formula C15H24.
In geotechnical engineering, soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains.
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
The vascular cambium is the main growth layer in the stems and roots of many plants, specifically in dicots such as buttercups and oak trees, and gymnosperms such as pine trees.
Violaxanthin is a natural xanthophyll pigment with an orange color found in a variety of plants including pansies.
In enzymology, a vomifoliol dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (6S,9R)-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-alpha-ionol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are (6R)-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-alpha-ionone, NADH, and H+.
Water potential is the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions.
Wheatgrass is the freshly sprouted first leaves of the common wheat plant, used as a food, drink or dietary supplement.
Xanthoxin is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone abscisic acid.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature.
In enzymology, a (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The four substrates of this enzyme are (+)-abscisate, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its three products are 8'-hydroxy-abscisate, NADP+, and H2O.