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# Absorption cross section

Absorption cross section is a measure for the probability of an absorption process. 

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

## Absorption edge

An absorption edge, absorption discontinuity or absorption limit is a sharp discontinuity in the absorption spectrum of a substance.

## Absorption spectroscopy

Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.

## Atomic mass

The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.

## Attenuation

In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

## Attenuation coefficient

Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.

## Beer–Lambert law

The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.

## Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

## Cross section (physics)

When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.

## Density

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

## High-energy X-rays

High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).

## Mass attenuation coefficient

The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

## Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.

## Molar attenuation coefficient

The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

## Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

## Neutron cross section

In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.

## Nuclear cross section

The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur.

## Nuclear engineering

Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of breaking down atomic nuclei (fission) or of combining atomic nuclei (fusion), or with the application of other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics.

## Ozone

Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

## Photoionisation cross section

Photoionisation cross section in the context of condensed matter physics refers to the probability of a particle (usually an electron) being emitted from its electronic state.

## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

## Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

## Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

## Scattering

Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

## Transmittance

Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.

## Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

## Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

## References

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