191 relations: 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf, 'Amr ibn al-'As, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai, Abdul-Muttalib, Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr, Abu Fukayha, Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah, Abu Sa‘id al-Khudri, Abu Salama 'Abd Allah ibn 'Abd al-Asad al-Makhzumi, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Aisha, Al-Aswad Al-Ansi, Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Al-Nahdiah, Al-Suyuti, Ali, Allah, Amazon Standard Identification Number, Amir al-hajj, Amir ibn Fuhayra, Ammar ibn Yasir, Ansar (Islam), Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic poetry, Arabs, Asma bint Umais, Asmā' bint Abi Bakr, Awtas, Bangladesh, Banu Hashim, Banu Nadir, Banu Taym, Barnaby Rogerson, Battle of Badr, Battle of Hunayn, Battle of Karbala, Battle of Mu'tah, Battle of Uhud, Bayt al-mal, Bedouin, Bilal ibn Rabah, Bodla, Brotherhood among the Sahabah, Businessperson, Byzantine Empire, ..., Caliphate, Camel, Camel train, Clan, Conquest of Mecca, Coronation, Coup d'état, Dinar, Dream, Egypt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Ethiopia, Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Fadak, Farewell Pilgrimage, Fatimah, Fever, Genealogy, Ghusl, God in Islam, Hadith, Hadith of the ten with glad tidings of paradise, Hadrat, Hafsa bint Umar, Hajj, Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, Hegira, Heinemann (publisher), Hisham ibn Urwah, History of the Prophets and Kings, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Sa'd, Idolatry, Immigration, Incisor, Invasion of Banu Qurayza, Iraq, Islam, Islamic calendar, Islamic views on slavery, Isma'ilism, Isra and Mi'raj, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jabal Thawr, Jews, Kaaba, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Khalid ibn Sa`id, Kilab ibn Murrah, Lineage (anthropology), List of largest empires, List of Sahabah, Lubaynah, Majid Khadduri, Malik ibn Anas, Mecca, Medina, Merriam-Webster, Mesopotamia, Mina, Saudi Arabia, Mosque, Muadh ibn Jabal, Muhajirun, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Baqir, Muhammad bin Yahya al-Ninowy, Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami, Muhammad's wives, Musaylimah, Muslim, Muslim conquest of Egypt, Muslim conquest of Persia, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Najd, Naqshbandi, Paganism, Patrilineality, Politics, Polytheism, Prophet, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qallu, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Quran, Quraysh, Qureshi, Qusai ibn Kilab, Qutaylah bint Abd-al-Uzza, Rashidun, Rashidun army, Rashidun Caliphate, Ridda wars, Safavid dynasty, Sahabah, Salma Umm-ul-Khair, Saqifah, Sasanian Empire, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sermon of Fadak, Sha'ir, Sheekhaal, Shia Islam, Siddiqui, Siege of Ta'if, Somalia, Somalis, Stanley Lane-Poole, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunni Islam, Syria, Syrians, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, Tafsir, Talhah, The event of Ghadir Khumm, Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Twelver, Umar, Umar at Fatimah's house, Umayyad Caliphate, Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim, Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr, Umm Ruman, Umm Ubays, Ummah, University of Michigan, Urwah ibn Zubayr, Usama ibn Zayd, Uthman, Uthman Abu Quhafa, Wine, Yazid I, Yemen, Zaidiyyah, Zayd ibn Ali, Zayd ibn Thabit, Zubayr ibn al-Awam, Zunairah al-Rumiya. Expand index (141 more) » « Shrink index
'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
Abd Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE.
`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (عبد الله بن الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr.
‘Abd Manāf al-Mughirah ibn Quṣai (عبد مناف المغيرة بن قصي) was a Quraishi and great-great-grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shaybah ibn Hāshim c. 497 – 578), better known as ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib, since he was raised by his uncle Muṭṭalib, was the grandfather of Islamic prophet Muḥammad.
Abdul-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr (died 666The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung. Page 340.Encyclopaedic ethnography of Middle-East and Central Asia: A-I, Volume 1 edited by R. Khanam. Page 543) was the eldest son of Abu Bakr, the first caliph in Sunni Islam.
Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (عبدالله بن عبد المطلب) (c.546–570) was the father of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
‘Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr (c.610–633) was a son of Abu Bakr the first Caliph, a brother of Aisha and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu Fukayha (c.540–c.620) was the kunya of Yasar, a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah (أبو حذيفة بن المغيرة) was a sahaba of Muhammad.
Sa'id ibn Malik Sinan al-Khazraji al-Khudri (سعد بن مالك بن سنان الخزرجي الخدري) (kunya: Abu Sa'id) was an Ansari from the original inhabitants of Medina and one of the younger companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abu Salama ʿAbdillāh ibn ʿAbdi l-Asad al-Makhzumi (أبو سلمة عبد الله بن عبد الأسد المخزومي) was one of the companions of Muhammad.
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ (أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
Aswad Ansi (الاسود العنسي), better known as Abhala bin Ka'b (عبهلة بن كعب), was the leader of the al-ansi tribe and claimed by Muslims to be a false prophet.
The Prophet's Mosque (Classical ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدُ ٱلـنَّـبَـوِيّ, Al-Masjidun-Nabawiyy; Modern Standard ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـدْ اَلـنَّـبَـوِي, Al-Masjid An-Nabawī) is a mosque established and originally built by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, situated in the city of Medina in the Hejazi region of Saudi Arabia.
Al-Nahdiah was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abū al-Faḍl ‘Abd al-Raḥmān ibn Abī Bakr ibn Muḥammad Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khuḍayrī al-Suyūṭī (جلال الدين عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر بن محمد الخضيري السيوطي; 1445–1505 AD) was an Egyptian religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher, and one of the most prolific writers of the Middle Ages of Persian origin, whose works deal with Islamic theology.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a 10-character alphanumeric unique identifier assigned by Amazon.com and its partners for product identification within the Amazon organization.
Amir al-hajj (أمير الحج; transliteration: amīr al-ḥajj, "commander of the pilgrimage", or amīr al-ḥājj, "commander of the pilgrim"; plural: umarāʾ al-ḥajjPhilipp, 1998, p.) was the position and title given to the commander of the annual Hajj pilgrim caravan by successive Muslim empires, from the 7th century until the 20th century.
Amir ibn Fuhayra (عامر بن فهيرة) (586-625) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammed.
ʻAmmār ibn Yāsir ibn ʿĀmir ibn Mālik Abū al-Yaqzān (عمار بن یاسر) was one of the Muhajirun in the history of Islam, Islam Times, retrieved on 13 Apr 2014 and, for his dedicated devotion to Islam's cause, is considered to be one of the most loyal and beloved companions of Muhammad and ‘Ali; thus, he occupies a position of the highest prominence in Islam.
Ansar (الأنصار, "The Helpers") is an Islamic term for the local inhabitants of Medina who took the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers (the Muhajirun) into their homes when they emigrated from Mecca (hijra).
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Asmā’ binṫ ‘Umays (أَسْـمَـاء بِـنْـت عُـمَـيْـس) was a companion of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.
Asmā' bint Abu Bakr (أسماء بنت أبي بكر), c. 595 – 692 CE, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Awtas or Autas is a location in Saudi Arabia where the Battle of Hunayn and the Battle of Autas took place.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
The Banu Nadir (بنو النضير, בני נצ'יר) were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina.
Banu Taym (بنو تيم; alternatively transliterated as Banu Taim or Banu Tahim) is a sub-clan of the Quraish tribe, descended from Fihr ibn Malik and Adnan.
Barnaby Rogerson (born 17 May 1960) is a British author, television presenter and publisher.
The Battle of Badr (غزوة بدر), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca.
The Battle of Hunayn (غَـزوة حُـنـيـن, Ghazwat Hunayn) was fought by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif, in 630 CE, in the Hunayn valley, on the route from Mecca to At-Ta’if.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
The Battle of Mu'tah (معركة مؤتة, غزوة مؤتة) was fought in September 629 C.E. (1 Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H.), near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between the forces of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and the forces of the Byzantine Empire.
The Battle of Uhud (غزوة أحد) was a battle between the early Muslims and their Quraish Meccan enemies in AD 624 in the northwest of the Arabian peninsula.
Bayt al-mal (بيت المال) is an Arabic term that is translated as "House of money" or "House of Wealth." Historically, it was a financial institution responsible for the administration of taxes in Islamic states, particularly in the early Islamic Caliphate.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Bilal ibn Rabah (بلال ابن رباح‎; 580–640 AD) also known as Bilal al-Habashi, Bilal ibn Riyah, and ibn Rabah), was one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered as the first muezzin, chosen by Muhammad himself.Robinson, David.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, at the age of 57.
Bodla is a surname that may refer to: Bodla was surname given to Sheikh Shab-ul-Mulk.
Brotherhood among the Sahaba refers to the time after the Hijra when the Islamic prophet Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants, Muhajirun, and the helpers, Ansar, and he chose Ali as his own brother.
A business person (also businessman or businesswoman) is a person involved in the business sector – in particular someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
The conquest of Mecca (فتح مكة) refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad on 11 January, 630 AD, (Julian), 20 Ramadan, 8 AH.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries which were formerly territories of the Ottoman Empire, and was used historically in several more.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to Nejd took place in July 628 AD,3rd Month 7AH, of the Islamic Calendar Abu Bakr led a large platoon in Nejd on the order of Muhammad.
Fadak (فدك) was a garden oasis in Khaybar, a tract of land in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia.
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Arabic: حجة الوداع) was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage Muhammad, prophet of Islam, participated in 632 CE (10 AH).
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
(غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full-body ritual purification mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, ejaculation or completion of the menstrual cycle.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Islamic prophet, Muhammad, specified ten of his companions who were promised paradise.
Hadrat or Hadhrat (Ḥaɮˤrah; حضرت Hazret or Hazrat) is an honorific Arabic title used to honour a person.
Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar (حفصة بنت عمر; c. 605–665) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and therefore a Mother of the Believers.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf al Mughirah (هاشم بن عبد مناف المغيرة; ca. 464 – 497) was the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the progenitor of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.
Hishām ibn ʿUrwah (هشام بن عروة, c. 667 – c. 772) was a prominent narrator of hadith, son of Urwah ibn al-Zubayr, grandson of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Asma bint Abu Bakr.
The History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk), more commonly known as Tarikh al-Tabari (تاريخ الطبري) or Tarikh-i Tabari (تاریخ طبری) is an Arabic-language historical chronicle written by the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923).
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Sa‘d ibn Manī‘ al-Baṣrī al-Hāshimī kātib al-Wāqidī or simply Ibn Sa'd (ابن سعد) and nicknamed "Scribe of Waqidi" (Katib al-Waqidi), was a scholar and Arabian biographer.
Idolatry literally means the worship of an "idol", also known as a cult image, in the form of a physical image, such as a statue or icon.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.
The Invasion of Banu Qurayza took place in the Dhul Qa‘dah during February and March of 627 AD (5 AH).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Islamic views on slavery represent a complex and multifaceted body of Islamic thought,Brockopp, Jonathan E., “Slaves and Slavery”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
The Isra and Mi'raj (الإسراء والمعراج) are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam, Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621 CE.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jabal Thawr (جبل ثور) (Mount Bull) is the name of a mountain in Saudi Arabia, located in the lower part of Mecca to the south of the district of Misfalah.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Kaaba (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة, "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
Khālid ibn Sa`īd ibn al-As or Khalid ibn Sa`d ibn al-`As al-Amawi (خالد بن سعيد) (d. 634 CE), was a companion to Muhammad.
Kilab ibn Murrah (كلاب بن مُرة) (born 373 CE) was the paternal great-great-great-great grandfather and maternal great-great-great grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muḥammad.
A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
Aṣ-ṣaḥābah (الصحابة, "The Companions") were the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who had met or had seen him at the time of when he was alive as well as wanting to intentionally see him.
Lubaynah was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Majid Khadduri (Arabic: مجيد خدوري) (September 27, 1909 – January 25, 2007) was an Iraqi–born academic.
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mina (also known as the Tent City) is a neighborhood of Mecca in Makkah Province, in western Saudi Arabia.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Muadh ibn Jabal (مُعاذ ابن جبل; 603 – 639) was a Sahaba (companion) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Muhajirun (المهاجرون The Emigrants) were the first converts to Islam and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's advisors and relatives, who emigrated with him from Mecca to Medina, the event known in Islam as ''The Hijra''.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muḥammad al-Baqir, full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir (the one who opens knowledge) (677-733) was the fifth Shia imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’id ibn Muhammad ibn Ali al-Ninowy (born 1966) is a Syrian-born American Islamic scholar, theologian, and a Medical doctor.
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (محمد بن أبي بكر) was the son of Abu Bakr and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad Iqbal (محمد اِقبال) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely known as Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement.
Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (Arabic: محمد مصطفى الأعظمي) was a contemporary hadith scholar best known for his critical investigation of the theories of Ignác Goldziher, David Margoliouth, and Joseph Schacht.
Muhammad's wives or Wives of Muhammad were the women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Musaylimah (مسيلمة) or Maslamah bin Ḥabīb (مسلمة بن حبيب) was one of a series of people (including his future wife) who claimed prophethood in 7th century Arabia, after meeting Muhammad.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt or Arab conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire, which had its capital at Constantinople.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Najd or Nejd (نجد, Najd) is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.
The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Qallu is a name in which the people (person) who are believed to be the descents of Sayyid Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, the first Caliph of Islam, are known in Eastern Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti.
Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (قاسم بن محمد) (born 36 or 38 AH; died 106 AH or 108 AH (corresponding to 660/662 and 728/730 AD)The Four Imams by Muhammad Abu Zahrah) was an important jurist in early Islam.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Qureyshi (also known as Qureshi, Quraishi, Qurayshi, Qureshy, Quraishy, Qoraishi, Qoreshi, Koraishi, Kureshi, Kureshy, Kureishi, Coreish) is a Muslim family name, though in English it has many spelling variations but in Arabic, there is a single spelling as " قريشي ", which means part of Qureish Family (Arabic: قريش).
Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah (قُـصَيّ ابْـن كِـلَاب ابْـن مُـرَّة; ca. 400 – 480), also known as Qusai, Kusayy or Cossai, né Zayd (زَيْـد), was the great-grandfather of Shaiba ibn Hashim, who was the paternal grandfather of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Qutaylah bint ʻAbdu l-ʻUzzá (قتيلة بنت عبدالعزة) was the first wife of Abu Bakr.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Ridda Wars (Arabic: حروب الردة), also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633, just after Muhammad died.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Salmā bint Sakhar (سلمى بنت صخر) was the mother of Abū Bakr, the first Caliph.
The Saqīfah (السقيفة), also known as Saqīfah Banī Sā'idah (سقيفة بني ساعدة), was a roofed building used by a Jewish tribe called Banu Sa'idah, a faction of Banu Khazraj tribe of the city of Madinah in Hejaz, western Arabia.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās (سعد بن أبي وقاص) was of the companions of the Islamic prophet.
Sermon of Fadak is Fatimah's speech in the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's Mosque.
A sha'ir was a pre-Islamic Arab poet believed to have magical powers.
The Sheekhaal (var. Sheikhaal' (شيخال), also known as Fiqi Omar, is a noble Somali clan. Group members inhabit Somalia, Ethiopia and with considerable numbers also found in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) in Kenya.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Siddiqui is a family name or surname belonging to the descendants of Abu Bakr, a companion of Muhammad.
The Siege of Ta'if took place in 630, as the Muslims besieged the city of Ta'if after their victory in the Battle of Hunayn and Autas.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
Stanley Edward Lane-Poole (18 December 1854 – 29 December 1931) was a British orientalist and archaeologist.
Sunan Abu Dawud (Sunan Abī Dāwūd) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections), collected by Abu Dawood.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
Tabuk (تبوك), also spelled Tabouk, is the capital city of the Tabuk Region in northwestern Saudi Arabia.
Tafsir (lit) is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an.
Talhah ibn Ubaydullah (طلحة بن عبيدالله) (594-656) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) is an event that took place in March 632.
The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) was an important event that took place during the formation of Islam.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Umar at Fatimah's house refers to the event where Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his followers.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim or Umm Farwah Fatimah was the wife of Muhammad al-Baqir, and the mother of the sixth Imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.
Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr (أم كلثوم بنت ابي بكر) (born c.634 (13 AH)), was a daughter of Abu Bakr and Habiba bint Kharija.
Umm Rumān Zaynab bint ‘Āmir' ibn Uwaymir ibn Abd Shams ibn Attab Al-Kinaniyah (death 628), known by her kunyah "Umm Rumān" (أمّ رومان زينب بنت عامر بن عويمر بن عبد شمس بن عتاب الكنانية) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Umm Umais (أُمُّ عُبَيْسٍ), Umm Ubais or Umm Ubays was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi (عروة بن الزبير بن العوام الأسدي., died 713) was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians.
Usama bin Zayd (أسامة بن زيد) was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, Muhammad's freed slave, whom he adopted as his son.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
'Uthman ibn 'Amir, also known as Abu Quhafa (540635 CE)Al-Suyuti, Jalal ad-Din.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.
According to Islamic traditions, Zayd ibn Thabit (زيد بن ثابت) was the personal scribe of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was from the ansar (helpers).
Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awam (594–656) was a companion of Muhammad and a commander in the Rashidun army.
Zunairah al-Rumiya (زنيرة الرومية, Zaneerah the Roman) (other transliterations include Zaneera, Zannirah, Zanira or in some sources Zinnirah) was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad.
'Abdullāh bin Abī Quhāfah, Abd-Allah ibn Abu-Qahafa, Abdullah ibn Abi Qahafa, Abdullah ibn Abi Quhaafah, Abou-Bekr, Abu Bakar Siddique, Abu Bakr (Abdullah ibn Abi Qahafa), Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Abu Bakr Siddiky, Abu Bakr Siddiq, Abu Bakr Siddique, Abu Bakr al Siddiq, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, Abu Bekr, Abu Dakr, Abu bakr, Abu-Bakr, Abu-Bekr, Abubakr, Abubekr, Abū Bakr, Al-siddiq, Boubaker, First caliph, Habibah bint Kharijah ibn Zayd ibn Abi Zuhayr, Hadith of Abu Bakr and Muhammad in the cave, List of Muslims slaves whose freedom was purchased by Abu Bakr, Slaves freed by Abu Bakr, ابو بكر الصديق, عبد الله بن أبي قحافة.