211 relations: 'Phags-pa script, Abecedarium, Abjad, Ahom alphabet, Aksara, Alphabet, Ancient Philippine scripts, Anusvara, Apocope, Arabic, Arabic diacritics, Aramaic alphabet, Assamese language, Śāradā script, Balinese script, Batak, Batak script, Baybayin, Bengali language, Bhaiksuki alphabet, Bhojpuri language, Bikol languages, Bishnupriya Manipuri language, Bodo language, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Buginese language, Buhid alphabet, Burmese alphabet, Burmese language, Cambodia, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, Carrier syllabics, Central Kurdish, Chakma alphabet, Cham alphabet, China, Chinese language, Conjunct, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Cree syllabics, Cricket, David Diringer, Devanagari, Devanagari ka, Diacritic, Eastern Nagari script, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Featural writing system, ..., Florian Coulmas, Fred Householder, Gabelsberger shorthand, Ge'ez, Ge'ez script, Grantha script, Greek alphabet, Gujarati alphabet, Gujarati language, Gurmukhi script, Hanunó'o alphabet, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hiragana, Ilocano language, India, Indian Script Code for Information Interchange, Indonesia, Inherent vowel, Inuktitut, Inuktitut syllabics, Javanese script, Kaithi, Kannada, Kannada alphabet, Kapampangan language, Karenic languages, Kashmiri language, Kawi script, Kālidāsa, Kharosthi, Khasi language, Khün language, Khmer alphabet, Khojki script, Khudabadi script, Kodava language, Kokborok, Kolezhuthu, Konkani language, Kurdish alphabets, Kutchi language, Lao alphabet, Laos, Lepcha alphabet, Lepcha language, Limbu alphabet, Linguistic typology, Logogram, Lontara, Lontara script, Mahajani, Maithili language, Makassarese language, Malayalam, Malayalam script, Malayanma, Maldives, Maldivian writing systems, Mandar language, Marathi language, Meitei language, Meitei script, Meroitic alphabet, Modi script, Mon language, Mongol Empire, Mongolian language, Mongolian writing systems, Multani alphabet, Myanmar, Nandinagari, Nepalese scripts, Nepali language, New Tai Lue alphabet, Newar language, Niqqud, Northern Thai language, Odia alphabet, Pahawh Hmong, Pakistan, Palawan languages, Pallava script, Pangasinan language, Persian alphabet, Peter T. Daniels, Philippine languages, Philippines, Pitman shorthand, Pollard script, Prakrit, Punjabi language, Ranjana alphabet, Rejang script, Religious text, Saka language, Sanskrit, Saraiki language, Saurashtra alphabet, Schwa, Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages, Segment (linguistics), Semi-syllabary, Semitic languages, Shan language, Shiva, Shorthand, Siddhaṃ script, Sinhalese alphabet, South Asia, South India, Southeast Asia, Soyombo alphabet, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sundanese script, Sylheti language, Sylheti Nagari, Syllabary, Syllable, Syllabogram, Syncope (phonology), Tagalog language, Tagbanwa script, Tai Dam language, Tai Le script, Tai Nuea language, Tai Tham script, Takri alphabet, Tamil language, Tamil script, Telugu script, Tengwar, Thaana, Thai alphabet, Thailand, Tibetan alphabet, Tigalari script, Tirhuta, Toba Batak language, Tocharian alphabet, Tone (linguistics), Tulu language, Typographic ligature, Unicode, Urdu, Uyghur language, Vatteluttu alphabet, Virama, Visarga, Visayan languages, Vowel, William Bright, Writing system, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yiddish, Yuan dynasty, Zero consonant, Zhang-Zhung language. Expand index (161 more) » « Shrink index
The ‘Phags-pa script (дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.
An abecedarium (or abecedary) is an inscription consisting of the letters of an alphabet, almost always listed in order.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The Ahom script is an abugida that is used to write the Ahom language, a nearly-extinct (but being revived) Tai language spoken by the Ahom people who ruled eastern part of Brahmaputra valley—about one-third of the length of Brahmaputra valley—in the Indian state of Assam between the 13th and the 18th centuries.
Aksara (also akshara, Devanagari अक्षर, IAST akṣara) is a Sanskrit term translating to "imperishable, indestructible, fixed, immutable" (i.e. from a- "not" and kṣar- "melt away, perish").
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Ancient Philippine scripts are systems of writing that developed and flourished in the Philippines in about 300 BC.
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.
In phonology, apocope is the loss (elision) of one or more sounds from the end of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam -, consonant pointing and tashkil -, supplementary diacritics.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit.
Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of closely related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages.
The Batak script, natively known as surat Batak, surat na sampulu sia (the nineteen letters), or si-sia-sia, is a writing system used to write the Austronesian Batak languages spoken by several million people on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Baybayin (pre-kudlit:, post-kudlit:, kudlit + pamudpod), is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bhaiksuki (Sanskrit: भैक्षुकी, Bhaiksuki:𑰥𑰹𑰎𑰿𑰬𑰲𑰎𑰱) is a Brahmi-based script that was used around the 11th and 12th centuries CE.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the island of Burias of Masbate.
The Bishnupuriya or Bishnupriya Manipuri (BPM) (বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of the Indian states of Assam, Tripura and others, as well as in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh, Burma, and other countries.
Boro (बर'), or Mech, is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken primarily by the Boro people of North East India, Nepal and Bengal.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Buginese or Bugis (Basa Ugi, elsewhere also Bahasa Bugis, Bugis, Bugi, De) is a language spoken by about five million people mainly in the southern part of Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Buhid is a Brahmic suyat script of the Philippines, closely related to Baybayin and Hanunó'o, and is used today by the Mangyans, found mainly on island of Mindoro, to write their language, Buhid.
The Burmese alphabet (MLCTS) is an abugida used for writing Burmese.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (writing systems based on consonant-vowel pairs) used to write a number of indigenous Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families.
Carrier or Déné syllabics (ᑐᑊᘁᗕᑋᗸ, Dʌlk'ʷahke, (Dulkw'ahke) meaning toad feet) is a script created by Adrien-Gabriel Morice for the Carrier language.
Central Kurdish (کوردیی ناوەندی, Kurdîy nawendî), also called Sorani (سۆرانی, Soranî) is a Kurdish language spoken in Iraq, mainly in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as the Kurdistan Province and West Azerbaijan Province of western Iran.
The Chakma alphabet (Ajhā pāṭh), also called Ojhapath, Ojhopath, Aaojhapath, is an abugida used for the Chakma language.
The Cham alphabet is an abugida used to write Cham, an Austronesian language spoken by some 230,000 Chams in Vietnam and Cambodia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In linguistics, the term conjunct has three distinct uses.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
Cree syllabics are the versions of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics used to write Cree dialects, including the original syllabics system created for Cree and Ojibwe (Cree and Ojibwe).
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
David Diringer (1900–1975) was a British linguist, palaeographer and writer.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Ka (क) (कवर्ण kavarna) is the first consonant of the Devanagari abugida.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
In a featural writing system, the shapes of the symbols (such as letters) are not arbitrary but encode phonological features of the phonemes that they represent.
Florian Coulmas (born 5 June 1949 in Hamburg) is a German linguist and author.
Fred W. Householder (February 1, 1913January 4, 1994) was an American linguist and professor of classics and linguistics at Indiana University.
Gabelsberger shorthand, named for its creator, is a form of shorthand previously common in Germany and Austria.
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Grantha script (Kiranta eḻuttu; ഗ്രന്ഥലിപി; grantha lipi) is an Indian script that was widely used between the sixth century and the 20th centuries by Tamil and Malayalam speakers in South India, particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, to write Sanskrit and the classical language Manipravalam, and is still in restricted use in traditional Vedic schools (Sanskrit veda pāṭhaśālā).
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).
Hanunó’o is one of the indigenous suyat scripts of the Philippines and is used by the Mangyan peoples of southern Mindoro to write the Hanunó'o language.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Script Code for Information Interchange (ISCII) is a coding scheme for representing various writing systems of India.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
An inherent vowel is part of an abugida (or alphasyllabary) script.
Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
Inuktitut syllabics (Inuktitut: ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ or ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᓄᑖᖅ) is an abugida-type writing system used in Canada by the Inuktitut-speaking Inuit of the territory of Nunavut and the Nunavik region in Quebec.
The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia, primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi, as well as Sanskrit, an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia.
Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
The Kannada Script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi) is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka.
Kapampangan, Pampango, or the Pampangan language is one of the major languages of the Philippines.
The Karen or Karenic languages are tonal languages spoken by some seven million Karen people.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
Aksara Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") or Aksara Jawa Kuna ("Old Javanese script") is the name given to the writing system originating in Java and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia from the 8th century to around 1500 AD.
Kālidāsa was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language of India.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
Khün, or Tai Khün (Tai Khün: ᨴᩱᨡᩧ᩠ᨶ,; Thai: ไทเขิน), is the language of the Tai Khün people of Kengtung, Shan state, Myanmar.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
Khojki, or Khojiki (خوجڪي (Arabic script) खोजकी (Devanagari)), is a script almost exclusively formerly used by the Khoja community of parts of South Asia such as Sindh.
Khudabadi is a script generally used by some Sindhis in India to write the Sindhi language.
The Kodava or Coorg language is an endangered Dravidian language and the original language of the Kodagu district in southern Karnataka, India.
Kok Borok is the native language of the Borok (Tripura) people of the Indian state of Tripura and neighbouring areas of Bangladesh.
Kolezhuthu (கோலெழுத்து, കോലെഴുത്ത്) is one of the oldest writing systems in South India.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan) in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the ''Hawar'' magazine), and a Persian alphabet-based Sorani alphabet, named for the historical Soran Emirate of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.
Kutchi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Kutch region of the India.
Lao script or Akson Lao (Lao: ອັກສອນລາວ) is the primary script used to write the Lao language and other minority languages in Laos.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The Lepcha script, or Róng script, is an abugida used by the Lepcha people to write the Lepcha language.
Lepcha language, or Róng language (Lepcha: ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰛᰵᰧᰶ; Róng ríng), is a Himalayish language spoken by the Lepcha people in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal, Nepal and Bhutan.
The Limbu script is used to write the Limbu language.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Lontara or lontaraq are Bugis palm-leaf manuscripts that record knowledge on such topics as history, science, custom, and laws.
The Lontara script is a Brahmic script traditionally used for the Bugis, Makassarese and Mandar languages of Sulawesi in Indonesia.
Mahajani is a Laṇḍā mercantile script that was historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records in Hindi, Punjabi, and Marwari.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
Makassarese (sometimes spelled Makasar, Makassar, or Macassar) is a language of the Makassarese people, spoken in South Sulawesi province of Indonesia.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam script (/ Malayalam: മലയാളലിപി) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 35 million people in the world.
Malayanma script was a writing system used in Thiruvananthapuram.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Several Dhivehi scripts have been used by Maldivians during their history.
Mandar (also Andian, Manjar, Mandharsche) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Mandar ethnic group living in West Sulawesi province of Indonesia, especially in the coastal regencies of Majene and Polewali Mandar, as well as in a few settlements in the islands of Pangkep District (also known as the Spermonde Archipelago) and Ujung Lero, a small peninsula near Pare-Pare). It is written in the Lontara (Buginese) script. The ethnic Mandar people are closely related to three other groups living in South Sulawesi: Bugis, Makassar, and Toraja.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Meitei (also Manipuri, Census of India, 2001, Meithei, Meetei, Meeʁteilon) is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.
The Meitei script, Meetei Mayek, is an abugida that was used for the Meitei language, one of the official languages of the Indian state of Manipur, until the eighteenth century, when it was replaced by the Bengali script.
The Meroitic script refers to two alphasyllabaric scripts developed to write the Kushite language at the beginning of the Meroitic Period (3rd century BC) of the Kingdom of Kush.
Modi (मोडी,,; also Mudiya) is a script used to write the Marathi language, which is the primary language spoken in the state of Maharashtra, India.
The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Many alphabets have been devised for the Mongolian language over the centuries, and from a variety of scripts.
Multani is a Brahmic script originating in the Multan region of Punjab and in northern Sindh, Pakistan.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nandinagari is a Brahmic script derived from Nāgarī script which appeared in the 7th century AD.
The Nepalese scripts are alphabetic writing systems of Nepal.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
New Tai Lue script, also known as Xishuangbanna Dai and Simplified Tai Lue, is an alphabet used to write the Tai Lü language.
Newar or Newari, also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Newar people, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Northern Thai (ภาษาถิ่นพายัพ, ภาษาไทยถิ่นเหนือ), Lanna (ล้านนา), or Kam Mueang (Northern Thai:,, Thai: คำเมือง) is the language of the Northern Thai people of Lanna, Thailand.
The Odia script (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲେଖନୀ ଶୈଳୀ), also known as the Odia script, is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language.
Pahawh Hmong (RPA: Phajhauj Hmoob, known also as Ntawv Pahawh, Ntawv Keeb, Ntawv Caub Fab, Ntawv Soob Lwj) is an indigenous semi-syllabic script, invented in 1959 by Shong Lue Yang, to write two Hmong languages, Hmong Daw (Hmoob Dawb White Miao) and Hmong Njua AKA Hmong Leng (Moob Leeg Green Miao).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palawan languages are the languages of the island of Palawan and nearby islets in the Philippines.
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century AD.
The Pangasinan language or Salitan Pangasinan is one of the major languages of the Philippines.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Peter T. Daniels (born December 11, 1951, currently living in New Jersey) is a scholar of writing systems, specializing in typology.
In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pitman shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837.
The Pollard script, also known as Pollard Miao (Chinese: 柏格理苗文 Bó Gélǐ Miao-wen) or Miao, is an abugida loosely based on the Latin alphabet and invented by Methodist missionary Sam Pollard.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Rañjanā script (syn: Kutila, Lantsa) is an abugida writing system which developed in the 11th century.
The Rejang script, sometimes spelt Redjang and locally known as Surat Ulu ('upstream script'), is an abugida of the Brahmic family, and is related to other scripts of the region, like Batak, Buginese, and others.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
(Eastern) Saka or Sakan is a variety of Eastern Iranian languages, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan, Kashgar and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now southern Xinjiang, China.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.
The Saurashtra alphabet is an abugida script that is used by Saurashtrians of Tamil Nadu to write the Saurashtra language.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Schwa deletion, or schwa syncope, is a phenomenon that sometimes occurs in Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Gujarati, Maithili and several other Indo-Aryan languages with schwas that are implicit in their written scripts.
In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".
A semi-syllabary is a writing system that behaves partly as an alphabet and partly as a syllabary.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The Shan language (Shan written: လိၵ်ႈတႆး), Shan spoken: ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး), or ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး,; ရှမ်းဘာသာ,; ภาษาไทใหญ่) is the native language of the Shan people and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma. It is also spoken in pockets of Kachin State in Burma, in northern Thailand, and decreasingly in Assam. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai. It has five tones, which do not correspond exactly to Thai tones, plus a "sixth tone" used for emphasis. It is called Tai Yai, or Tai Long in the Tai languages. The number of Shan speakers is not known in part because the Shan population is unknown. Estimates of Shan people range from four million to 30 million, though the true number is somewhere around six million, with about half speaking the Shan language. In 2001 Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk estimated 3.2 million Shan speakers in Myanmar; the Mahidol University Institute for Language and Culture gave the number of Shan speakers in Thailand as 95,000 in 2006.http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language.
, also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a script used for writing Sanskrit from c. 550 – c. 1200.
The Sinhalese alphabet (Sinhalese: සිංහල අක්ෂර මාලාව) (Siṁhala Akṣara Mālāva) is an alphabet used by the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka and elsewhere to write the Sinhalese language and also the liturgical languages Pali and Sanskrit.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Soyombo alphabet (Соёмбо бичиг, Soyombo biçig) is an abugida developed by the monk and scholar Zanabazar in 1686 to write Mongolian.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
Sundanese script (Aksara Sunda) is a writing system which is used by the Sundanese people.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ Silôṭi) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, primarily spoken in the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh and in the Barak Valley of the Indian state of Assam.
Sylheti Nagari (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ ꠘꠣꠉꠞꠤ Silôṭi Nagri) is an endangered script used for writing Sylheti.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Syllabograms are signs used to write the syllables (or morae) of words.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tagbanwa, also known as Apurahuano, is one of the suyathttp://newsinfo.inquirer.net/985669/protect-all-ph-writing-systems-heritage-advocates-urge-congress writing systems of the Philippines used by the Tagbanwa people as their ethnic writing system and script.
Tai Dam, also known as Black Tai (Thai: ภาษาไทดำ;; "Black Tai language") is a Tai language spoken by the Tai Dam in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and China (mostly in Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai Autonomous County).
The Tai Le script (ᥖᥭᥰᥘᥫᥴ), or Dehong Dai script, is a script used to write the Tai Nüa language of south-central Yunnan, China.
Tai Nuea (Tai Nüa) (also called Tai Nɯa, Tai Nüa, Dehong Dai, or Chinese Shan; own name: Tai2 Lə6, which means "upper Tai" or "northern Tai", or; Chinese: Dǎinàyǔ 傣那语 or Déhóng Dǎiyǔ 德宏傣语; ภาษาไทเหนือ, or ภาษาไทใต้คง) is one of the languages spoken by the Dai people in China, especially in the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in the southwest of Yunnan province.
The Tai Tham script, Lanna script (อักษรธรรมล้านนา) or Tua Mueang (ᨲ᩠ᩅᩫᨾᩮᩥᩬᨦ,, ᨲᩫ᩠ᩅᨵᨾ᩠ᨾ᩼, Tham, "scripture"), is used for three living languages: Northern Thai (that is, Kham Mueang), Tai Lü and Khün.
The Takri script (Devanagari: ताकरी; sometimes called Tankri) is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
Telugu script (Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states.
The tengwar are an artificial script created by J. R. R. Tolkien.
Thaana, Taana or Tāna (  in Tāna script) is the present writing system of the Maldivian language spoken in the Maldives.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
Tigalari or Tulu (Tigaḷāri lipi, Tuḷu lipi) The script is also referred to as Arya Ezhuttu, Grantha Malayalam, Tulu Grantha, Tulu-Malayalam, and Western Grantha.
Tirhuta or Mithilakshar is the script used for the Maithili language originating in the Mithila region of Bihar, India and the eastern Terai region of Nepal.
Batak Toba is an Austronesian language spoken in North Sumatra province in Indonesia.
The Tocharian alphabet is a version of Brahmi script used to write the Central Asian Indo-European Tocharian languages, mostly from the 8th century (with a few earlier ones) that were written on palm leaves, wooden tablets and Chinese paper, preserved by the extremely dry climate of the Tarim Basin.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
The Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet, also spelled Vattezhutthu (literally "rounded script", வட்டெழுத்து,,; വട്ടെഴുത്ത്) is an abugida writing system originating from the ancient Tamil people of South India.
Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".
Visayan (Bisaya or Binisaya) is a group of languages of the Philippines that are related to Tagalog and Bikol languages, all three of which are part of the Central Philippine languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
William Bright (August 13, 1928 Oxnard, California – October 15, 2006 Louisville, Colorado) was an American linguist who specialized in Native American and South Asian languages and descriptive linguistics.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
In orthography, a zero consonant, silent initial, or null-onset letter is a consonant letter that does not correspond to a consonant sound, but is required when a word or syllable starts with a vowel (i.e. has a null onset).
Zhang-Zhung is an extinct Sino-Tibetan language that was spoken in what is now western Tibet.