392 relations: A History of the University in Europe, Academic Awards in Spain, Academic certificate, Academic degree, Academic stole, Act Concerning Peter's Pence and Dispensations, Ad eundem degree, Advanced Higher, Aerospace engineering, Ancient universities of Scotland, Apostles, Apostolic constitution, Apprenticeship, Archbishop of Canterbury, Architectural engineering, Arithmetic, Articulation (education), Assistant professor, Associate degree, Associate in Music, Australia, Associate of Science in Nursing, Associate professor, Association of Commonwealth Universities, Astronomy, Auckland University of Technology, Australian Qualifications Framework, Austria, École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs, Baccalauréat, Bachelor of Accountancy, Bachelor of Architecture, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Business, Bachelor of Business Administration, Bachelor of Civil Law, Bachelor of Commerce, Bachelor of Computer Application, Bachelor of Computer Science, Bachelor of Divinity, Bachelor of Economics, Bachelor of Education, Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of General Studies, Bachelor of Human Kinetics, Bachelor of Industrial Design, Bachelor of Journalism, Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of Liberal Studies, Bachelor of Library Science, ..., Bachelor of Mathematics, Bachelor of Medical Sciences, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, Bachelor of Music, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Philosophy, Bachelor of Physical Education, Bachelor of Sacred Theology, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Bachelor of Social Science, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Theology, Bachelor's degree, Bible, Biology, Biomedical engineering, Bologna declaration, Bologna Process, British degree abbreviations, Business administration, Cambridge University Press, Candidate of Sciences, Catholic Church, Catholic University of America, Certification, Chemical engineering, Chemistry, Chiropractic education, Christianity, Church Fathers, Civil engineering, Civil law (legal system), College, College education in Quebec, Colonial India, Community college, Computer engineering, Congregation for Catholic Education, Conservatoire de Paris, Credentialism and educational inflation, Dawson College, Degrees of the University of Oxford, Denmark, Dental degree, Dentistry, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, Department for Education, Diplôme universitaire, Diplom, Diploma, Diploma Supplement, Disputation, Distance education, Docent, Doctor (title), Doctor of Arts, Doctor of Audiology, Doctor of both laws, Doctor of Business Administration, Doctor of Canon Law, Doctor of Civil Law, Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Engineering, Doctor of Health Science, Doctor of humane letters, Doctor of Law, Doctor of Letters, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Ministry, Doctor of Music, Doctor of Musical Arts, Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Doctor of Pharmacy, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Physical Therapy, Doctor of Professional Studies, Doctor of Psychology, Doctor of Public Health, Doctor of Sacred Theology, Doctor of Science, Doctor of Social Work, Doctor of Theology, Doctorandus, Doctorate, Doktor nauk, Durham University, Early Christianity, Economics, Economy, Education in Scotland, Education Reform Act 1988, Educational specialist, Electrical engineering, Electronics, Engineer's degree, Engineering, Engineering Doctorate, Engineering technologist, England, English language, Environmental engineering, Europe, European Commission, European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, European Higher Education Area, European Qualifications Framework, European Union, External degree, Fachhochschule, Faculty (division), Faqīh, Fatwa, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Foundation degree, Fraud, French language, GCE Advanced Level (United Kingdom), Geometry, Government of Australia, Grade inflation, Graduate certificate, Graduate diploma, Graduate school, Grammar, Great Britain, Guild, Habilitation, High school (North America), Higher (Scottish), Higher diploma, Higher education, Honorary degree, Honours degree, Humanities, Ijazah, Institute of technology, Instituts d'études politiques, International Standard Classification of Education, Islamic Golden Age, Italy, Junior college, Juris Doctor, Keele University, Knight, Lady Literate in Arts, Lambeth degree, Latin, Laurea, Law, Law school, Legal education, Leiden University, Lexikon des Mittelalters, Liberal arts education, Licensure, Licentiate (degree), Licentiate in Music, Australia, Licentiate of Arts, Licentiate of Canon Law, Licentiate of Sacred Theology, Linguistics, Lisbon Recognition Convention, List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States, List of higher education associations and organizations in Canada, List of master's degrees in North America, List of universities in the Netherlands, Logic, Madhhab, Madrasa, Magister degree, Major (academic), Manila, Massey University, Mastère spécialisé, Master of Accountancy, Master of Advanced Studies, Master of Architecture, Master of Arts, Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), Master of Arts (Scotland), Master of Arts in Liberal Studies, Master of Arts in Teaching, Master of Business, Master of Business Administration, Master of Business Informatics, Master of Chemistry, Master of Commerce, Master of Design, Master of Divinity, Master of Education, Master of Engineering, Master of Fine Arts, Master of Laws, Master of Letters, Master of Library and Information Science, Master of Mathematics, Master of Music, Master of Philosophy, Master of Physical Therapy, Master of Physics, Master of Professional Studies, Master of Public Administration, Master of Public Affairs, Master of Public Policy, Master of Religious Education, Master of Research, Master of Sacred Theology, Master of Science, Master of Science in Information Technology, Master of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Project Management, Master of Social Science, Master of Social Work, Master of Surgery, Master of Theological Studies, Master of Theology, Master's degree, Materials science, Mathematics, Matura, McGill University, Mechanical engineering, Mechanics, Medicine, Medieval Islamic civilization: an encyclopedia, Medieval university, Mexico, Middle Ages, Midwifery, Montreal, Mufti, Music, National Science Foundation, Natural science, Naval architecture, Netherlands, Newcastle University, Nuclear engineering, Numerus clausus, Nyenrode Business University, Occupational therapy, Open University, Optometry, Oxford English Dictionary, Paris Dauphine University, Pharmacy, Physical therapy, Physical therapy education, Physician, Physics, Podiatrist, Poland, Political science, Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Pontifical university, Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Pope, Post-Soviet states, Postgraduate certificate, Postgraduate diploma, Postgraduate education, President of Poland, Principle of opportunity, Professional degree, Professional degrees of public health, Professional Doctorate in Engineering, Professor, Propaedeutics, Pupillage, QF-EHEA, Quadrivium, Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, Quebec, Quebec College Diploma, Regulation and licensure in engineering, Republic of Ireland, Rhetoric, Routledge, Royal charter, Russia, São Paulo (state), Science, Sciences Po, Scotland, Secondary education, Secondary school, Social science, Sociology, Spain, Specialist degree, Sri Lanka, Staatsexamen, Storting, Systems engineering, Technology, Test (assessment), The arts, The Guardian, Theology, Thesis, Third Council of the Lateran, Trinity College Dublin, Trivium, Ukraine, Undergraduate degree, Undergraduate education, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Education, Université catholique de Louvain, Université de Montréal, Université de Sherbrooke, Université Laval, Universities and higher education in Brazil, University, University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka), University of Aberdeen, University of Bologna, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh, University of Exeter, University of Glasgow, University of Guelph, University of London, University of Newcastle (Australia), University of Oxford, University of Paris, University of Santo Tomas, University of St Andrews, University of Wales, Lampeter, University of York, Validation of foreign studies and degrees, Vestibular exam, Veterinary physician, Vienna, Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs, World Education Services, York University. 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A History of the University in Europe is a four-volume book series on the history and development of the European university from the medieval origins of the institution until the present day.
There are three official Academic Awards in Spain.
An academic certificate is a document that certifies that a person has received specific education or has passed a test or series of tests.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.
An academic stole is a vestment used by various organizations to denote academic achievement.
The Ecclesiastical Licences Act 1533 (25 Hen 8 c 21), also known as the Act Concerning Peter's Pence and Dispensations, is an Act of the Parliament of England.
An ad eundem degree is an academic degree awarded by one university or college to an alumnus of another, in a process often known as incorporation.
The Advanced Higher is an optional qualification which forms part of the Scottish secondary education system.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist in the present day.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
An apostolic constitution (constitutio apostolica) is the highest level of decree issued by the Pope.
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Architectural engineering, also known as building engineering, is the application of engineering principles and technology to building design and construction.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Articulation, or more specifically course articulation, is the process of comparing the content of courses that are transferred between postsecondary institutions such as TAFE institutes, colleges or universities.
Assistant professor is an academic rank used in universities or colleges in the United States, Canada, and some other countries.
An associate degree (or associate's degree) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study intended to usually last two years or more.
The Associate in Music, Australia (AMusA) is a diploma awarded by examination to outstanding candidates in the fields of musical performance and music theory by the Australian Music Examinations Board (AMEB).
An Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN) is a tertiary education nursing degree which typically take 2–3 years to complete.
Associate professor (frequently capitalized as Associate Professor) is an academic title that can have different meanings.
The Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) was established in 1913, and has over 500 member institutions in over 50 countries across the Commonwealth.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Auckland University of Technology (AUT) (Te Wānanga Aronui o Tāmaki Makau Rau) is a university in New Zealand, formed on 1 January 2000 when a former technical college (originally established in 1895) was granted university status.
The Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) specifies the standards for educational qualifications in Australia.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The École nationale supérieure des Arts Décoratifs (ÉnsAD, also known as Arts Decos’, École des Arts Décoratifs) is a public grande école of art and design of PSL Research University.
The baccalauréat, often known in France colloquially as bac, is an academic qualification that French students take after high school.
The Bachelor of Accountancy, also known as Bachelor of Accounting, is the principal academic degree in accountancy in several countries, and is often the only (undergraduate) degree recognised for subsequent practice as a professional accountant; see First professional degree.
The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) is a bachelor's degree designed to satisfy the academic requirement of practicing architecture.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
A Bachelor of Business (BBus, BBus (Major)) is a three-year undergraduate business degree offered by traditional and newer universities from the post-Dawkins era in Australia, New Zealand.
The Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA or B.B.A.) is a bachelor's degree in commerce, Arts and business administration.
Bachelor of Civil Law (abbreviated BCL or B.C.L.; Baccalaureus Civilis Legis) is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities.
A Bachelor of Commerce (baccalaureates commercii, abbreviated B.Com. or B.Comm.) is an undergraduate degree in commerce (or business) and related subjects, usually awarded in Canada, Australia, India, Ireland, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa and other Commonwealth countries; however, the degree is no longer offered in the United Kingdom.
Bachelor of Computer Applications is a three-year undergraduate degree course in the field of computer applications/computer science.After BCA the students can do further studies as MCA master in computer application.
The Bachelor of Computer Science or Bachelor of Science in Computer Science (abbreviated BCompSc or BCS or BS CS or B.Sc. CS) is a type of bachelor's degree, usually awarded after three or four years of collegiate study in computer science, but possibly awarded in fewer years depending on factors such as an institution's course requirements and academic calendar.
In Western universities, a Bachelor of Divinity or Baccalaureate in Divinity (BD or BDiv; Baccalaureus Divinitatis) is an undergraduate or postgraduate academic degree awarded for a course taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines, such as theology or, rarely, religious studies.
The Bachelor of Economics (BEc or BEcon) is a three-year academic degree in the social sciences encompassing both qualitiative and quantitative courses.
A Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) is a graduate professional degree which prepares students for work as a teacher in schools, though in some countries additional work must be done in order for the student to be fully qualified to teach.
The Bachelor of Engineering, abbreviated as B.E., B.Eng., or B.A.I. (in Latin form) is a first professional undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after four to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university.
A Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA, B.F.A.) is the standard undergraduate degree for students in the United States and Canada seeking a professional education in the visual or performing arts.
A Bachelor of General Studies (BGS) is an undergraduate degree offered by many colleges and universities in the Western world.
A Bachelor of Human Kinetics (BHk or BHKin) or Bachelor of Science in Human Kinetics (BScHK) is a four-year academic degree awarded by a university upon the completion of a program of study of Human kinetics.
The Bachelor of Industrial Design (B.I.D.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by a university for a four-year course of study that specializes on the design of industrial products.
The Bachelor of Journalism (B.J.) degree is a degree awarded at some universities to students who have studied journalism in a three or four year undergraduate program.
The Bachelor of Laws (Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictionsexcept the United States and Canadaas the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer.
The purpose of the Bachelor of Liberal Studies degree is to provide students with a solid multidisciplinary preparation in the Humanities, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and the Arts, subsequently allowing them to pursue careers in education, business, government, and other such fields.
The bachelor of library science (or “bachelor of library and information science”) is a degree sometimes awarded to students majoring in library science.
A Bachelor of Mathematics is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for successfully completing a program of study in mathematics or related disciplines, such as computer science or statistics.
A Bachelor of Medical Sciences (Honours) (BMedSci, BMedSc, BMSc, BSci(Med) or Bachelor of Medical Sciences is an undergraduate academic degree awarded after four years of collegiate study in medicine. Medical science graduates learn in depth about the human body; developing skills and knowledge on how the human body functions and how it reacts to disease and the drugs that are used to treat disease. It is possible for medical students to take an additional year that involves medical research that allows them to be conferred honours (BMedSc(Hons)) but this usually requires a high grade point average. Graduates may enter a diverse range of roles including post-graduate studies, clinical medicine, academic research, biotech, pharmaceutical industry and broader consulting roles.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in '''Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae'''. (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom.
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of a program of study in music.
A Bachelor of Pharmacy (abbreviated B Pharm or BS Pharm) is an undergraduate academic degree in the field of pharmacy.
Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil., B.Ph., Ph.B. or PhB; Latin Baccalaureus Philosophiae or Philosophiae Baccalaureus) is the title of an academic degree.
A Bachelor of Physical Education (BPE or BPhEd) is a bachelor degree granted by some universities.
The Bachelor of Sacred Theology (Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus; abbreviated STB) is a graduate-level academic degree in theology.
A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.
The Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, usually abbreviated as either B.Sc.(Agr.) or B.S.A. or B.Sc.(Ag.) or B.Sc.
A Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering is a kind of bachelor's degree typically conferred after a four year undergraduate course of study in biomedical engineering (BME).
The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN, BScN) also known in some countries as a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) or Bachelor of Science (BS) with a Major in Nursing is an academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by an accredited tertiary education provider.
The academic undergraduate degree of Bachelor of Social Science (B.Soc.Sc. or B.Soc.Sci.) requires three to four years of study at an institution of higher education, primarily found in the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Bachelor of Technology (Latin Baccalaureus Technologie, commonly abbreviated as B.Tech.; with Honours as B.Tech. (Hons.); or BTech) is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three-year, a four-year, or even a five-year (such as in Nigeria) program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution.
The Bachelor of Theology degree (BTh, ThB, or BTheol) is a three- to five-year undergraduate degree in theological disciplines.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
The Bologna Declaration (in full, Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Education convened in Bologna on 19 June 1999) is the main guiding document of the Bologna process.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.
Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such as Who's Who and on business cards.
Business administration is management of a business.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Kandidat nauk (Кандидат наук, literally "Candidate of Sciences") is the first of two doctoral level scientific degrees in some former Soviet countries.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic University of America (CUA) is a private, non-profit Catholic university located in Washington, D.C., in the United States.
Certification refers to the confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chiropractic education trains students in chiropractic, a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine under the belief that such a disorder affects general health via the nervous system.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A college (Latin: collegium) is an educational institution or a constituent part of one.
College education, informally referred to as College and often incorrectly by the umbrella acronym CEGEP in the Canadian province of Quebec is the post-secondary level immediately after high-school but required for university admissions.
Colonial India was the part of the Indian subcontinent which was under the jurisdiction of European colonial powers, during the Age of Discovery.
A community college is a type of educational institution.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
The Congregation for Catholic Education (Institutes of Study) is the Pontifical congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for: (1) universities, faculties, institutes and higher schools of study, either ecclesial or non-ecclesiastical dependent on ecclesial persons; and (2) schools and educational institutes depending on ecclesiastical authorities.
The Conservatoire de Paris (English: Paris Conservatory) is a college of music and dance founded in 1795 associated with PSL Research University.
Credentialism and educational inflation are any of a number of related processes involving increased demands for formal educational qualifications, and the devaluation of these qualifications.
Dawson College is an English-language Collège d’enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP) located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The system of academic degrees at the University of Oxford can be confusing to those not familiar with it.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
There are a number of professional degrees in dentistry offered by dental schools in various countries around the world.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) was a ministerial department of the United Kingdom Government created on 5 June 2009 by the merger of the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) and the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (BERR).
The Department for Education (DfE) is a department of Her Majesty's Government responsible for child protection, education (compulsory, further and higher education), apprenticeships and wider skills in England.
In France, a diplôme universitaire (DU, in English "university degree") or interuniversitaire (DIU, in English "inter-university degree") is a degree from a French university, a grand établissement or Établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel, or many establishments jointly, as opposed to national diplomas, which are issued on behalf of the Ministry.
A Diplom (from δίπλωμα diploma) is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland (only for engineers), France, Greece, Hungary, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine.
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as college or university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study.
The Diploma Supplement is a document accompanying a European higher education diploma, providing a standardised description of the nature, level, context, content and status of the studies completed by its holder.
In the scholastic system of education of the Middle Ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in sciences.
Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school.
Docent is a title at some European universities to denote a specific academic appointment within a set structure of academic ranks at or below the full professor rank.
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.
The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D. from the Latin artium doctor) is a discipline-based terminal doctoral degree that was originally conceived and designed to be an alternative to the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the education-based Doctor of Education (Ed.D.). Like other doctorates, the D.A. is an academic degree of the highest level.
The Doctor of Audiology (Au.D.) is a professional degree for an audiologist.
A Doctor of Canon and Civil Law, from the Latin doctor utriusque juris, or juris utriusque doctor, or doctor juris utriusque ("doctor of both laws") (abbreviations include: JUD, IUD, DUJ, JUDr., DUI, DJU, Dr.iur.utr., Dr.jur.utr., DIU, UJD and UID) is a scholar who has acquired a doctorate in both civil law and church law.
The Doctor of Business Administration (abbreviated DBA, D.B.A., DrBA, or Dr.B.A. or BusD) is a research doctorate awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in the field of business administration.
Doctor of Canon Law (Juris Canonici Doctor; J.C.D.) is the doctoral-level terminal degree in the studies of canon law of the Roman Catholic Church.
Doctor of Civil Law (DCL; Doctor Civilis Legis) is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws (LLD) degrees.
Doctor of Divinity (DD or DDiv; Doctor Divinitatis) is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity.
The Doctor of Education (EdD or DEd; Latin Educationis Doctor or Doctor Educationis) is a doctoral degree that has a research focus in the field of education.
The Doctor of Engineering, or Engineering Doctorate, (abbreviated Eng.D., D.Eng., D.Engr., Dr.Eng., or Dr.-Ing.) is a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in engineering and applied sciences.
The Doctor of Health Science (D.H.S. or D.H.Sc.) is a post-professional academic degree for those who intend to pursue or advance a professional practice career in Health Arts and Sciences, and Health Care Delivery Systems, to include clinical practice, education, administration, and research.
The degree of Doctor of Humane Letters (D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is almost always conferred as an honorary degree, usually to those students who have distinguished themselves in areas other than science, government, literature or religion, which are awarded degrees of Doctor of Science, Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Letters, or Doctor of Divinity, respectively.
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.
Doctor of Letters (D.Litt., Litt.D., D. Lit., or Lit. D.; Latin Litterarum Doctor or Doctor Litterarum) is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be beyond the Ph.D. and equal to the Doctor of Science (Sc.D. or D.Sc.). It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
The Doctor of Ministry (D.Min.) degree is a professional doctorate which may be earned by a minister of religion while concurrently engaged in some form of ministry.
The Doctor of Music degree (D.Mus., D.M., Mus.D. or occasionally Mus.Doc.) is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of a substantial portfolio of compositions and/or scholarly publications on music.
The Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) is a doctoral academic degree in music.
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) is a professional doctoral degree for physicians and surgeons offered by medical schools in the United States.
A Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.; New Latin Pharmaciae Doctor) is a professional doctorate in pharmacy.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
In the United States a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree is a post-baccalaureate degree that takes 3 years to complete following completion of a Bachelor's degree.
The Doctor of Professional Studies (or sometimes awarded as Doctorate in Professional Practice) (most commonly DProf, but also available as ProfD and DPS) is a doctoral degree for experienced professionals who wish to undertake a programme that is applied in nature and of practical value to their career.The Dprof is based on applied research of real world problems.
The Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D) is a professional doctoral degree intended to prepare graduates for practice in psychotherapy.
The Doctor of Public Health (abbr. DrPH or DPH; Latin Publica Sanitas Doctor) is a doctoral degree awarded in the field of Public Health.
Doctor of Sacred Theology (Sacrae Theologiae Doctor; formerly Professor of Sacred Theology, Sacrae Theologiae Professor) is the final theological degree in the pontifical university system of the Roman Catholic Church.
Doctor of Science (Latin: Scientiae Doctor), usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world.
While the master of social work (MSW) degree is widely accepted as a terminal professional degree in the field, the doctor of social work (DSW) is a professional doctorate in social work, most often offering advanced training in a professional area of practice.
Doctor of Theology (Doctor Theologiae, abbreviated D.Th., Th.D., D.Theol., or Dr. theol.) is a terminal degree in the academic discipline of theology.
Doctorandus, abbreviated drs., is a Dutch academic title according to the pre-Bachelor–Master system.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Doktor nauk (p; До́ктор нау́к; Доктор на науките; Доктар навук; "Doctor of Sciences") is a higher doctoral degree which may be earned after the Candidate of Sciences (the latter is informally regarded in Russia and many other post-Soviet states as equivalent to the PhD obtained in countries in which the PhD is not the highest academic degree).
Durham University (legally the University of Durham) is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Education in Scotland is overseen by the Scottish Government and has a history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from those in the other countries of the United Kingdom.
The Education Reform Act 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of education legislation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland since the 'Butler' Education Act 1944.
The Education Specialist, also referred to as Educational Specialist or Specialist in Education (Ed.S. or S.Ed.), is a terminal professional degree in the U.S. that is designed to provide knowledge and theory beyond the master's degree level.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An engineer's degree is an advanced academic degree in engineering that is conferred in Europe, some countries of Latin America, and a few institutions in the United States.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
The Engineering Doctorate scheme is a British postgraduate education programme promoted by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).
An engineering technologist is a professional trained in certain aspects of development and implementation of a respective area of technology.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Environmental engineering system is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of scientific and engineering principles for protection of human populations from the effects of adverse environmental factors; protection of environments, both local and global, from potentially deleterious effects of natural and human activities; and improvement of environmental quality.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits are a standard means for comparing the "volume of learning based on the defined learning outcomes and their associated workload" for higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries.
The European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference.
The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) acts as a translation device to make national qualifications more readable across Europe, promoting workers' and learners' mobility between countries and facilitating their lifelong learning.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
An external degree is a degree offered by a university to students who have not been required to be physically present within the geographic territory of the institution.
A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas (e.g. engineering, technology or business).
A faculty is a division within a university or college comprising one subject area, or a number of related subject areas.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (also referred to as The Fletcher School) is the oldest school in the United States dedicated solely to graduate studies in international affairs.
A foundation degree is a combined academic and vocational qualification in higher education, equivalent to two thirds of an honours bachelor's degree, introduced by the government of the United Kingdom in September 2001.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced Level, or A Level, is a main school leaving qualification in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Grade inflation is used in two senses: (1) grading leniency: the awarding of higher grades than students deserve, which yields a higher average grade given to students (2) the tendency to award progressively higher academic grades for work that would have received lower grades in the past.
A graduate certificate is an educational credential representing completion of specialized training at the college or university level.
A graduate diploma (GradD, GDip, GrDip, GradDip) is generally a qualification taken after completion of a first degree, although the level of study varies in different countries from being at the same level as the final year of a bachelor's degree to being at a level between a master's degree and a doctorate.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries.
High school is a term primarily used in the United States to describe the level of education students receive from approximately 14 to 18 years old, although there is some variation.
In the Scottish secondary education system, the Higher is one of the national school-leaving certificate exams and university entrance qualifications of the Scottish Qualifications Certificate (SQC) offered by the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
A higher diploma is an academic award in Iraq, Libya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Ireland and Oman.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
The term "honours degree" (or "honors degree") has various meanings in the context of different degrees and education systems.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
An ijazah (الإِجازَة., "permission", "authorization", "license") is a license authorizing its holder to transmit a certain text or subject, which is issued by someone already possessing such authority.
An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and sometimes natural sciences.
Instituts d'études politiques, or IEPs, are ten publicly owned institutions of higher learning in France.
The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education maintained by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
A junior college is a post-secondary educational institution designed to prepare students for either skilled trades or for additional education at another college with more advanced academic material.
The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees.
Keele University, officially known as the University of Keele, is a public research university located about 3 miles (5 km) from Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
A Lady Literate in Arts (LLA) qualification was offered by the University of St Andrews in Scotland for more than a decade before women were allowed to graduate in the same way as men, and it became popular as a kind of external degree for women who had studied through correspondence, or by attendance at non-university classes.
A Lambeth degree is an academic degree conferred by the Archbishop of Canterbury under the authority of the Ecclesiastical Licences Act 1533 (25 Hen VIII c 21) (Eng) as successor of the papal legate in England.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In Italy, the Iaurea is the main post-secondary academic degree.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
Legal education is the education of individuals in the principles, practices, and theory of law.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
The Lexikon des Mittelalters ("Lexicon of the Middle Ages", LMA, LexMA) is a German encyclopedia on the history and culture of the Middle Ages.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
Licensure means a restricted practice or a restriction on the use of an occupational title, requiring a license.
A licentiate is a degree below that of a PhD given by universities in some countries.
The Licentiate in Music, Australia (LMusA) is a diploma awarded by examination to outstanding candidates in the fields of musical performance and music theory by the Australian Music Examinations Board (AMEB).
The Licentiate of Arts is a degree roughly equivalent to the completion of half the coursework required for a doctoral dissertation in arts.
Licentiate of Canon Law (Juris Canonici Licentia; JCL) is the title of an advanced graduate degree with canonical effects in the Roman Catholic Church offered by pontifical universities and ecclesiastical faculties of canon law.
Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL) is the second cycle of studies of a faculty of theology offered by pontifical universities or Ecclesiastical Faculties of sacred theology.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The Lisbon Recognition Convention, officially the Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region, is an international convention of the Council of Europe elaborated together with the UNESCO.
This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey.
This is a list of higher education associations and organizations in Canada.
This list refers to specific master's degrees in North America.
A listing of universities in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.
An academic major is the academic discipline to which an undergraduate student formally commits.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Massey University (Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa) is a university based in Раlmеrstоn Nоrth, Nеw Zеаlаnd, with significant campuses in Аlbаny and Wellington.
The Mastère Spécialisé, also called the Specialized Master or Advanced Master is a French post-graduate specialization degree created in 1986 by the French Conférence des Grandes Écoles.
The Master of Accountancy (M.Acc. or M.Acy.), alternatively Master of Science in Accountancy (M.S.Acy.) or Master of Professional Accountancy (M.P.Acy.) is a graduate professional degree designed to prepare students for public accounting and to provide them with the 150 credit hours of classroom, but mostly clinical hours, required by most states before taking the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination.
A Master of Advanced Studies or Master of Advanced Study (MAS, M.A.S., or MASt) is a postgraduate degree awarded in various countries.
The Master of Architecture (M.Arch.) is a professional degree in architecture, qualifying the graduate to move through the various stages of professional accreditation (internship, exams) that result in receiving a license.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university (including years as an undergraduate).
The degree of Master of Arts in Scotland typically refers to an undergraduate degree (either a three-year general degree or four-year Honours degree) in humanities or social sciences awarded by one of the ancient universities of Scotland (the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh) plus the University of Dundee (as a result of its history as a constituent college of the University of St Andrews) and Heriot-Watt University (at honours level only).
The Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (ALM, MLA, MLS, or MALS) is a graduate degree that aims to provide both depth and breadth of study in the liberal arts.
The Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) or Master of Science in Teaching (MST) degree is generally a pre-service degree that usually requires a minimum of 30 semester hours beyond the bachelor's degree.
A Master of Business (MBus) or Master of Business Studies (MBS) is an academic degree refers to a qualification in the degree of master that can be obtained by students of recognized universities and colleges who complete the relevant approved postgraduate programmes of study, pass the prescribed examinations, and fulfil all other prescribed conditions.
The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) is a master's degree in business administration (management).
Master of Business Informatics (MBI) is a postgraduate degree in Business Informatics (BI).
A Master of Chemistry (or M.Chem) degree is a specific master's degree for courses in the field of Chemistry.
Master of Commerce (MCom or M Comm; sometimes Magister Commercii) is a postgraduate master's degree focusing on commerce-, accounting-, management- and economics-related subjects.
A Master of Design (MDes, M.Des. or M.Design) is a postgraduate academic master degree in the field of Design awarded by several academic institutions around the world.
In the academic study of theology, the Master of Divinity (MDiv, magister divinitatis in Latin) is the first professional degree of the pastoral profession in North America.
The Master of Education (M.Ed. or Ed.M.; Latin Magister Educationis or Educationis Magister) is a master's degree awarded by universities in many countries.
A Master of Engineering degree (abbreviated MEng, M.E. or M.Eng.) can be either an academic or professional master's degree in the field of engineering.
A Master of Fine Arts (MFA or M.F.A.) is a creative degree in fine arts, including visual arts, creative writing, graphic design, photography, filmmaking, dance, theatre, other performing arts—or in some cases, theatre management or arts administration.
The Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Magister Legum or Legum Magister) is a postgraduate academic degree, pursued by those either holding an undergraduate academic law degree, a professional law degree, or an undergraduate degree in a related subject.
The Master of Letters degree (MLitt or LittM; Latin Magister Litterarum or Litterarum Magister) is a postgraduate degree.
The Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) is the master's degree that is required for most professional librarian positions in the United States and Canada.
A Master of Mathematics (or MMath) degree is a specific integrated master's degree for courses in the field of mathematics.
The Master of Music (M.M. or M.Mus.) is, as an academic title, the first graduate degree in Music awarded by universities and conservatories.
The Master of Philosophy (abbr. M.Phil. or MPhil, sometimes Ph.M.; Latin Magister Philosophiae or Philosophiae Magister) is a postgraduate degree.
The Master of Physical Therapy (MPT) is a post baccalaureate degree conferred upon successful completion of an accredited Physical therapy professional education program.
A Master of Physics (or MPhys (Hons)) honours degree is a specific master's degree for courses in the field of physics.
Master of Professional Studies (MPS or M.P.S.) is a type of master's degree concentrated in an applied field of study.
The Master of Public Administration (M.P.Adm., M.P.A., or MPA) is a professional graduate degree in public administration, similar to the Master of Business Administration but with an emphasis on the issues of governance.
The Master of Public Affairs (M.P.A.), one of several public affairs degrees, historically has been a master level professional degree offered in public policy schools that provides training in public policy and the operation of government.
The Master of Public Policy (MPP), one of several public policy degrees, is a master's level professional degree that provides training in policy analysis and program evaluation at public policy schools.
The Master of Religious Education is a terminal academic degree in preparation for professional teaching ministry, usually offered by Christian institutions.
A Master of Research (abbr. MRes) degree is an internationally recognised advanced postgraduate research degree.
The Master of Sacred Theology (Latin: Sacrae Theologiae Magister; abbreviated S.T.M.) is a graduate-level, North American, academic degree in theology equivalent to Th.M. One must normally have an M.Div. or an M.A. in a theological field before being admitted to study for the S.T.M. The S.T.M. typically is designed to enhance a student’s academic credentials for entrance to a doctoral program.
A Master of Science (Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM, or Sc.M.) is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries, or a person holding such a degree.
A Master of Science in Information Technology (abbreviated M.Sc. IT, MSc IT or MSIT) is a type of postgraduate academic master's degree usually offered in a University's College of Business and in the recent years in integrated Information Science & Technology colleges.
A Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) is an advanced-level postgraduate degree for registered nurses and is considered an entry-level degree for nurse educators and managers.
The Master of Science in Project Management (M.S.P.M.), also known as Master in Project Management (M.P.M.) is a professional advanced degree in project management.
A Master of Social Science (MSSc or M.Soc.Sci) is a Master's degree which has a number of different meanings dependent upon the education system in question.
The Master of Social Work (MSW) is a master's degree in the field of social work.
The Master of Surgery (Latin: Magister Chirurgiae) is an advanced qualification in surgery.
A Master of Theological Studies (M.T.S.) is a graduate degree, offered in theological seminary or graduate faculty of theology, which gives students lay training in theological studies.
In North America, the Master of Theology (Theologiae Magister, abbreviated ThM) is a post graduate or doctoral degree considered by the Association of Theological Schools to be the minimum educational credential for teaching theological subjects in accredited seminaries and graduate schools.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia in the English language about culture of the Islamic world in Middle Ages.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Midwifery is the health science and health profession that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (including care of the newborn), in addition to the sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Newcastle University (officially, the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England.
Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of breaking down atomic nuclei (fission) or of combining atomic nuclei (fusion), or with the application of other sub-atomic processes based on the principles of nuclear physics.
Numerus clausus ("closed number" in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university.
Nyenrode Business Universiteit, formerly spelled as Nijenrode, is a Dutch business school and one of four private universities in the Netherlands.
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.
The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Paris Dauphine University (Université Paris-Dauphine), often referred to as Paris Dauphine or Dauphine, is a public research and higher education institution in Paris, France.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
Physical therapy education varies greatly from country to country.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
A podiatrist, also known as a podiatric physician (/poʊˈdaɪətrɪst/ poh-dye-eh-trist) or "foot and ankle surgeon", is a medical doctor devoted to the study and medical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, PUCP) is a private university in Lima, Peru.
Pontifical universities are higher education ecclesiastical schools established or approved directly by the Holy See, composed of three main ecclesiastical faculties (Theology, Philosophy and Canon Law) and at least one other faculty.
The Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas (PUST), also known as the Angelicum in honor of its patron the Doctor Angelicus Thomas Aquinas, is located in the historic center of Rome, Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
A postgraduate certificate (abbreviated as PGCert, PgCert, PG Cert, PGC, or PgC) is a postgraduate qualification in the United Kingdom at the level of a master's degree (level 7 of the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, level 11 of the Framework for Qualification of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland).
A postgraduate diploma (PgD, PgDip, PGDip, PG Dip., PGD, Dipl. PG, PDE) is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
The President of the Republic of Poland (Prezydent Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, shorter form: Prezydent RP) is the head of state of Poland.
The principle of opportunity is a principle in Dutch law (opportuniteitsbeginsel), Swedish law, Slovenian law and French law.
A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession, often meeting the academic requirements for licensure or accreditation.
The Master of Public Health (M.P.H.), Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH), Master of Medical Science in Public Health (MMSPH) and the Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.), International Masters for Health Leadership (IMHL) are multi-disciplinary professional degrees awarded for studies in areas related to public health.
The Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng) is a Dutch degree awarded to graduates of a Technological Designer (engineering) program that develop their students' capabilities to work within a professional context.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
Propaedeutics or propedeutics (from Ancient Greek προπαίδευσις, propaídeusis, "preparatory education") is a historical term for an introductory course into a discipline, that is an art, or science.
A pupillage, in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Kenya, Pakistan.
Qualifications Frameworks in the European Higher Education Area (QF-EHEA) are frameworks describing the higher education qualifications of countries participating in the Bologna Process.
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.
The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) is the independent body that checks on standards and quality in UK higher education.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Quebec's system of college education results in multiple types college degrees with diplomas.
Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public, and to define the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to practice engineering and/or provide engineering professional services to the public.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The specialist degree is an academic degree conferred by a college or university.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Staatsexamen ("State examination" or "exam by State"; pl.: Staatsexamina) is a German government licensing examination that future physicians, teachers, pharmacists, food chemists, psychotherapists and jurists (i.e., lawyers, judges, public prosecutors, civil-law notaries) as well as surveyors have to pass to be allowed to work in their profession.
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
The Third Council of the Lateran met in March 1179 as the eleventh ecumenical council.
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
An undergraduate degree (also called first degree, bachelor's degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses.
Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.
The University of Louvain (Université catholique de Louvain, UCL) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university.
The Université de Montréal (UdeM) is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
The Université de Sherbrooke is a large public French-language university in Quebec, Canada with campuses located in Sherbrooke and Longueuil, a suburb of Montreal approximately west of Sherbrooke.
Université Laval (Laval University) is a French-language, public research university in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
Brazil adopts a mixed system of public and private funded universities.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University Grants Commission (UGC) is the body responsible for funding most of the State Universities in Sri Lanka, and operates within the frame work of the Universities Act No.
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.
The University of Bologna (Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Exeter is a public research university in Exeter, Devon, South West England, United Kingdom.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of Guelph (U of G) is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Newcastle (UoN), informally known as Newcastle University, is an Australian public university established in 1965.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines, or simply the University of Santo Tomas (UST), is a private, Roman Catholic research university in Manila, Philippines.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
University of Wales, Lampeter (Prifysgol Cymru, Llanbedr Pont Steffan) was a university in Lampeter, Wales.
The University of York (abbreviated as Ebor or York for post-nominals) is a collegiate plate glass research university located in the city of York, England.
The Validation or recognition of foreign studies and degrees is the process whereby a competent authority in one country formally recognises the value of a qualification from a foreign country.
The Vestibular (from vestíbulo, "entrance hall") is a competitive examination and is the primary and widespread entrance system used by Brazilian universities to select the students admitted.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs (VWO, meaning "preuniversity secondary education" in Dutch) is the highest variant in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands, attended by approximately a fifth of all Dutch high school students.
World Education Services (WES) is a nonprofit organization that provides credential evaluations for international students and immigrants planning to study or work in the U.S. and Canada.
York University (Université York) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
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