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An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. [1]

426 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abstract management, Académie française, Académie royale d'architecture, Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, Academia Secretorum Naturae, Academic acceleration, Academic administration, Academic art, Academic careerism, Academic conference, Academic dishonesty, Academic history, Academic institution, Academic journal, Academic mobility, Academic paper mill, Academic publishing, Academic ranks in the United Kingdom, Academic ranks in the United States, Academic tenure, Academic writing, Academician, Academies (Shuyuan), Academy (English school), Academy Awards, Academy of Arts, Berlin, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Academy of sciences, Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna, Academy of St Martin in the Fields, Accademia degli Incamminati, Accademia degli Infiammati, Accademia degli Intronati, Accademia dei Lincei, Accademia del Cimento, Accademia della Crusca, Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze, Accademia di San Luca, Accademia Fiorentina, Accademia Galileiana, Accademia nazionale delle scienze, Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, Accademia Pontaniana, Agathias, Age of Enlightenment, Akademos, Al-Azhar University, Al-Mustansir (Baghdad), ..., Alfonso V of Aragon, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Revolution, Anagram, Ancient Greece, Ancient higher-learning institutions, Andrew Odlyzko, Anti-intellectualism, Antiochus of Ascalon, Antonio Beccadelli (poet), Arcesilaus, Archery, Aristotle, Arithmetic, Arthashastra, Artillery, Associate degree, Astronomy, Athena, Athens, Attic Greek, Australian Defence Force Academy, Ayurveda, École Militaire, Bachelor's degree, Baghdad, Bartolomeo Platina, Basilios Bessarion, Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Bihar, Bologna, Bologna Process, Brandenburg, Breaking Away, Brera Academy, Business Academy Bexley, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine university, Cairo, Calabria, Cambridge, Cardinal Richelieu, Carneades, Cathedral, Chancellor (education), Chandragupta Maurya, Charaka, Charles Borromeo, Charles II of England, Charter school, Christianity, Church of England, Cimon, Classical antiquity, Claudio Tolomei, Clitomachus (philosopher), Cognitive science, College rivalry, Concert, Cosimo de' Medici, Council of Florence, Crantor, Crates of Athens, Credentialism and educational inflation, Ctesiphon, Curriculum vitae, Damascius, Dean (education), Deerfield Academy, Diadochus, Discipline (academia), Dissenting academies, Doctorate, Duke University Press, Economics, Edessa, Edinburgh Academy, Education, Education in England, Educational institution, Educational specialist, Egypt, Elephant, Elitism, Emperor Shun, England, Erasmus, Erfurt, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Europe, Faculty (academic staff), Fellow of the Royal Society, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Fez, Morocco, Figure drawing, Filippo Buonaccorsi, Florence, France, Frederick I of Prussia, Frederick IV of Denmark, Freedom of religion, French Academy of Sciences, French language, French mathematical seminars, Fruitbearing Society, Galileo Galilei, Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Gemistus Pletho, Geometry, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Giovanni Antonio Campani, Giovanni Pontano, Giulio Strozzi, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Graduate school, Grammar, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Greece, Greek hero cult, Grove (nature), Guild, Guild of Saint Luke, Gymnasium (ancient Greece), Gymnasium (school), Harran, Heidelberg, Hellenistic period, Heraclides Ponticus, Hero, Higher education, Higher education in Canada, Hindustan, History of Athens, Holy Roman Empire, House of Farnese, Howard Greenley, Humanism, Humanities, Humboldt University of Berlin, Humboldt's Ideal, Hunting, Iamblichus, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Illinois, Imperial Academy of Arts, India, Indiana, Intellectual, Intellectual inbreeding, Interdisciplinarity, Internet, Ippolito de' Medici, Isaac Newton, Islamabad, Italian language, Italian Renaissance, Italy, Ivory tower, Jataka tales, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Julius Pomponius Laetus, Justinian I, Khosrow I, Knight academy, Knowledge, Koine Greek, Lacydes of Cyrene, Late antiquity, Law school, Learned society, Lecturer, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Leopoldo de' Medici, Liberal arts education, Librarian, Library of Alexandria, Lisbon Academy of Sciences, List of academic ranks, List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States, List of honorary societies, List of rulers of Tuscany, Logic, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Lucca, Ludwig von Pastor, Lyceum, Lyceum (Classical), Lynn Thorndike, Madrasa, Mali, Mantua, Maria Theresa, Marsilio Ficino, Master's degree, Maurya Empire, Medical research, Medical school, Medieval university, Michigan, Middle school, Military academies in Russia, Military Academy Karlberg, Military Academy of Modena, Military engineering, Military science, Modena, Modern Paganism, Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, Music, Mustansiriya Madrasah, Nalanda, Nanjing, Nanjing University, National academy, Nature (journal), Neoplatonism, New Learning, New York (state), Nonconformist, Northwest Territory, O2 Brixton Academy, Officer (armed forces), Ofsted, Ohio, Olive, Outline of academic disciplines, Oxford, Padua, Paganism, Pakistan, Paris, Paris Opera, Peer review, Pennsylvania, Personal identity, Philip of Opus, Phillips Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy, Philo of Larissa, Philosophy, Plato, Platonic Academy, Platonic Academy (Florence), Platonism in the Renaissance, Plutarch, Polemon (scholarch), Police academy, Pope, Pope Paul II, Postgraduate education, Practice research, Practice-based research network, Preprint, Priest, Primary education, Prince-elector, Proceedings, Professional studies, Professor, Prussia, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Pseudo-scholarship, Pseudoscience, Publio Fausto Andrelini, Publish or perish, Quadrivium, Quattrocento, Ravenna, Reader (academic rank), Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Reformation, Renaissance humanism, Research, Research associate, Research fellow, Rhetoric, Robert Hooke, Robert K. Merton, Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, Royal Academy of Arts, Royal Academy of Music, Royal charter, Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Military Academy, Royal Dublin Society, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, Royal Society, Royal Society of Edinburgh, Royal Spanish Academy, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Russia, Russian Academy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Empire, Saint, Salon (Paris), Sanctuary, Sanseverino, Sanskrit, Sasanian family tree, Scholarly method, School of Chartres, Science (journal), Scientific community, Scientific method, Screen media practice research, Secondary education, Secularity, Seminar, Sewanee: The University of the South, Shang Xiang, Simplicius of Cilicia, Skill, Social work, Sophist, Soviet Union, Speusippus, Spider, Square academic cap, Sri Lanka, Swedish Academy, Syncretism, Syriac Christianity, Tam o' shanter (cap), Taxila, Taxila city, Teacher education, Tertiary education, Test Act, The arts, The Carracci, The Guardian, Theresian Military Academy, Thomas Aquinas, Thucydides, Timbuktu, Treatise, Trento, Trivium, Turin, Undergraduate education, Unicorn, United Kingdom, United Kingdom general election, 2010, United States, United States Air Force Academy, United States Military Academy, United States Naval Academy, University, University College London, University don, University of Al Quaraouiyine, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, University of Paris, University of Pennsylvania, University of Timbuktu, University of Virginia, Vatican Library, Vedas, Venice, Vernacular, Villa Medici at Careggi, West Point, New York, Western Schism, White Deer Grotto Academy, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Wisdom, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Workplace bullying in academia, Xenocrates, Youyu County, Yuelu Academy. Expand index (376 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abstract management

Abstract management is the process of accepting and preparing abstracts for presentation at an academic conference.

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Académie française

The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

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Académie royale d'architecture

The Académie Royale d'Architecture (Royal Academy of Architecture), founded in 1671, was a French learned society, which had a leading role in influencing architectural theory and education, not only in France, but throughout Europe and the Americas from the late 17th century to the mid-20th.

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Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture

The Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was the premier art institution in France in the eighteenth century.

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Academia Secretorum Naturae

The first scientific society, the Academia Secretorum Naturae was founded in Naples in 1560 by Giambattista della Porta, a noted polymath.

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Academic acceleration

Academic acceleration is the advancement of gifted students in subjects at a rate that places them ahead of where they would be in the regular school curriculum.

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Academic administration

Academic administration is a branch of university or college employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the faculty or academics, although some personnel may have joint responsibilities.

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Academic art

Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting, sculpture, and architecture produced under the influence of European academies of art.

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Academic careerism

Academic careerism is the tendency of academics (professors specifically and intellectuals generally) to pursue their own enrichment and self-advancement at the expense of honest inquiry, unbiased research and dissemination of truth to their students and society.

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Academic conference

An academic conference or symposium is a conference for researchers (not necessarily academics) to present and discuss their work.

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Academic dishonesty

Academic dishonesty, academic misconduct or academic fraud is any type of cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise.

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Academic history

An academic history can be a large, multivolume work such as the Cambridge Modern History, written collaboratively under some central editorial control.

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Academic institution

Academic institution is an educational institution dedicated to education and research, which grants academic degrees.

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Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Academic mobility

Academic mobility refers to students and teachers in higher education moving to another institution inside or outside of their own country to study or teach for a limited time.

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Academic paper mill

In academia, a paper mill may refer to.

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Academic publishing

Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

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Academic ranks in the United Kingdom

Academic ranks in the United Kingdom are the titles, relative importance and power of academic employees.

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Academic ranks in the United States

Academic ranks in the United States are the titles, relative importance and power of professors, researchers, and administrative personnel held in academia.

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Academic tenure

A tenured appointment is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discontinuation.

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Academic writing

Academic writing is conducted in several sets of forms and genres, normally in an impersonal and dispassionate tone, targeted for a critical and informed audience, based on closely investigated knowledge, and intended to reinforce or challenge concepts or arguments.

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An academician is a full member of an artistic, literary, or scientific academy.

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Academies (Shuyuan)

The Shūyuàn, usually known in English as Academies or Academies of Classical Learning, were a type of school in ancient China.

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Academy (English school)

Academy schools are state-funded schools in England which are directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control.

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Academy of Arts, Berlin

The Academy of Arts (Akademie der Künste) is a state arts institution in Berlin, Germany.

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Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS (often pronounced as am-pas), also known as simply the Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures.

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Academy of sciences

An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences that may or may not be state funded.

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Academy of Sciences Leopoldina

The Leopoldina is the national academy of Germany.

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Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna

The Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna (Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna) is an academic society in Bologna, Italy, that was founded in 1714 and prospered in the Age of Enlightenment.

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Academy of St Martin in the Fields

The Academy of St Martin in the Fields (ASMF) is an English chamber orchestra, based in London.

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Accademia degli Incamminati

The Accademia degli Incamminati (Italian for "Academy of Those who are Making Progress" or "Academy of the Journeying") was one of the first art academies in Italy, founded in 1582 in Bologna It was founded as the Accademia dei Desiderosi ("Academy of the Desirous") and sometimes known as the Accademia dei Carracci after its founders the three Carracci cousins: Agostino, Annibale and Ludovico.

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Accademia degli Infiammati

The Accademia degli Infiammati ("Academy of the Burning Ones") was a short-lived but influential philosophical and literary academy in Padua, in northern Italy.

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Accademia degli Intronati

The Accademia degli Intronati was the center of intellectual life in Siena around the 1550s.

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Accademia dei Lincei

The Accademia dei Lincei (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

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Accademia del Cimento

The Accademia del Cimento (Academy of Experiment), an early scientific society, was founded in Florence in 1657 by students of Galileo, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli and Vincenzo Viviani and ceased to exist about a decade later.

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Accademia della Crusca

The Accademia della Crusca ("Academy of the Bran"), generally abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence.

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Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze

The Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze ("academy of fine arts of Florence") is an instructional art academy in Florence, in Tuscany, in central Italy.

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Accademia di San Luca

The Accademia di San Luca, (the "Academy of Saint Luke") was founded in 1577 as an association of artists in Rome (under the directorship of Federico Zuccari from 1593), with the purpose of elevating the work of "artists", which included painters, sculptors and architects, above that of mere craftsmen.

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Accademia Fiorentina


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Accademia Galileiana

The Accademia Galileiana, or "Galilean academy", is a learned society in the city of Padua in Italy.

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Accademia nazionale delle scienze

The Accademia nazionale delle scienze, also called Accademia Nazionale dei XL is the national science academy of Italy.

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Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia

The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (National Academy of St Cecilia) is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, founded by the papal bull Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, for whom the Gregorian chant is named, and Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music.

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Accademia Pontaniana

The Accademia Pontaniana was the first academy in the modern sense, as a learned society for scholars and humanists and guided by a formal statute.

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Agathias or Agathias Scholasticus (Ἀγαθίας σχολαστικός; Martindale, Jones & Morris (1992), pp. 23–25582/594), of Myrina (Mysia), an Aeolian city in western Asia Minor (now in Turkey), was a Greek poet and the principal historian of part of the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian I between 552 and 558.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Akademos or Academus (Ἀκάδημος; also Hekademos or Hecademus (Ἑκάδημος)) was an Attic hero in Greek mythology.

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Al-Azhar University

Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.

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Al-Mustansir (Baghdad)

Al-Mustansir Bi'llah (full name:Abû Ja`far al-Mustansir bi-llah al-Mansûr ben az-Zâhir Surname Al-Mustansir) was born in Baghdad on 1192.

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Alfonso V of Aragon

Alfonso the Magnanimous KG (also Alphonso; Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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An anagram is a word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase, typically using all the original letters exactly once.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient higher-learning institutions

A variety of ancient higher-learning institutions were developed in many cultures to provide institutional frameworks for scholarly activities.

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Andrew Odlyzko

Andrew Michael Odlyzko (born 23 July 1949) is a mathematician and a former head of the University of Minnesota's Digital Technology Center and of the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

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Anti-intellectualism is hostility to and mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectualism commonly expressed as deprecation of education and philosophy, and the dismissal of art, literature, and science as impractical and even contemptible human pursuits.

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Antiochus of Ascalon

Antiochus of Ascalon (Άντίοχος ὁ Ἀσκαλώνιος; c. 125 – c. 68 BC) was an Academic philosopher.

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Antonio Beccadelli (poet)

Antonio Beccadelli (1394–1471), called Il Panormita (poetic form meaning "The Palermitan"), was an Italian poet, canon lawyer, scholar, diplomat, and chronicler.

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Arcesilaus (Ἀρκεσίλαος; 316/5–241/0 BC) was a Greek philosopher and founder of the Second or Middle Academy—the phase of Academic skepticism.

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Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.

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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.

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Associate degree

An associate degree (or associate's degree) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study intended to usually last two years or more.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Attic Greek

Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.

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Australian Defence Force Academy

The Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) is a tri-service military Academy that provides military and tertiary academic education for junior officers of the Australian Defence Force in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army and Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).

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Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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École Militaire

The École Militaire ("military school") is a vast complex of buildings housing various military training facilities in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, southeast of the Champ de Mars.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Bartolomeo Platina

Bartolomeo Sacchi (1421 – 21 September 1481), known as Platina (in Italian il Platina) after his birthplace (Piadena), and commonly referred to in English as Bartolomeo Platina, was an Italian Renaissance humanist writer and gastronomist.

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Basilios Bessarion

Basilios (or Basilius) Bessarion (Greek: Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472), a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century.

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Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities

The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften) is an independent public institution, located in Munich.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Bologna Process

The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.

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Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.

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Breaking Away

Breaking Away is a 1979 American coming of age comedy-drama film produced and directed by Peter Yates and written by Steve Tesich.

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Brera Academy

The Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera ("academy of fine arts of Brera"), also known as the italic or Brera Academy, is a state-run tertiary public academy of fine arts in Milan, Italy.

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Business Academy Bexley

The Business Academy Bexley was a school for ages 3–19 in South Thamesmead, the London Borough of Bexley, England, operating under the Academy programme for schools The secondary school was established as a City Academy 2002, under the sponsorship of 3E's Enterprises (later acquired by GEMS Education), and property developer David Garrard, chairman of the Minerva group, who donated £2.5 million.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine university

Byzantine university refers to higher education during the Byzantine empire.

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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (9 September 15854 December 1642), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (Cardinal de Richelieu), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and statesman.

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Carneades (Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea"; 214/3–129/8 BC) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene.

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A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Chancellor (education)

A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system.

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Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.

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Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.

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Charles Borromeo

Charles Borromeo (Carlo Borromeo, Carolus Borromeus, 2 October 1538 – 3 November 1584) was Roman Catholic archbishop of Milan from 1564 to 1584 and a cardinal.

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Charter school

A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Cimon (– 450BC) or Kimon (Κίμων, Kimōn) was an Athenian statesman and general in mid-5th century BC Greece.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Claudio Tolomei

Claudio Tolomei (Asciano, 1492 - Rome, 1556) was an Italian philologist.

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Clitomachus (philosopher)

Clitomachus (also Cleitomachus; Κλειτόμαχος, Kleitomachos; 187/6–110/9 BC), originally named Hasdrubal (Greek: Ἀσδρούβας), was a Carthaginian who came to Athens in 163/2 BC and studied philosophy under Carneades.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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College rivalry

Pairs of schools, colleges and universities, especially when they are close to each other either geographically or in their areas of specialization, often establish a college rivalry with each other over the years.

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A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience.

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Cosimo de' Medici

Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici (called 'the Elder' (Italian il Vecchio) and posthumously Father of the Fatherland (Latin pater patriae); 27 September 1389 – 1 August 1464) was an Italian banker and politician, the first member of the Medici political dynasty that served as de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance.

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Council of Florence

The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.

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Crantor (Κράντωρ, gen.: Κράντορος; died 276/5 BC) was a Greek philosopher, of the Old Academy, probably born around the middle of the 4th century BC, at Soli in Cilicia.

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Crates of Athens

Crates of Athens (Greek: Κράτης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος; died 268–264 BC) was a Greek philosopher.

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Credentialism and educational inflation

Credentialism and educational inflation are any of a number of related processes involving increased demands for formal educational qualifications, and the devaluation of these qualifications.

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Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.

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Curriculum vitae

A curriculum vitae (often shortened CV or vita) is a written overview of a person's experience and other qualifications for a job opportunity.

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Damascius (Δαμάσκιος, 458 – after 538), known as "the last of the Neoplatonists," was the last scholarch of the School of Athens.

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Dean (education)

In academic administrations such as colleges or universities, a dean is the person with significant authority over a specific academic unit, or over a specific area of concern, or both.

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Deerfield Academy

Deerfield Academy (also known as Deerfield or DA) is a highly selective, independent, coeducational school in Deerfield, Massachusetts for boarding and day students in grades 9-12 and post-graduate (PG).

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Diodochus is the Latinized form of diadochos (διάδοχος, “heir, successor”).

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Discipline (academia)

An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.

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Dissenting academies

The dissenting academies were schools, colleges and seminaries (often institutions with aspects of all three) run by English Dissenters, that is, those who did not conform to the Church of England.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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Duke University Press

Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.

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Edinburgh Academy

The Edinburgh Academy is an independent school which was opened in 1824.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Education in England

Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education.

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Educational institution

An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education.

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Educational specialist

The Education Specialist, also referred to as Educational Specialist or Specialist in Education (Ed.S. or S.Ed.), is a terminal professional degree in the U.S. that is designed to provide knowledge and theory beyond the master's degree level.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

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Elitism is the belief or attitude that individuals who form an elite — a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality, high intellect, wealth, special skills, or experience — are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole, and therefore deserve influence or authority greater than that of others.

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Emperor Shun

Shun, also known as Emperor Shun and Chonghua, was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.

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Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.

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Eudoxus of Cnidus

Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Faculty (academic staff)

Faculty (in North American usage) or academics (in British, Australia, and New Zealand usage) are the academic staff of a university: professors of various ranks, lecturers, and/or researchers.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Ferdinando II de' Medici (14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670) was grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670.

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Fez, Morocco

Fez (فاس, Berber: Fas, ⴼⴰⵙ, Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco and the capital of the Fas-Meknas administrative region.

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Figure drawing

A figure drawing is a drawing of the human form in any of its various shapes and postures using any of the drawing media.

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Filippo Buonaccorsi

Filippo Buonaccorsi, called "Callimachus" (Latin: Philippus Callimachus Experiens, Bonacursius;; 2 May 1437 – 1 November 1496) was an Italian humanist and writer.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Frederick I of Prussia

Frederick I (Friedrich I.) (11 July 1657 – 25 February 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and Duke of Prussia in personal union (Brandenburg-Prussia).

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Frederick IV of Denmark

Frederick IV (11 October 1671 – 12 October 1730) was the king of Denmark and Norway from 1699 until his death.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French mathematical seminars

French mathematical seminars have been an important type of institution combining research and exposition, active since the beginning of the twentieth century.

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Fruitbearing Society

The Fruitbearing Society (German Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft, lat. societas fructifera) was a German literary society founded in 1617 in Weimar by German scholars and nobility.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities

The Göttingen Academy of Sciences (Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen) is the second oldest of the seven academies of sciences in Germany.

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Gemistus Pletho

Georgius Gemistus (Γεώργιος Γεμιστός; /1360 – 1452/1454), later called Plethon (Πλήθων), was one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham

George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 20th Baron de Ros, (30 January 1628 – 16 April 1687) was an English statesman and poet.

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Giovanni Antonio Campani

Giovanni Antonio Campani called Campanus (27 February? 1429 – 15 July 1477), a protégé of Cardinal Bessarion, was a Neapolitan-born humanist at the court of Pope Pius II, whose funeral oration he wrote, followed by a biography, flattering but filled with personal reminiscence, written ca 1470-77.

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Giovanni Pontano

Giovanni Pontano (1426–1503), later known as Giovanni Gioviano or Ioannes Iovianus Pontanus, was a humanist and poet from the Duchy of Spoleto, in central Italy.

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Giulio Strozzi

Giulio Strozzi (1583 - 31 March 1652) was a Venetian poet and libretto writer.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Graduate school

A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.

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In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Grand Duchy of Tuscany

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.

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No description.

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Greek hero cult

Hero cults were one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion.

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Grove (nature)

A grove is a small group of trees with minimal or no undergrowth, such as a sequoia grove, or a small orchard planted for the cultivation of fruits or nuts.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Guild of Saint Luke

The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries.

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Gymnasium (ancient Greece)

The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.

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Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Heraclides Ponticus

Heraclides Ponticus (Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός Herakleides; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC) was a Greek philosopher and astronomer who was born in Heraclea Pontica, now Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey, and migrated to Athens.

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A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.

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Higher education

Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.

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Higher education in Canada

Higher education in Canada describes the constellation of provincial higher education systems in Canada and their relationships with tent of federal government, provinces, and territories.

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Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.

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History of Athens

Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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House of Farnese

The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy.

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Howard Greenley

Howard Greenley (1874–1963) was an architect who worked from the late 1800s well into the 20th century and known mainly for his work in New York City, Long Island, and Newport, Rhode Island.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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Humboldt University of Berlin

The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.

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Humboldt's Ideal

Humboldt's ideal of education refers to the holistic education of the arts in conjunction with the respective study direction.

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Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.

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Iamblichus (Ἰάμβλιχος, c. AD 245 – c. 325), was a Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher of Arab origin.

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Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences

Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences (IAMMS) (ابن سینا اکاڈمی آف میڈیول میڈیسین اینڈ سائنسیز.) is a trust registered under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882.

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Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.

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Imperial Academy of Arts

The Russian Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts, was founded in 1757 by Ivan Shuvalov under the name Academy of the Three Noblest Arts.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.

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An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.

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Intellectual inbreeding

Intellectual inbreeding or academic inbreeding is the practice in academia of a university's hiring its own graduates to be professors.

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Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Ippolito de' Medici

Ippolito de' Medici (1511 – 10 August 1535) was the only son of Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, born out-of-wedlock to his mistress Pacifica Brandano.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Ivory tower

The term ivory tower originates in the Biblical Song of Solomon (7:4) and was later used as an epithet for Mary.

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Jataka tales

The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

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Julius Pomponius Laetus

Julius Pomponius Laetus (1428 – 9 June 1498), also known as Giulio Pomponio Leto, was an Italian humanist.

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Justinian I

Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.

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Khosrow I

Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.

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Knight academy

Knight academies were first established in Western European states in the late 16th century.

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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Koine Greek

Koine Greek,.

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Lacydes of Cyrene

Lacydes of Cyrene (Λακύδης ὁ Κυρηναῖος), Greek philosopher, was head of the Academy at Athens in succession to Arcesilaus from 241 BC.

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Late antiquity

Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.

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Law school

A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.

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Learned society

A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.

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Lecturer is an academic rank within many universities, though the meaning of the term varies somewhat from country to country.

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Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.

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Leopoldo de' Medici

Leopoldo de' Medici (6 November 1617 – 10 November 1675) was an Italian cardinal, scholar, patron of the arts and Governor of Siena.

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Liberal arts education

Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.

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A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming.

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Library of Alexandria

The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.

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Lisbon Academy of Sciences

The Lisbon Academy of Sciences (Academia das Ciências de Lisboa) is Portugal's national academy dedicated to the advancement of sciences and learning, with the goal of promoting academic progress and prosperity in Portugal.

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List of academic ranks

This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars in academia.

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List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States

This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey.

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List of honorary societies

This is a list of honorary societies to which individuals are elected based on meritorious conduct.

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List of rulers of Tuscany

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea.

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Ludwig von Pastor

Ludwig Pastor, later Ludwig von Pastor, Freiherr von Campersfelden (31 January 1854 – 30 September 1928), was a German historian and a diplomat for Austria.

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The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe.

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Lyceum (Classical)

The Lyceum (Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus ("Apollo the wolf-god").

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Lynn Thorndike

Lynn Thorndike (born 24 July 1882, in Lynn, Massachusetts, USA – died 28 December 1965, Columbia University Club, New York City) was an American historian of medieval science and alchemy.

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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.

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Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.

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Marsilio Ficino

Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Medieval university

A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.

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Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.

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Middle school

A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.

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Military academies in Russia

Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties.

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Military Academy Karlberg

Military Academy Karlberg (Militärhögskolan Karlberg, MHS K) is a Swedish military academy, since its inauguration in 1792 in operation in the Karlberg Palace in Solna, just north of central Stockholm.

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Military Academy of Modena

The Military Academy of Modena (Accademia militare di Modena) is a military university in Modena, northern Italy.

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Military engineering

Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.

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Military science

Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force.

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Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.

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Modern Paganism

Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.

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Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji

Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyar 'l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or simply Bakhtiyar Khilji (died 1206), a military general of Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Mustansiriya Madrasah

Mustansiriya Madrasah (Arabic,المدرسة المستنصرية) is a historical building in Baghdad, Iraq.

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Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.

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Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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Nanjing University

Nanjing University (NJU or NU,. Chinese abbr. 南大; pinyin: Nándà, Nanda), or Nanking University, is a prestigious public (national) university, and is the oldest institution of higher learning, located in Nanjing, China.

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National academy

A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.

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New Learning

In the history of ideas the New Learning in Europe is the Renaissance humanism, developed in the later fifteenth century.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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Northwest Territory

The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.

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O2 Brixton Academy

The O2 Academy, Brixton, is one of London's leading music venues, nightclubs and theatres.

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Officer (armed forces)

An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.

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The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) is a non-ministerial department of the UK government, reporting to Parliament.

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Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.

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Outline of academic disciplines

An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.

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Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

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Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Paris Opera

The Paris Opera (French) is the primary opera company of France.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Personal identity

In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.

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Philip of Opus

Philip (or Philippus) of Opus (Φίλιππος Ὀπούντιος), was a philosopher and a member of the Academy during Plato's lifetime.

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Phillips Academy

Phillips Academy Andover (also known as Andover, PA, or Phillips) is a co-educational university-preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate (PG) year.

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Phillips Exeter Academy

Phillips Exeter Academy (often called Exeter or PEA) is a coeducational independent school for boarding and day students in grades 9 though 12, and offers a postgraduate program.

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Philo of Larissa

Philo of Larissa (Φίλων ὁ Λαρισσαῖος Philon ho Larissaios; 154/3–84/3 BC) was a Greek philosopher.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Platonic Academy

The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.

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Platonic Academy (Florence)

The Platonic Academy (also known as the Neoplatonic Florentine Academy) was a 15th-century discussion group in Florence, Italy.

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Platonism in the Renaissance

Platonism, especially in its Neoplatonist form, underwent a revival in the Renaissance, as part of a general revival of interest in Classical antiquity.

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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Polemon (scholarch)

Polemon (Πολέμων, gen.: Πολέμωνος; d. 270/269 BC) of Athens was an eminent Platonist philosopher and Plato's third successor as scholarch or head of the Academy from 314/313 to 270/269 BC.

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Police academy

A police academy is a training school for new police recruits, also known as a law enforcement academy.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Pope Paul II

Pope Paul II (Paulus II; 23 February 1417 – 26 July 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was Pope from 30 August 1464 to his death in 1471.

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Postgraduate education

Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.

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Practice research

Practice research is a form of academic research which incorporates an element of practice in the methodology or research output.

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Practice-based research network

A practice-based research network (PBRN) is a group of practices devoted principally to the care of patients and affiliated for the purpose of examining the health care processes that occur in practices.

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In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.

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A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.

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Primary education

Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).

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The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.

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In academia and librarianship, proceedings are the acts and happenings of an academic field, a learned society, or an academic conference.

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Professional studies

"Professional studies" is a term used to classify academic programs which are applied or interdisciplinary in focus.

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Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Prussian Academy of Sciences

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.

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Pseudo-scholarship (from pseudo- + scholarship) is a work (e.g., publication, lecture) or body of work that is presented as, but is not, the product of rigorous and objective study or research; the act of producing such work; or the pretended learning upon which it is based.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Publio Fausto Andrelini

Publio Fausto Andrelini (c. 1462 in Forlì – 25 February 1518) was an Italian humanist poet, an intimate friend of Erasmus in the 1490s, who spread the New Learning in France.

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Publish or perish

"Publish or perish" is a phrase coined to describe the pressure in academia to rapidly and continually publish academic work to sustain or further one's career.

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The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.

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The cultural and artistic events of Italy during the period 1400 to 1499 are collectively referred to as the Quattrocento from the Italian for the number 400, in turn from millequattrocento, which is Italian for the year 1400.

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Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.

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Reader (academic rank)

The title of reader in the United Kingdom and some universities in the Commonwealth of Nations, for example India, Australia and New Zealand, denotes an appointment for a senior academic with a distinguished international reputation in research or scholarship.

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Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando

The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando (Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando), located on the Calle de Alcalá in the heart of Madrid, currently functions as a museum and gallery.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Research associate

Research associates are scholars and professionals that usually have an advanced degree beyond a bachelor's degree.

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Research fellow

A research fellow is an academic research position at a university or a similar research institution, usually for academic staff or faculty members.

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Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Robert K. Merton

Robert King Merton (born Meyer Robert Schkolnick; 5 July 1910 – 23 February 2003) was an American sociologist.

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Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829

The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout the UK.

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Royal Academy of Arts

The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London.

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Royal Academy of Music

The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is the oldest conservatoire in the UK, founded in 1822 by John Fane and Nicolas Bochsa.

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Royal charter

A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.

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Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters

The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab) is a Danish non-governmental science Academy, founded in 1742 for the advancement of science in Denmark.

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Royal Danish Army

The Royal Danish Army (Hæren) is the land-based branch of the Danish Defence, together with the Danish Home Guard.

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Royal Danish Military Academy

The Royal Danish Military Academy (Hærens Officersskole) educates and commissions all officers for the Royal Danish Army.

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Royal Dublin Society

The Royal Dublin Society (RDS) is the name given in 1820 to a philanthropic organisation which was founded as the 'Dublin Society' on 25 June 1731 to see Ireland thrive culturally and economically. The RDS is synonymous with its campus in Ballsbridge in Dublin, Ireland. This campus includes the "RDS Arena", "RDS Simmonscourt", "RDS Main Hall" and other venues which are used regularly for exhibitions, concerts and sporting events, including regular use by the Leinster Rugby team.

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Royal Military Academy, Woolwich

The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Royal Society of Edinburgh

The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.

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Royal Spanish Academy

The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.

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Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Academy

The Russian Academy or Imperial Russian Academy (Академия Российская, Императорская Российская академия) was established in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1783 by Empress Catherine II of Russia and princess Dashkova as a research center for Russian language and Russian literature, following the example of the Académie française.

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Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.

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Salon (Paris)

The Salon (Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris), beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

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A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.

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* Sanseverino (family): The Sanseverino are one of the historical families most famous in the Kingdom of Naples and all of Italy, having 300 strongholds, 40 counties, nine marquisates, twelve duchies and ten principalities primarily distributed in Calabria, Campania, Basilicata, and Apulia.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sasanian family tree

This is a family tree of the Sasanian emperors, their ancestors, and Sasanian princes/princesses.

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Scholarly method

The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.

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School of Chartres

During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated a famous and influential cathedral school, an important center of scholarship.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific community

The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Screen media practice research

Screen media practice research is an emerging academic area situated primarily within university Media Studies, Communications, Cultural Studies, Art and Design, and Performing Arts departments.

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Secondary education

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.

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Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.

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A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization.

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Sewanee: The University of the South

Sewanee: The University of the South, also known as Sewanee, is a private, residential, coeducational liberal arts college located in Sewanee, Tennessee, United States.

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Shang Xiang

Shang Xiang, was a school founded in the Yu Shun (虞舜) era in China.

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Simplicius of Cilicia

Simplicius of Cilicia (Σιμπλίκιος ὁ Κίλιξ; c. 490 – c. 560) was a disciple of Ammonius Hermiae and Damascius, and was one of the last of the Neoplatonists.

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A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both.

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Speusippus (Σπεύσιππος; c. 408 – 339/8 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Square academic cap

The square academic cap, graduate cap, cap, mortarboard (because of its similarity in appearance to the mortarboard used by brickmasons to hold mortar) or Oxford cap, is an item of academic dress consisting of a horizontal square board fixed upon a skull-cap, with a tassel attached to the centre.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Swedish Academy

The Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien), founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Syriac Christianity

Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.

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Tam o' shanter (cap)

A tam o' shanter (in the British military often abbreviated to ToS) is a name given to the traditional Scottish bonnet worn by men.

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Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.

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Taxila city

Taxila (ٹيکسلا), is a city in Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan.

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Teacher education

Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.

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Tertiary education

Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.

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Test Act

The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that served as a religious test for public office and imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and nonconformists.

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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The Carracci

The Carracci were a Bolognese family of artists that played an instrumental role in bringing forth the art movement known as the Baroque.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Theresian Military Academy

The Theresian Military Academy (Theresianische Militärakademie, TherMilAk) is a military academy in Austria, where the Austrian Armed Forces train their officers.

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Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

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Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.

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A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.

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Trento (anglicized as Trent; local dialects: Trènt; Trient) is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy.

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The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).

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Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.

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Undergraduate education

Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.

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The unicorn is a legendary creature that has been described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom general election, 2010

The 2010 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 6 May 2010, with 45,597,461 registered voters entitled to vote to elect members to the House of Commons.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Air Force Academy

The United States Air Force Academy (also known as USAFA, the Air Force Academy, or the Academy), is a military academy for officer cadets of the United States Air Force.

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United States Military Academy

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.

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United States Naval Academy

The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy in Annapolis, Maryland.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University don

A don is a fellow or tutor of a college or university, especially traditional collegiate universities such as Oxford and Cambridge and Durham in England, and Trinity College, Dublin, in Ireland.

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University of Al Quaraouiyine

The University of al-Qarawiyyin, also written Al Quaraouiyine or Al-Karaouine (Université Al Quaraouiyine), is a university located in Fez, Morocco.

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University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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University of Timbuktu

The University of Timbuktu is a collective term for the teaching associated with three mosques in the city of Timbuktu in what is now Mali: the masajid (mosques) of Sankore, Djinguereber, and Sidi Yahya.

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University of Virginia

The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.

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Vatican Library

The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.

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Villa Medici at Careggi

The Villa Medici at Careggi is a patrician villa in the hills near Florence, Tuscany, central Italy.

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West Point, New York

West Point is the oldest continuously occupied military post in the United States.

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Western Schism

The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 even three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.

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White Deer Grotto Academy

The White Deer Grotto Academy (Gan: Pak-Luk-Tung Su-yon, sometimes translated as White Deer Cave Academy or White Deer Hollow Academy) is a former school at the foot of Wulou Peak in Lushan, now in Jiujiang, Jiangxi province.

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Wilhelm von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).

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Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Workplace bullying in academia

Bullying in academia is workplace bullying of scholars and staff in academia, especially places of higher education such as colleges and universities.

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Xenocrates (Ξενοκράτης; c. 396/5314/3 BC) of Chalcedon was a Greek philosopher, mathematician, and leader (scholarch) of the Platonic Academy from 339/8 to 314/3 BC.

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Youyu County

Youyu County, also known by its Chinese name Youyuxian, is a county in Shuozhou Prefecture, Shanxi Province, China.

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Yuelu Academy

The Yuelu Academy (also as known as the Yuelu Academy of Classical Learning) is on the east side of Yuelu Mountain in Changsha, the capital of Hunan province, China, on the west bank of the Xiang River.

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Acadamy, Academe, Academia, Academian, Academic, Academic Drift, Academic Drift (Forss Drift), Academic community, Academic issue, Academic skills, Academic work, Academical, Academics, Academie, Academies, Academy (educational institution), Academy (scientific society), Academy in Athens, Acadmey, Académie, Accademic, Adademic, Akademeia, Platon Academy, Scholarly circle, Scholarly circles, Scholarly community.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academy

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