228 relations: Abdullah Gül, Acquis communautaire, Alevism, Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, Alexis Tsipras, Allies of World War II, Almas Heshmati, Angela Merkel, Ankara, Ankara Agreement, Annan Plan for Cyprus, Armenian Genocide, Armenian Genocide recognition, Arno Tausch, Atatürk's Reforms, Austria, Azerbaijan, BBC, BBC News, Beko, Black Sea, Cambridge University Press, Carl Bildt, Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Caspian Sea, Casus belli, Cemil Çiçek, Central Asia, Central Intelligence Agency, Christian, Cold War, Common Foreign and Security Policy, Conscientious objector, Constitution, Constitutional Council (France), Consumer electronics, Copenhagen criteria, Council of Europe, Council of State (Turkey), Council of the European Union, Cumhuriyet, Cypriot refugees, Cyprus, Cyprus dispute, Czech Republic, David Cameron, David Miliband, Düsseldorf, Democracy, Denmark, ..., Deutsche Welle, Die Welt, East Thrace, Economy of Istanbul, Economy of Turkey, Enosis, Ercan International Airport, Ergenekon (allegation), Eurobarometer, European Arrest Warrant, European Commission, European Council, European Court of Human Rights, European debt crisis, European Economic Community, European migrant crisis, European Parliament, European Parliament election, 2014, European People's Party, European Stability Mechanism, European Union, European Union Customs Union, European Union–Turkey Customs Union, European Union–Turkey relations, Eurostat, Eurozone, Factor analysis, Financial Times, Forbes, Foreign minister, Foreign relations of the European Union, François Hollande, France, France–Turkey relations, Franco Frattini, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Fredrik Reinfeldt, Freedom of religion, Future enlargement of the European Union, G20, Genocide, George Papandreou, Germany, Germany–Turkey relations, Gezi Park protests, Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Greek–Turkish relations, Greeks, Hürriyet, Hürriyet Daily News, Helsinki, Hijab, Home appliance, Hong Kong, Hrant Dink, Human rights, Independent Commission on Turkey, Infrastructure, Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, Islam, Istanbul, Italy, Jean-Claude Juncker, Jews, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, José Manuel Barroso, Karolos Papoulias, Kemal Kerinçsiz, Kostas Karamanlis, Laurent Fabius, Le Figaro, Le Monde, Leyla Şahin v Turkey, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of Prime Ministers of Turkey, London, Marshall Plan, Martin Schulz, Mediterranean Sea, Mehmet Görmez, Member of parliament, Member of the European Parliament, Metropolis, Michel Barnier, Middle East, Minister (government), Minister for Foreign Affairs (Sweden), Morocco, Morocco–European Union relations, Moscow, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, NATO, Netherlands–Turkey relations, New York City, Nicolas Sarkozy, Northern Cyprus, Nuclear safety and security, OECD, Olli Rehn, Orhan Pamuk, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Partition of the Ottoman Empire, Perinçek v. Switzerland, Petr Nečas, Poland, Portugal, President of France, President of the European Commission, President of Turkey, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Greece, Privileged partnership, Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, ProMax, Radikal, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Referendum, Regional power, Reuters, Romania, Sabrina Tavernise, Second Cairo Conference, Secularism, Secularism in Turkey, Shia Islam, Silvio Berlusconi, Spain, Speaker (politics), Sunni Islam, Sweden, Taksim Square, Tansu Çiller, The Copenhagen Post, The Economist, The Guardian, The Independent, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, The Washington Post, Timeline of women's suffrage, Today's Zaman, Trade, Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, Turkey, Turkey–United Kingdom relations, Turkish Armed Forces, Turkish constitutional referendum, 2017, Turkish Cypriots, Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Turkish language, Turkish National Movement, Turkish War of Independence, Turks in Europe, Turks in Germany, Twitter, Ukraine, Ukraine–European Union relations, United Kingdom, United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus, United States, United States of Europe, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Vestel, Western Europe, Western European Union, Wolfgang Schäuble, World Bank, World Values Survey, World War I, World War II, Yalta, Zaman (newspaper), Zirve Publishing House massacre, 1974 Cypriot coup d'état, 1980 Turkish coup d'état, 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, 2016–present purges in Turkey. Expand index (178 more) » « Shrink index
Abdullah Gül (born 29 October 1950) is a Turkish politician who served as the 11th President of Turkey, in office from 2007 to 2014.
The Community acquis or acquis communautaire, sometimes called the EU acquis and often shortened to acquis, is the accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of European Union law.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Alexander Sebastian Léonce, Baron von der Wenge, Count Lambsdorff (born 5 November 1966), commonly known as Alexander, Count Lambsdorff (Alexander Graf Lambsdorff) is a German politician of the Free Democratic Party of Germany, part of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe.
Alexis Tsipras (Αλέξης Τσίπρας,; born 28 July 1974) is a Greek politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Greece since 2015.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Almas Heshmati is a Swedish-Kurdish economist.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
The Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community (commonly known as the Ankara Agreement), is a treaty, signed in 1963, which provides for the framework for the co-operation between Turkey and the European Union (EU).
The Annan Plan was a United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus reunification plan.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Armenian Genocide recognition is the formal acceptance that the systematic massacres and forced deportation of Armenians committed by the Ottoman Empire from 1915 to 1923 constituted genocide.
Arno Tausch (born February 11, 1951 in Salzburg, Austria) is an Austrian political scientist.
Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beko (sometimes stylized as beko) is a Turkish domestic appliance and consumer electronics brand of Arçelik A.Ş. controlled by Koç Holding.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Nils Daniel Carl Bildt (born 15 July 1949) is a conservative Swedish politician and diplomat who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 1991 to 1994.
Carl XVI Gustaf (full name: Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the King of Sweden.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
Cemil Çiçek (born 15 November 1946) is a Turkish politician who was the Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey between 4 July 2011 and 7 June 2015.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organised, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel) is the highest constitutional authority in France.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
The Copenhagen Criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to join the European Union.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of State (Danıştay) is the highest administrative court in the Republic of Turkey and is based in Ankara.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
Cumhuriyet (The Republic) is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper.
Cypriot refugees are the Cypriot nationals or Cyprus residents who had their main residence (as opposed to merely owning property) in an area forcibly evacuated during the Cyprus conflict.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Cyprus dispute, also known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue or Cyprus problem, is the ongoing issue of Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of the island since 1974.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British Labour Party politician, charity chief executive and public policy analyst who was the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2007 to 2010 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for South Shields from 2001 to 2013.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
Die Welt ("The World") is a German national daily newspaper, published as a broadsheet by Axel Springer SE.
East Thrace, or Eastern Thrace (Doğu Trakya or simply Trakya; Ανατολική Θράκη, Anatoliki Thraki; Източна Тракия, Iztochna Trakiya), also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe.
Economy of Istanbul covers the issues related to the economy of the city of Istanbul, Turkey.
The economy of Turkey is defined as an emerging market economy by the IMF.
Enosis (Ένωσις,, "union") is the movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece, for incorporation of the regions they inhabit into the Greek state.
Ercan International Airport (Ercan Uluslararası Havalimanı) is the primary civilian airport of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
Ergenekon was the name given to an alleged clandestine, secularist ultra-nationalist organization in Turkey with possible ties to members of the country's military and security forces.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
The European Arrest Warrant (EAW) is an arrest warrant valid throughout all member states of the European Union (EU).
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European migrant crisis, or the European refugee crisis, is a term given to a period beginning in 2015 when rising numbers of people arrived in the European Union (EU), travelling across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
From 22 to 25 May 2014, elections to the European Parliament were held in the European Union.
The European People's Party (EPP) is a conservative and Christian democratic European political party.
The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) is an intergovernmental organization located in Luxembourg City, which operates under public international law for all eurozone Member States having ratified a special ESM intergovernmental treaty.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Customs Union (EUCU) is a customs union which consists of all the member states of the European Union (EU), Monaco, and some territories of the United Kingdom which are not part of the EU (Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man).
On 31 December 1995, a 6 March 1995 Decision of the EC-Turkey Association Council, established by the Ankara Agreement, to implement a customs union (Gümrük Birliği) between Turkey and the European Union, came into effect.
Relations between the European Union (EU) and Turkey were established in 1959 and the institutional framework is shaped formally since 1963 Ankara Agreement.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
Although there has been a large degree of integration between European Union member states, foreign relations is still a largely intergovernmental matter, with the 28 members controlling their own relations to a large degree.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French–Turkish relations cover a long period from the 16th century to the present, starting with the alliance established between Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent.
Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957 in Rome) is an Italian politician, twice foreign minister of the Berlusconi cabinets (in 2002-2004 and 2008-2011) and once European Commissioner in the first Barroso Commission (2004-2008).
The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Frankfurt General Newspaper), abbreviated FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).
John Fredrik Reinfeldt (pronounced; born 4 August 1965) is a Swedish economist, lecturer and former politician who was Prime Minister of Sweden from 2006 to 2014 and chairman of the liberal conservative Moderate Party from 2003 to 2015.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
There are five recognised candidates for future membership of the European Union: Turkey (applied in 14 April 1987), Macedonia (applied in 22 March 2004), Montenegro (applied in 2008), Albania (applied in 2009), and Serbia (applied in 2009).
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
George Andreas Papandreou (Γεώργιος Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου,, shortened to Giorgos (Γιώργος); born 16 June 1952) is a Greek American politician who served as Prime Minister of Greece from 2009 to 2011.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
German–Turkish relations have their beginnings in the times of the Ottoman Empire and have culminated in the development of strong bonds with many facets that include economic, military, cultural and social relations.
A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The relations between the Greek and the Turkish states have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hürriyet (Liberty) is one of the major Turkish newspapers, founded in 1948.
The Hürriyet Daily News, formerly Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review and Turkish Daily News, is the oldest current English-language daily in Turkey, founded in 1961.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hrant Dink (Հրանդ Տինք Hrand Tink'; Western; September 15, 1954 – January 19, 2007) was a Turkish-Armenian editor, journalist and columnist.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
The Independent Commission on Turkey is a commission formed by a group of distinguished European policymakers to examine the challenges and opportunities presented by Turkey's possible membership in the European Union.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
The Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, or simply IPA, is a funding mechanism of the European Union.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960) is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese politician who is the current non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International.
Karolos Papoulias (Κάρολος Παπούλιας; born 4 June 1929) is a Greek politician who was the President of Greece from 2005 to 2015.
Kemal Kerinçsiz (born February 20, 1960 in Edirne, Turkey) is a Turkish nationalist lawyer, famous for filing complaints against more than 40 Turkish journalists and authors (including Orhan Pamuk, Elif Şafak, and the late Hrant Dink) for "insulting Turkishness".
Konstantinos A. Karamanlis (Κωνσταντίνος Αλεξάνδρου Καραμανλής; born 14 September 1956), commonly known as Kostas Karamanlis (Κώστας Καραμανλής), is a Greek politician who served as Prime Minister of Greece from 2004 to 2009.
Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a French Socialist politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 17 July 1984 to 20 March 1986.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
Leyla Şahin v. Turkey was a 2004 European Court of Human Rights case brought against Turkey by a medical student challenging a Turkish law which bans wearing the Islamic headscarf at universities and other educational and state institutions.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
The following is a complete list of Prime Ministers of Turkey, since the establishment of that position in 1920, during the Turkish War of Independence.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martin Schulz (born 20 December 1955) is a German politician who served as leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from March 2017 to February 2018 and as a Member of the Bundestag (MdB) since September 2017.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mehmet Görmez (born 1959) is the former President of the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı from November 2010 to 31 July 2017, commonly known as Diyanet) and as such legally the highest level Islamic cleric in Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
Michel Bernard Barnier (born 9 January 1951) is a French politician serving as European Chief Negotiator for the United Kingdom Exiting the European Union since December 2016.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
The Minister for Foreign Affairs (utrikesminister) is the foreign minister of Sweden and the head of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Morocco is a neighbouring and associated country of the European Union.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Dutch–Turkish relations refer to interstate relations between the Netherlands and Turkey.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards".
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Olli Ilmari Rehn (born 31 March 1962 in Mikkeli, Finland) is a Finnish politician, a member of the Centre Party of Finland.
Ferit Orhan Pamuk (generally known simply as Orhan Pamuk; born 7 June 1952) is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.
The partition of the Ottoman Empire (Armistice of Mudros, 30 October 1918 – Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, 1 November 1922) was a political event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.
Perinçek v. Switzerland is a 2013 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights concerning public statements by Doğu Perinçek, a political activist, lawyer and former Chairman of the Workers’ Party, who was convicted by a Swiss court for publicly denying the historical fact of the Armenian genocide.
Petr Nečas (born 19 November 1964) is a Czech former politician who served as 9th Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party from 2010 to 2013, and as Member of the Chamber of Deputies (MP) from 1993 to 2013.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελληνικής Δημοκρατίας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elli̱nikí̱s Di̱mokratías), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister of Greece (Πρωθυπουργός της Ελλάδας, Pro̱thypourgós ti̱s Elládas), is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet.
Privileged partnership is a generic term for cooperation between the European Union and a non-EU country to advance common goalsWilhelm Knelangen, "A Neighbourhood of Freedom, Security and Justice?", see without using EU membership.
The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES).
ProMax is a chemical process simulator for process troubleshooting and design, developed and sold by Bryan Research and Engineering, Inc.
Radikal ("Radical") was a daily liberal Turkish language newspaper, published in Istanbul.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Sabrina Tavernise is an American journalist who writes for The New York Times.
The Second Cairo Conference of December 4–6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies in World War II.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Secularism in Turkey defines the relationship between religion and state in the country of Turkey.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taksim Square (Taksim Meydanı), situated in Beyoğlu in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, is a major tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, shops, and hotels.
Tansu Çiller (born 24 May 1946) is a Turkish academic, economist, and politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Turkey from 1993 to 1996.
The Copenhagen Post is a weekly newspaper providing Danish news in English both nationally and internationally; it is the only English-language newspaper published in Denmark.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Women's suffrage – the right of women to vote – has been achieved at various times in countries throughout the world.
Today's Zaman (Zaman is Turkish for 'time' or 'age') was an English-language daily newspaper based in Turkey.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish–British relations are foreign relations between the Republic of Turkey and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey.
A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).
Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus (lit and Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο), code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, (Atilla Harekâtı) was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the subsequent occupation of Constantinople and partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros.
The Turkish War of Independence (Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National Campaign"; 19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was fought between the Turkish National Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British, French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
The Turks in Europe (sometimes called Euro-Turks; Avrupa'da yaşayan Türkler or Avrupa Türkleri) refers to ethnic Turks living in Europe.
Turks in Germany, also referred to as German Turks and Turkish Germans, (Türken in Deutschland or Deutsch-Türken; Almanya'da yaşayan Türkler or Almanya Türkleri) refers to ethnic Turkish people living in Germany.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Relations between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine are shaped through the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement and the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is a demilitarized zone, patrolled by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), that was established in 1964 and extended in 1974 after the cease fire of, following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and de facto partition of the island into the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus (southern Cyprus save for the British Sovereign Base Areas) and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the North.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States of Europe, the European state, the European superstate, the European federation and Federal Europe are names used to refer to several similar hypothetical scenarios of the unification of Europe as a single sovereign federation of states (hence superstate), similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative fiction and science fiction and by political scientists, politicians, geographers, historians and futurologists.
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council.
Vestel is a Turkish home and professional appliances manufacturing company consisting of 18 companies specialised in electronics, major appliances and information technology.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
Wolfgang Schäuble (born 18 September 1942) is a German lawyer and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) whose political career has spanned more than four decades.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.
Zaman (literally "time" or "era"), sometimes stylized as ZAMAN, was a daily newspaper in Turkey.
The Zirve Publishing House massacre took place on April 18, 2007, in Zirve Publishing House, Malatya, Turkey.
The 1974 coup d'état in Cyprus was a military coup d'état by the Greek army in Cyprus, the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.
The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".
On 15 July 2016, a coup d'état was attempted in Turkey against state institutions, including the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
The 2016–present purges in Turkey are an ongoing series of purges by the government of Turkey enabled by a state of emergency in reaction to the 15 July failed ''coup d'état''.
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