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# Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability. 

64 relations: Accepted and experimental value, Bias (statistics), Bias of an estimator, Binary classification, Calibration, Central limit theorem, Colloquialism, Confusion matrix, Cronbach's alpha, Database, Dependent and independent variables, Discounted cumulative gain, Electronic circuit simulation, Engineering, Engineering tolerance, Evaluation measures (information retrieval), Exactness, Experimental uncertainty analysis, F1 score, False positives and false negatives, False precision, Ground truth, International Organization for Standardization, International System of Units, Logic simulation, Mean, Measurement, Measurement uncertainty, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Numerical analysis, Observational error, Precision (statistics), Precision and recall, Probability, Probability distribution, Psychometrics, Psychophysics, Quantity, Rand index, Randomness, Reliability (statistics), Repeatability, Reproducibility, Result, Sample size determination, Science, Scientific method, Sensitivity and specificity, Shot grouping, Significant figures, ... Expand index (14 more) »

## Accepted and experimental value

In science, and most specifically chemistry, the accepted value denotes a value of a substance accepted by almost all scientists and the experimental value denotes the value of a substance's properties found in a localized lab.

## Bias (statistics)

Statistical bias is a feature of a statistical technique or of its results whereby the expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated.

## Bias of an estimator

In statistics, the bias (or bias function) of an estimator is the difference between this estimator's expected value and the true value of the parameter being estimated.

## Binary classification

Binary or binomial classification is the task of classifying the elements of a given set into two groups (predicting which group each one belongs to) on the basis of a classification rule.

## Calibration

Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.

## Central limit theorem

In probability theory, the central limit theorem (CLT) establishes that, in some situations, when independent random variables are added, their properly normalized sum tends toward a normal distribution (informally a "bell curve") even if the original variables themselves are not normally distributed.

## Colloquialism

Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.

## Confusion matrix

In the field of machine learning and specifically the problem of statistical classification, a confusion matrix, also known as an error matrix, is a specific table layout that allows visualization of the performance of an algorithm, typically a supervised learning one (in unsupervised learning it is usually called a matching matrix).

## Cronbach's alpha

In statistics (classical test theory), Cronbach's \alpha (alpha) is the trivial name used for tau-equivalent reliability (\rho_T)Cho (2016), https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1094428116656239 as a (lowerbound) estimate of the reliability of a psychometric test.

## Database

A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.

## Dependent and independent variables

In mathematical modeling, statistical modeling and experimental sciences, the values of dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables.

## Discounted cumulative gain

Discounted cumulative gain (DCG) is a measure of ranking quality.

## Electronic circuit simulation

Electronic circuit simulation uses mathematical models to replicate the behavior of an actual electronic device or circuit.

## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

## Engineering tolerance

Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in.

## Evaluation measures (information retrieval)

Evaluation measures for an information retrieval system are used to assess how well the search results satisfied the user's query intent.

## Exactness

In mathematics, exactness may refer to.

## Experimental uncertainty analysis

Experimental uncertainty analysis is a technique that analyses a derived quantity, based on the uncertainties in the experimentally measured quantities that are used in some form of mathematical relationship ("model") to calculate that derived quantity.

## F1 score

In statistical analysis of binary classification, the F1 score (also F-score or F-measure) is a measure of a test's accuracy.

## False positives and false negatives

In medical testing, and more generally in binary classification, a false positive is an error in data reporting in which a test result improperly indicates presence of a condition, such as a disease (the result is positive), when in reality it is not present, while a false negative is an error in which a test result improperly indicates no presence of a condition (the result is negative), when in reality it is present.

## False precision

False precision (also called overprecision, fake precision, misplaced precision and spurious precision) occurs when numerical data are presented in a manner that implies better precision than is justified; since precision is a limit to accuracy, this often leads to overconfidence in the accuracy, named precision bias.

## Ground truth

Ground truth is a term used in various fields to refer to information provided by direct observation (i.e. empirical evidence) as opposed to information provided by inference.

## International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Logic simulation

Logic simulation is the use of simulation software to predict the behavior of digital circuits and hardware description languages.

## Mean

In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.

## Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

## Measurement uncertainty

In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.

## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

## Numerical analysis

Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).

## Observational error

Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.

## Precision (statistics)

In statistics, precision is the reciprocal of the variance, and the precision matrix (also known as concentration matrix) is the matrix inverse of the covariance matrix.

## Precision and recall

In pattern recognition, information retrieval and binary classification, precision (also called positive predictive value) is the fraction of relevant instances among the retrieved instances, while recall (also known as sensitivity) is the fraction of relevant instances that have been retrieved over the total amount of relevant instances.

## Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

## Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

## Psychometrics

Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.

## Psychophysics

Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

## Quantity

Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.

## Rand index

The Rand index or Rand measure (named after William M. Rand) in statistics, and in particular in data clustering, is a measure of the similarity between two data clusterings.

## Randomness

Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.

## Reliability (statistics)

Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall consistency of a measure.

## Repeatability

Repeatability or test–retest reliability is the closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same measurand carried out under the same conditions of measurement.

## Reproducibility

Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.

## Result

A result (also called upshot) is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or events expressed qualitatively or quantitatively.

## Sample size determination

Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample.

## Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

## Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

## Sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.

## Shot grouping

In shooting sports, a shot grouping, or simply grouping, is the pattern of projectile impacts on a target from multiple shots taken in one shooting session.

## Significant figures

The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

## Standard error

The standard error (SE) of a statistic (usually an estimate of a parameter) is the standard deviation of its sampling distribution or an estimate of that standard deviation.

## Standards organization

A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.

## Statistical dispersion

In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) is the extent to which a distribution is stretched or squeezed.

## Statistical significance

In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.

## Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

## Synonym

A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

## Technical standard

A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.

## TED (conference)

TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".

## Traceability

Traceability is the capability to trace something.

## Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

## Transistor model

Transistors are simple devices with complicated behavior.

## Validity (statistics)

Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world based on probability.

## Value (mathematics)

In mathematics, value may refer to several, strongly related notions.

## Web search engine

A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.

## References

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