165 relations: Acetal, Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, Acetic acid, Acetic anhydride, Acetone, Acetylene, Addiction, Alanine, Alcohol (drug), Alcohol dehydrogenase, Alcoholic drink, Aldehyde, ALDH2, Aldol condensation, Alzheimer's disease, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Animal testing, Animal testing on rodents, Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, Atmosphere, Bedroom, Benzene, Butyraldehyde, Cannabis smoking, Carbon dioxide, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Carcinogen, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Catalase, Cativa process, Cellulose, Chemical formula, China, Chloroform, Conjunctiva, Cosmetics, Crotonaldehyde, Cyanide, Cyclohexylamine, Death, Debye, Dehydrogenation, Delirium, Disulfiram, Disulfiram-like drug, Dizziness, DNA, ..., Endogeny (biology), Enol, Enzyme, Equilibrium constant, Ethanol, Ether, Ethylene, Ethylene oxide, Ethylidene diacetate, Excretion, Fermentation, Fermentation in food processing, Formaldehyde, France, Fruit, Functional group, Gastrointestinal tract, Hallucination, Hangover, Headache, Heterocyclic compound, Homogeneous catalysis, Hydration reaction, Hydroformylation, Hydrolysis, Imine, Intelligence, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Intravenous therapy, Ionic conductivity (solid state), Iron(II) sulfate, Iron(III) sulfate, Japan, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, Journal of Chemical Education, Justus von Liebig, Kidney, Leo Paquette, List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, Liver, Living room, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Lung, Mercury (element), Metaldehyde, Methanol, Methyl group, Microorganism, Monsanto process, Mouth, Mouthwash, Mucous membrane, Narcotic, Nasal cavity, Nausea, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotine, Nitric acid, Odor, Odor detection threshold, Oligomer, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Organolithium reagent, Paraldehyde, Paralysis, Pentaerythritol, Perception, Phosphorus trichloride, Photodegradation, Pollutant, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polysaccharide, Polyvinyl acetate, Prochirality, Propene, Propionaldehyde, Pyridine, Pyruvate decarboxylase, Pyruvic acid, Redox, Resin, Respiratory system, Royal Society of Chemistry, Saliva, Skin, Somnolence, Stomach, Strecker amino acid synthesis, Synergy, Syngas, Synthon, Tautomer, Thermal decomposition, Thermoplastic, Threshold limit value, Throat, Tobacco smoke, Toluene, Turpentine, Ultraviolet, Urine, Vinyl acetate, Vinyl alcohol, Vinylphosphonic acid, Volatile organic compound, Vomiting, Wacker process, Wet oxidation, Wine fault, World Health Organization, Xylene, Yeast, 1,1-Diethoxyethane, 1,3-Butadiene. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenases are dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyze the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetic acid.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDH2 gene located on chromosome 12.
An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Rodents are commonly used in animal testing, particularly mice and rats, but also guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils and others.
Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy (15 June 175516 December 1809) was a French chemist and a contemporary of Antoine Lavoisier.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
A bedroom is a room of a house, mansion, castle, palace, hotel, dormitory, apartment, condominium, duplex or townhouse where people sleep.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Butyraldehyde, also known as butanal, is an organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)2CHO.
Cannabis smoking is the inhalation of smoke or vapors released by heating the flowers, leaves, or extracts of cannabis and releasing the main psychoactive chemical, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is absorbed into the bloodstream via the lungs.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
The Cativa process is a method for the production of acetic acid by the carbonylation of methanol.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Crotonaldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula CH3CH.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyclohexylamine is an organic compound, belonging to the aliphatic amine class.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
Dehydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from an organic molecule.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse and Antabus) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol).
A disulfiram-like drug is a drug that causes hypersensitivity to the unpleasant and toxic effects of alcohol.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Enols, or more formally, alkenols, are a type of reactive structure or intermediate in organic chemistry that is represented as an alkene (olefin) with a hydroxyl group attached to one end of the alkene double bond.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
Ethylidene diacetate is an organic compound with the formula (CH3CO2)2CHCH3.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of alcohol, such as wine, beer and distilled spirits.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
In chemistry, homogeneous catalysis is catalysis in a solution by a soluble catalyst.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ionic conduction (denoted by -lambda) is the movement of an ion from one site to another through defects in the crystal lattice of a solid or aqueous solution.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Iron(III) sulfate (or ferric sulfate), is the chemical compound with the formula Fe2(SO4)3.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner (13 December 1780 – 24 March 1849) was a German chemist who is best known for work that foreshadowed the periodic law for the chemical elements and inventing the first lighter, which was known as the Döbereiner's lamp.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Leo Armand Paquette (born) is an American organic chemist.
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In Western architecture, a living room, also called a lounge room, lounge or sitting room, is a room in a residential house or apartment for relaxing and socializing.
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (16 May 1763 – 14 November 1829) was a French pharmacist and chemist.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula (CH3CHO)4.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Mouthwash, mouth rinse, oral rinse, or mouth bath is a liquid which is held in the mouth passively or swilled around the mouth by contraction of the perioral muscles and/or movement of the head, and may be gargled, where the head is tilted back and the liquid bubbled at the back of the mouth.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The nasal cavity (nasal fossa, or nasal passage) is a large air filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
The odor detection threshold is the lowest concentration of a certain odor compound that is perceivable by the human sense of smell.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.
Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Pentaerythritol is an organic compound, a white, crystalline solid with the formula C5H12O4.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Phosphorus trichloride is a chemical compound of phosphorus and chlorine, having the chemical formula PCl3.
Photodegradation is the alteration of materials by light.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVA, PVAc, poly(ethenyl ethanoate): commonly referred to as wood glue, white glue, carpenter's glue, school glue, Elmer's glue in the US, or PVA glue) is an aliphatic rubbery synthetic polymer with the formula (C4H6O2)n.
In stereochemistry, prochiral molecules are those that can be converted from achiral to chiral in a single step.
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.
Propionaldehyde or propanal is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CHO.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyruvate decarboxylase is a homotetrameric enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, and in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of eukaryotes.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
The Strecker amino acid synthesis, also known simply as the Strecker synthesis, was discovered by German chemist Adolph Strecker, and is a term used for a series of chemical reactions that synthesize an amino acid from an aldehyde or ketone.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
In retrosynthetic analysis, a synthon is a destructural unit within a molecule which is related to a possible synthetic operation.
Tautomers are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
The threshold limit value (TLV) of a chemical substance is believed to be a level to which a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse effects.
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vinyl acetate is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO2CH.
Vinyl alcohol, also called ethenol (IUPAC name), is the simplest enol.
Vinylphosphonic acid is an organophosphorus compound with the formula C2H3PO3H2.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The Wacker process or the Hoechst-Wacker process (named after the chemical companies of the same name) refers to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde in the presence of palladium(II) chloride as the catalyst.
Wet oxidation is a form of hydrothermal treatment.
A wine fault or defect is an unpleasant characteristic of a wine often resulting from poor winemaking practices or storage conditions, and leading to wine spoilage.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
1,1-Diethoxyethane (acetaldehyde diethyl acetal) is a major flavoring component of distilled beverages, especially malt whisky and sherry.
1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.