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Acetic acid

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Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). [1]

282 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetamide, Acetate, Acetic acid (data page), Acetic acid bacteria, Acetic anhydride, Acetobacter, Acetobacterium, Acetogen, Acetone, Acetonitrile, Acetyl chloride, Acetyl group, Acetylation, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Acid–base reaction, Acidity regulator, Acids in wine, Actinium, Adhesive, Alchemy, Alcohol, Alkyl, Alkyne, Aluminium, Aluminium acetate, Aluminium oxide, Amide, Anaerobic organism, Andreas Libavius, Anhydrous, Antibiotic, Arsenic trioxide, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Ōita Prefecture, Base (chemistry), BASF, Beer, Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association, Biochemistry, Boiling point, BP, British Celanese, Bromoacetic acid, Butanone, Butyl acetate, ..., Cacodyl oxide, Calcium acetate, Camphene, Camphor, Carbocation, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbonylation, Carboxylic acid, Catalysis, Cativa process, Celanese, Cellulose acetate, Cereal, Cervical screening, Cervix, Charcoal, Chemical element, Chemical equation, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical reaction, Chemical synthesis, Chloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Chromium, Cider, Clostridium, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Coating, Cobalt, Coenzyme A, Color reaction, Concentration, Condensation reaction, Condiment, Conjugate acid, Convection, Copper, Copper(II) acetate, Corrosion, Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC), Descaling agent, Developing country, Dimethyl terephthalate, Distillation, Dry distillation, Dye, E number, Eastman Chemical Company, Electrolysis, Enthalpy, Ester, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Ether, Ethyl acetate, Ethyl bromoacetate, Ethylene, Ethylene oxide, Europe, Excretion, Fat, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Fischer–Speier esterification, Flammability limit, Food, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food industry, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, Functional group, Fungicide, German language, Germany, Grape, Grape syrup, Greece, Green chemistry, Halogenation, Hat Creek Radio Observatory, Health system, Heck reaction, Henri Dreyfus, Hermann Kolbe, Heroin, Heteropoly acid, Hexane, Human, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrophile, Indigo dye, Ink, Inorganic compound, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Interstellar medium, Ion, Iontophoresis, Iridium, Iron, Iron(II) acetate, Iron(III) chloride, Isobutyl acetate, Japan, John Wiley & Sons, Ketene, Ketonic decarboxylation, Lacquer, Large Molecule Heimat, Latin, Lead carbonate, Lead poisoning, Lead(II) acetate, Limewater, Liquid, List of R-phrases, Lithium aluminium hydride, Magnesium, Malt, Manganese, Metabolism, Metal, Metal carbonyl, Methane, Methanol, Methyl group, Methyl iodide, Microbiological culture, Millennium Chemicals, Miscibility, Molar concentration, Monomer, Monsanto, Monsanto process, Mordant, Must, Naphtha, Nitrocellulose, Nucleophile, Octane, Odor, Organic acid anhydride, Organic compound, Organic peroxide, Organic redox reaction, Organic synthesis, Otitis externa, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Oxygen, Paint, Palladium, Palladium(II) acetate, Passivation (chemistry), Perchloric acid, PH, Photographic film, Pickling, Pierre Adet, Pigment, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polymer, Polyvinyl acetate, Potassium acetate, Potato, Preferred IUPAC name, Preservative, Pressure, Primate, Propionic acid, Propyl acetate, Propylene oxide, Protein Data Bank, Protic solvent, Proton, Pyroligneous acid, Pyrolysis, Reagent, Rearrangement reaction, Recrystallization (chemistry), Relative permittivity, Rhodium, Rice, Rome, Sagittarius B2, Salt, Samsung, Saturn (mythology), Showa Denko, Silicotungstic acid, Sodium acetate, Sodium bicarbonate, Soil, Solvent, Sterling Chemicals, Sugar, Sulfuric acid, Svensk Etanolkemi, Temperature, Terephthalic acid, Tetrachloroethylene, Textile, Theophrastus, Thioacetic acid, Thionyl chloride, Tishchenko reaction, Ton, Tonne, Triacetin, Trichloroacetic acid, Trifluoroacetic acid, Triglyceride, Trivial name, United States, Vaginal lubrication, Varnish, Verdigris, Vinegar, Vinyl acetate, Wacker process, Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement, Water, Water-gas shift reaction, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Wine, Winemaking, Yeast in winemaking, Zinc. Expand index (232 more) »

Acetaldehyde

Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.

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Acetamide

Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.

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Acetate

An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.

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Acetic acid (data page)

and save the page --> This page provides supplementary chemical data on acetic acid.

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Acetic acid bacteria

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria which oxidize sugars or ethanol and produce acetic acid during fermentation.

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Acetic anhydride

Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.

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Acetobacter

Acetobacter is a genus of acetic acid bacteria.

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Acetobacterium

Acetobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria that belong to the Eubacteriaceae family.

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Acetogen

An acetogen is a microorganism that generates acetate (CH3COO−) as an end product of anaerobic respiration or fermentation.

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Acetone

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acetonitrile

Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Acetyl chloride

Acetyl chloride, CH3COCl is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid.

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Acetyl group

In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.

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Acetylation

Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.

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Acid

An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Acid dissociation constant

An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.

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Acid strength

The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).

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Acid–base reaction

An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.

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Acidity regulator

Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity).

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Acids in wine

The acids in wine are an important component in both winemaking and the finished product of wine.

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Actinium

Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.

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Adhesive

An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Alchemy

Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alkyl

In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

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Alkyne

In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium acetate

Aluminium acetate or aluminium ethanoate (also "aluminum ~"), sometimes abbreviated AlAc in geochemistry, can refer to a number of different salts of aluminum with acetic acid.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Amide

An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Andreas Libavius

Andreas Libavius or Andrew Libavius (c. 1555 – 25 July 1616) was a German physician and chemist.

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Anhydrous

A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.

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Antibiotic

An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Arsenic trioxide

Arsenic trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula.

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Atacama Large Millimeter Array

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Ōita Prefecture

is a prefecture on Kyushu region of Japan.

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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BASF

BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.

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Beer

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association

The Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) was a collaboration of the Universities of California, Illinois, and Maryland that built and operated the eponymously named BIMA radio telescope array.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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BP

BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.

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British Celanese

British Celanese was a chemical company based in England.

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Bromoacetic acid

Bromoacetic acid is the chemical compound with the formula CH2BrCO2H.

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Butanone

Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH3.

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Butyl acetate

n-Butyl acetate, also known as butyl ethanoate, is an ester which is a colorless flammable liquid at room temperature.

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Cacodyl oxide

Cacodyl oxide is a chemical compound of the formula 2O.

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Calcium acetate

Calcium acetate is a chemical compound which is a calcium salt of acetic acid.

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Camphene

Camphene, the chemical, not to be confused with camphine, the burning fluid lamp fuel.

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Camphor

Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma.

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Carbocation

A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Carbonylation

Carbonylation refers to reactions that introduce carbon monoxide into organic and inorganic substrates.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cativa process

The Cativa process is a method for the production of acetic acid by the carbonylation of methanol.

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Celanese

Celanese Corporation, also known as Hoechst Celanese, is a Fortune 500 global technology and specialty materials company with its headquarters in Irving, Texas, United States.

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Cellulose acetate

Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose.

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Cereal

A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Cervical screening

Cervical screening is the process of detecting and removing abnormal tissue or cells in the cervix before cervical cancer develops.

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Cervix

The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.

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Charcoal

Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical equation

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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Chloroacetic acid

Chloroacetic acid, industrially known as monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is the organochlorine compound with the formula ClCH2CO2H.

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Chloroform

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Cider

Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Clostridium

Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.

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Clostridium acetobutylicum

Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after Jewish-Russian-born Chaim Weizmann.

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Coating

A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Coenzyme A

Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Color reaction

In chemistry, a color reaction or colour reaction is a chemical reaction that is used to transform colorless chemical compounds into colored derivatives which can be detected visually or with the aid of a colorimeter.

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Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Condensation reaction

A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).

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Condiment

A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.

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Conjugate acid

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.

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Convection

Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Copper(II) acetate

Copper(II) acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(OAc)2 where AcO− is acetate.

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Corrosion

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)

The Dangerous Substances Directive (as amended) was one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP regulation (2008), starting in 2016.

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Descaling agent

A descaling agent or chemical descaler is a chemical substance used to remove limescale from metal surfaces in contact with hot water, such as in boilers, water heaters, and kettles.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dimethyl terephthalate

Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2CH3)2.

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Distillation

Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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Dry distillation

Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce gaseous products (which may condense into liquids or solids).

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Dye

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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E number

E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.

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Eastman Chemical Company

Eastman Chemical Company, an American Fortune 500 company, is a global specialty chemical company that produces a broad range of advanced materials, chemicals and fibers for everyday purposes.

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Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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Ester

In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fermentation

Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.

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Ether

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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Ethyl acetate

Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.

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Ethyl bromoacetate

Ethyl bromoacetate is the chemical compound with the formula CH2BrCO2C2H5.

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Ethylene

Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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Ethylene oxide

Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Excretion

Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fischer–Speier esterification

Fischer esterification or Fischer–Speier esterification is a special type of esterification by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst.

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Flammability limit

Mixtures of dispersed combustible materials (such as gaseous or vaporised fuels, and some dusts) and air will burn only if the fuel concentration lies within well-defined lower and upper bounds determined experimentally, referred to as flammability limits or explosive limits.

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Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food industry

The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.

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Formaldehyde

No description.

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Formic acid

Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Fungicide

Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Grape

A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Grape syrup

Grape syrup is a condiment made with concentrated grape juice.

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Greece

No description.

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Green chemistry

Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances.

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Halogenation

Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.

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Hat Creek Radio Observatory

The Hat Creek Radio Observatory (HCRO) is operated by SRI International in the Western United States.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Heck reaction

The Heck reaction (also called the Mizoroki-Heck reaction) is the chemical reaction of an unsaturated halide (or triflate) with an alkene in the presence of a base and a palladium catalyst (or palladium nanomaterial-based catalyst) to form a substituted alkene.

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Henri Dreyfus

Henri Dreyfus (or Henry Dreyfus, January 7, 1882 – December 30, 1944) was a Swiss chemist.

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Hermann Kolbe

Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe (27 September 1818 – 25 November 1884), was a seminal contributor in the birth of modern organic chemistry.

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Heroin

Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.

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Heteropoly acid

A heteropoly acid is a class of acid made up of a particular combination of hydrogen and oxygen with certain metals and non-metals.

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Hexane

Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrophile

A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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Indigo dye

Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).

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Ink

Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Iontophoresis

Iontophoresis is a process of transdermal drug delivery by use of a voltage gradient on the skin.

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Iridium

Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron(II) acetate

Iron(II) acetate is an coordination complex with formula Fe(C2H3O2)2.

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Iron(III) chloride

Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.

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Isobutyl acetate

The chemical compound isobutyl acetate, also known as 2-methylpropyl ethanoate (IUPAC name) or β-methylpropyl acetate, is a common solvent.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Ketene

A ketene is an organic compound of the form R′R″C.

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Ketonic decarboxylation

Ketonic decarboxylation (also known as ketonization) is a type of organic reaction and a decarboxylation converting two equivalents of a carboxylic acid to a symmetric ketone by the application of heat with expulsion of one equivalent of water and one equivalent of carbon dioxide.

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Lacquer

The term lacquer is used for a number of hard and potentially shiny finishes applied to materials such as wood.

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Large Molecule Heimat

The Large Molecule Heimat is a dense gas cloud located in the molecular cloud Sagittarius B2.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lead carbonate

Lead(II) carbonate is the chemical compound PbCO3.

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Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.

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Lead(II) acetate

Lead(II) acetate (Pb(CH3COO)2), also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, or Goulard's powder, is a white crystalline chemical compound with a sweetish taste.

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Limewater

Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide.

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Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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List of R-phrases

R-phrases (short for risk phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations.

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Lithium aluminium hydride

Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Malt

Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal carbonyl

Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methanol

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Methyl iodide

Methyl iodide, also called iodomethane, and commonly abbreviated "MeI", is the chemical compound with the formula CH3I.

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Microbiological culture

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.

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Millennium Chemicals

Millennium Inorganic Chemicals is a Hunt Valley, MD based chemical company.

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Miscibility

Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.

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Molar concentration

Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.

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Monomer

A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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Monsanto

Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.

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Monsanto process

The Monsanto process is an industrial method for the manufacture of acetic acid by catalytic carbonylation of methanol.

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Mordant

A mordant or dye fixative is a substance used to set (i.e. bind) dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye, which then attaches to the fabric (or tissue).

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Must

Must (from the Latin vinum mustum, "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit.

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Naphtha

Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.

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Nitrocellulose

Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.

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Nucleophile

Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.

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Octane

Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3.

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Odor

An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.

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Organic acid anhydride

An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organic peroxide

Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).

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Organic redox reaction

Organic reductions or organic oxidations or organic redox reactions are redox reactions that take place with organic compounds.

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Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.

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Otitis externa

Otitis externa, also called swimmer's ear, is inflammation of the ear canal.

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Owens Valley Radio Observatory

Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) is a radio astronomy observatory located near Big Pine, California (US) in Owens Valley.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paint

Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.

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Palladium

Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Palladium(II) acetate

Palladium(II) acetate is a chemical compound of palladium described by the formula n, abbreviated n. It is more reactive than the analogous platinum compound.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.

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Perchloric acid

Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Photographic film

Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

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Pickling

Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.

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Pierre Adet

Pierre-Auguste Adet (May 17, 1763 Nevers – March 19, 1834 Paris) was a French scientist, politician, and diplomat.

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Pigment

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Polyethylene terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polyvinyl acetate

Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVA, PVAc, poly(ethenyl ethanoate): commonly referred to as wood glue, white glue, carpenter's glue, school glue, Elmer's glue in the US, or PVA glue) is an aliphatic rubbery synthetic polymer with the formula (C4H6O2)n.

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Potassium acetate

Potassium acetate (KCH3COO) is the potassium salt of acetic acid.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Preferred IUPAC name

In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC nomenclature.

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Preservative

A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.

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Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Propionic acid

Propionic acid (from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH.

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Propyl acetate

Propyl acetate, also known as propyl ethanoate, is a chemical compound used as a solvent and an example of an ester.

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Propylene oxide

Propylene oxide is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3CHCH2O.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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Protic solvent

In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Pyroligneous acid

Pyroligneous acid, also called wood vinegar or wood acid, is a dark liquid produced by the destructive distillation of wood and other plant materials.

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Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

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Reagent

A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

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Rearrangement reaction

A rearrangement reaction is a broad class of organic reactions where the carbon skeleton of a molecule is rearranged to give a structural isomer of the original molecule.

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Recrystallization (chemistry)

In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.

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Relative permittivity

The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.

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Rhodium

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Rome

Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Sagittarius B2

Sagittarius B2 (Sgr B2) is a giant molecular cloud of gas and dust that is located about from the center of the Milky Way.

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Salt

Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Samsung

Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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Saturn (mythology)

Saturn (Saturnus) is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation.

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Showa Denko

is a leading Japanese chemical engineering firm.

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Silicotungstic acid

Silicotungstic acid (also known as tungstosilicic acid) is the most commonly encountered heteropoly acid.

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Sodium acetate

Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, is the sodium salt of acetic acid.

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Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

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Soil

Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Sterling Chemicals

Sterling Chemicals is a chemicals producer, located in Houston, Texas.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Svensk Etanolkemi

The company Svensk Etanolkemi AB, or Sekab is a major Nordic producer of ethanol, ethanol derivatives such as acetic acid and ethyl acetate, and ethanol fuels such as E85.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Terephthalic acid

Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.

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Tetrachloroethylene

Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.

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Textile

A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Theophrastus

Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.

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Thioacetic acid

Thioacetic acid is an organosulfur compound with the molecular formula CH3COSH.

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Thionyl chloride

Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2.

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Tishchenko reaction

The Tishchenko reaction is an organic chemical reaction that involves disproportionation of an aldehyde in the presence of an alkoxide.

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Ton

The ton is a unit of measure.

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Tonne

The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Triacetin

The triglyceride 1,2,3-triacetoxypropane is more generally known as triacetin and glycerin triacetate.

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Trichloroacetic acid

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA; TCAA; also known as trichloroethanoic acid) is an analogue of acetic acid in which the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have all been replaced by chlorine atoms.

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Trifluoroacetic acid

Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is an organofluorine compound with the chemical formula CF3CO2H.

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Triglyceride

A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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Trivial name

In chemistry, a trivial name is a nonsystematic name for a chemical substance.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vaginal lubrication

Vaginal lubrication is a naturally produced fluid that lubricates a woman's vagina.

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Varnish

Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.

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Verdigris

Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over a period of time.

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Vinegar

Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

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Vinyl acetate

Vinyl acetate is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO2CH.

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Wacker process

The Wacker process or the Hoechst-Wacker process (named after the chemical companies of the same name) refers to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde in the presence of palladium(II) chloride as the catalyst.

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Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement

A Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement is a class of carbocation 1,2-rearrangement reactions in which a hydrogen, alkyl or aryl group migrates from one carbon to a neighboring carbon.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water-gas shift reaction

The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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Wine

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Winemaking

Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.

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Yeast in winemaking

The role of yeast in winemaking is the most important element that distinguishes wine from grape juice.

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Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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ATC code G01AD02, ATC code S02AA10, ATCvet code QG01AD02, ATCvet code QS02AA10, AcOH, Acetic, Acetic (acid), Acetic Acid, Acetic acids, Acetyl hydroxide, Ascetic acid, CH3CO2H, CH3COOH, Ethanoic Acid, Ethanoic acid, Ethylic acid, Glacia acetic acid, Glacial acetic acid, HAc, HC2H3O2, HOAc, Hydrogen acetate, Methane carbon dioxide, Methanecarboxylic acid, Methanol carbonylation.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetic_acid

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