157 relations: Acetamide, Acetate, Acetic acid, Acetoacetate decarboxylase, Acetoacetic acid, Acetone, Acetone cyanohydrin, Acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation, Acetyl group, Acetylene, Aldol condensation, Alexander William Williamson, Alkylation, American Chemistry Council, Amide, Annals of Neurology, Anticonvulsant, Antoine Bussy, August Kekulé, Autoignition temperature, Azeotrope, Azeotrope tables, Bacteria, Benzene, Beveren, Bisphenol A, Butanone, Calcium acetate, Carbonic acid, Carbonyl fluoride, Carbonyl group, Carcinogen, Central nervous system, Chaim Weizmann, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, Chemical formula, Chemical peel, Chemical polarity, Chemical stability, Chloroform, Clean Air Act (United States), Clostridium acetobutylicum, Combustibility and flammability, Comet, Condensation reaction, Cordite, Cumene, Cumene process, Cyanoacrylate, CYP2E1, ..., Decarboxylation, Denaturation (food), Denatured alcohol, Desiccant, Diabetes mellitus, Diacetone alcohol, Diethyl ether, Disease, Dry distillation, Dry ice, Empirical formula, Epilepsy, Epoxy, Ester, Ethane, Ethanol, Excipient, Experiments in Fluids, Explosive material, Fiberglass, Flash point, Food additive, Generally recognized as safe, Genotoxicity, Glucose, Glycolic acid, Hexachlorophene, Hydration reaction, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrolysis, Ineos, Isopropyl alcohol, Israel, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Jones oxidation, Justus von Liebig, Ketoacidosis, Ketogenic diet, Ketone, Ketone bodies, Ketonic decarboxylation, Ketosis, Laboratory glassware, Lactic acid, Lead acetate, Mainland China, Make-up artist, Median lethal dose, Medication, Merck Index, Methane, Methanol, Methyl isobutyl ketone, Methyl isocyanate, Methyl methacrylate, Methylglyoxal, Miscibility, Mitsui, Mutagen, Nail polish, Neurotoxicity, Nitrile, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organic reaction, Organic synthesis, Paint, Paint thinner, Peroxide, Pharmaceutical industry, Phenol, Philae (spacecraft), Photodissociation, Polycarbonate, Polyurethane, Pressurization, Propene, Properties of water, Propionaldehyde, Propylene glycol, Protic solvent, Pyruvic acid, Redox, Royal Dutch Shell, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rusty bolt effect, Salicylic acid, Science (journal), SN2 reaction, Soldering, Solvent, Static electricity, Sunoco, Taiwan, Terpene, Terpenoid, Tonne, Trichloroacetic acid, Urea, Vapor polishing, Varnish, Volatile organic compound, Wacker process, World War I, 2-Methylbut-3-yn-2-ol, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetoacetate decarboxylase (AAD or ADC) is an enzyme involved in both the ketone body production pathway in humans and other mammals, and solventogenesis in bacteria.
Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) is an organic compound used in the production of methyl methacrylate, the monomer of the transparent plastic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), also known as acrylic.
Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation is a process that uses bacterial fermentation to produce acetone, n-Butanol, and ethanol from carbohydrates such as starch and glucose.
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration to give a conjugated enone.
Alexander William Williamson FRS (1 May 18246 May 1904) was an English chemist of Scottish descent.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
The American Chemistry Council (ACC), formerly known as the Manufacturing Chemists' Association (at its founding in 1872) and then as the Chemical Manufacturers' Association (from 1978 until 2000), is an industry trade association for American chemical companies, based in Washington, D.C.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Annals of Neurology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering neurology.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antoine Alexandre Brutus Bussy (29 May 1794, Marseille – 1 February 1882, Paris) was a French chemist who primarily studied pharmaceuticals.
Friedrich August Kekulé, later Friedrich August Kekule von Stradonitz (7 September 1829 – 13 July 1896), was a German organic chemist.
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.
This page contains tables of azeotrope data for various binary and ternary mixtures of solvents.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Beveren is a municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
Butanone, also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH3.
Calcium acetate is a chemical compound which is a calcium salt of acetic acid.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
Carbonyl fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula COF2.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.
Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (21 August 1816 – 19 August 1856) was a French chemist.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical peel is a technique used to improve and smooth the texture of the skin.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.
Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after Jewish-Russian-born Chaim Weizmann.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
* Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.
Cumene is the common name for isopropylbenzene, an organic compound that is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution.
The cumene process (cumene-phenol process, Hock process) is an industrial process for developing phenol and acetone from benzene and propylene.
Cyanoacrylates are a family of strong fast-acting adhesives with industrial, medical, and household uses.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
The word denature is used in two food-related contexts.
Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirit (methylated spirits in Australia and New Zealand) or denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational consumption.
A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity; it is the opposite of a humectant.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diacetone alcohol is a chemical compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2C(OH)(CH3)2, sometimes called DAA.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce gaseous products (which may condense into liquids or solids).
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.
Experiments in Fluids is a scientific, peer-reviewed scientific journal published monthly by Springer Science+Business Media.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycolic acid (hydroacetic acid or hydroxyacetic acid); chemical formula C2H4O3 (also written as HOCH2CO2H), is the smallest α-hydroxy acid (AHA).
Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac, is an organochlorine compound that was once widely used as a disinfectant.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
INEOS is a privately owned multinational chemicals company headquartered in London, UK, and with registered offices in Lyndhurst, Hampshire, UK and London, United Kingdom.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jean Baptiste André Dumas (14 July 180010 April 1884) was a French chemist, best known for his works on organic analysis and synthesis, as well as the determination of atomic weights (relative atomic masses) and molecular weights by measuring vapor densities.
The Jones oxidation is an organic reaction for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Ketonic decarboxylation (also known as ketonization) is a type of organic reaction and a decarboxylation converting two equivalents of a carboxylic acid to a symmetric ketone by the application of heat with expulsion of one equivalent of water and one equivalent of carbon dioxide.
Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy.
Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment in scientific work traditionally made of glass.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lead acetate can refer to.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Special effects makeup techniques A make-up artist or makeup artist is an artist whose medium is the human body, applying makeup and prosthetics on others for theatrical, television, film, fashion, magazines and other similar productions including all aspects of the modeling industry.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2C(O)CH3.
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3NCO.
Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is an organic compound with the formula CH2.
Methylglyoxal, also called pyruvaldehyde or 2-oxopropanal, is the organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CHO.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
is one of the largest keiretsu in Japan and one of the largest corporate groups in the world.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
Nail polish (also known as nail varnish) is a lacquer that can be applied to the human fingernail or toenails to decorate and protect the nail plates.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
A paint thinner is a solvent used to thin oil-based paints or clean up after their use.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Philae is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the ''Rosetta'' spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Pressurization (or Pressurisation) is the application of pressure in a given situation or environment.
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Propionaldehyde or propanal is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CHO.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
The rusty bolt effect is radio interference due to interactions with dirty connections or corroded parts.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.
Soldering (AmE:, BrE), is a process in which two or more items (usually metal) are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.
Sunoco LP is a master limited partnership organized in Delaware and headquartered in Dallas, Texas that is a wholesale distributor of motor fuels.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA; TCAA; also known as trichloroethanoic acid) is an analogue of acetic acid in which the three hydrogen atoms of the methyl group have all been replaced by chlorine atoms.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Vapor polishing is a method of polishing plastics to reduce the surface roughness or improve clarity.
Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
The Wacker process or the Hoechst-Wacker process (named after the chemical companies of the same name) refers to the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde in the presence of palladium(II) chloride as the catalyst.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
2-Methylbut-3-yn-2-ol is the organic compound with the formula HC2C(OH)Me2 (Me.
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (abbreviated as 67P or 67P/C-G) is a Jupiter-family comet, originally from the Kuiper belt, with a current orbital period of 6.45 years, a rotation period of approximately 12.4 hours and a maximum velocity of.
2-Propanone, 2-propanone, Aceton, Beta-ketopropane, Beta-ketopropanone, CH3COCH3, Dimethyl Ketone, Dimethyl ketone, Dimethylketone, Ketone propane, Methyl ketone, Methylketone, Polish remover, Propan-2-one, Propanone, Pyroacetic spirit, Β-ketopropane.