211 relations: Absorbance, Accuracy and precision, Acetate, Acetic acid, Acetonitrile, Acetylacetone, Acid, Acid strength, Acid-base extraction, Acid–base homeostasis, Acid–base imbalance, Acid–base reaction, Acidity function, Acidosis, Acids in wine, Activity coefficient, Adenine, Alcohol, Alkalosis, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amphoterism, Analytical chemistry, Aniline, Aqueous solution, Arene substitution pattern, Arsenic acid, Arterial blood gas test, Beer–Lambert law, Benzoic acid, Bicarbonate, Biochemistry, Boric acid, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Buffer solution, Butyric acid, Calorimetry, Carbonate, Carbonic acid, CAS Registry Number, ChemAxon, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical oceanography, Chemical potential, Chemical shift, Chemical thermodynamics, Chemicalize, Chromic acid, Cis–trans isomerism, Citric acid, ..., Codeine, Cologarithm, Concentration, Conjugate acid, Conjugated system, Coordinate covalent bond, Coordination complex, Cresol, Cytochrome c oxidase, Determination of equilibrium constants, Dimensional analysis, Dimensionless quantity, Dimer (chemistry), Dimethyl sulfoxide, Diol, Dissociation (chemistry), Dissociation constant, Dolomite, Donor number, Drug development, Electron pair, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Entropy, Environmental science, Enzyme kinetics, Equilibrium constant, Equivalence point, Ether, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Exothermic process, Fluorescence, Formic acid, Fumaric acid, Gas constant, Gel electrophoresis, Gibbs free energy, Glass electrode, Glycine, Grotthuss mechanism, Hammett acidity function, Hammett equation, Heat capacity, Heavy water, Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, Heptane, Homoassociation, Humic acid, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen selenide, Hydrolysis, Hydron (chemistry), Hydronium, Hydrophobe, Hydroxide, Inductive effect, Intramolecular force, Ionic strength, Iron oxide, Isoelectric focusing, Isoelectric point, Isomer, Joule, Kelvin, Keto–enol tautomerism, Lactic acid, Le Chatelier's principle, Least squares, Leveling effect, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Limestone, Linus Pauling, Logarithm, Maleic acid, Malic acid, Mesomeric effect, Metal hydroxide, Methanol, Methylamine, Molar concentration, Mole (unit), Molecule, MOPS, Natural logarithm, Nernst equation, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Ocean acidification, Octahedral molecular geometry, Oligomer, Organic chemistry, Oxalic acid, Oxyanion, P-Toluenesulfonic acid, Partial molar property, Partition coefficient, PCO2, PH, PH indicator, PH meter, Pharmacology, Phenol, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorous acid, Potassium perchlorate, Potentiometric titration, Predominance diagram, Propionic acid, Protein pKa calculations, Protic solvent, Proton affinity, Pyridine, Pyrrolidine, Quantity, Raman spectroscopy, Relative permittivity, RICE chart, Risk assessment, Ronnie Bell, Salinity, Self-ionization of water, Simplified molecular-input line-entry system, Slope, Sodium nitrate, Solubility equilibrium, Solution, Solvation, Spectrophotometry, Spermine, Stability constants of complexes, Standard state, Sulfate, Superacid, Superbase, Tartaric acid, Temperature, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, Tetrahydrofuran, Thermodynamic activity, Titration, Titration curve, Total inorganic carbon, Tricine, Triethylamine, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Universal indicator, Van 't Hoff equation, Vanadate, Vitamin C, Y-intercept, Zwitterion, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dioxane, 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene, 2,4-Dinitrophenol. Expand index (161 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Acetylacetone is an organic compound that exists in two tautomeric forms that interconvert rapidly and are treated as a single compound in most applications.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Acid-base extraction is a procedure using sequential liquid–liquid extractions to purify acids and bases from mixtures based on their chemical properties.
Acid–base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF).
Acid–base imbalance is an abnormality of the human body's normal balance of acids and bases that causes the plasma pH to deviate out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45).
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
An acidity function is a measure of the acidity of a medium or solvent system,Rochester, C. H. (1970).
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
The acids in wine are an important component in both winemaking and the finished product of wine.
An activity coefficient is a factor used in thermodynamics to account for deviations from ideal behaviour in a mixture of chemical substances.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alkalosis is the result of a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Arene substitution patterns are part of organic chemistry IUPAC nomenclature and pinpoint the position of substituents other than hydrogen in relation to each other on an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Arsenic acid is the chemical compound with the formula H3AsO4.
An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).
ChemAxon is a software company specializing in application programming interfaces and end user applications for cheminformatics and life science research with headquarters in Budapest, Hungary and Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the chemical shift is the resonant frequency of a nucleus relative to a standard in a magnetic field.
Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.
Chemicalize is an online platform for chemical calculations, search, and text processing.
The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.
Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
In mathematics, the base-b cologarithm, sometimes shortened to colog, of a number is the base-b logarithm of the reciprocal of the number.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Cresols (also hydroxytoluene) are organic compounds which are methylphenols.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Equilibrium constants are determined in order to quantify chemical equilibria.
In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
In chemistry a donor number (DN) is a quantitative measure of Lewis basicity.
Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.
In chemistry, an electron pair or a Lewis pair consists of two electrons that occupy the same molecular orbital but have opposite spins.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
The equivalence point, or stoichiometric point, of a chemical reaction is the point at which chemically equivalent quantities of bases and acids have been mixed.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO2CCH.
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The Grotthuss mechanism (also known as proton jumping) is the process by which an 'excess' proton or proton defect diffuses through the hydrogen bond network of water molecules or other hydrogen-bonded liquids through the formation and concomitant cleavage of covalent bonds involving neighboring molecules.
The Hammett acidity function (H0) is a measure of acidity that is used for very concentrated solutions of strong acids, including superacids.
The Hammett equation in organic chemistry describes a linear free-energy relationship relating reaction rates and equilibrium constants for many reactions involving benzoic acid derivatives with meta- and para-substituents to each other with just two parameters: a substituent constant and a reaction constant.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
In chemistry, the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation describes the derivation of pH as a measure of acidity (using, the negative log of the acid dissociation constant) in biological and chemical systems.
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.
In acid–base chemistry, homoassociation (an IUPAC term) is an association between a base and its conjugate acid through a hydrogen bond.
Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula H2Se.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen, represented with the symbol.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
In chemistry and physics, the inductive effect is an experimentally observed effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule, resulting in a permanent dipole in a bond.
An intramolecular force is any force that binds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound, not to be confused with intermolecular forces, which are the forces present between molecules.
The concept of ionic strength was first introduced by Lewis and Randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Isoelectric focusing (IEF), also known as electrofocusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by differences in their isoelectric point (pI).
The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge or is electrically neutral in the statistical mean.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In organic chemistry, keto–enol tautomerism refers to a chemical equilibrium between a keto form (a ketone or an aldehyde) and an enol (an alcohol).
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on some chemical equilibria.
The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.
Leveling effect or solvent leveling refers to the effect of solvent on the properties of acids and bases.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
Maleic acid or cis-butenedioic acid is an organic compound that is a dicarboxylic acid, a molecule with two carboxyl groups.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
The mesomeric effect in chemistry is a property of substituents or functional groups in a chemical compound.
Metal hydroxides are hydroxides of metals.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methylamine is an organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
MOPS (3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid) is a buffer introduced by Good et al.
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.
In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell reaction) to the standard electrode potential, temperature, and activities (often approximated by concentrations) of the chemical species undergoing reduction and oxidation.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
p-Toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA or pTsOH) or tosylic acid (TsOH) is an organic compound with the formula CH3C6H4SO3H.
A partial molar property is a thermodynamic quantity which indicates how an extensive property of a solution or mixture varies with changes in the molar composition of the mixture at constant temperature and pressure.
In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or distribution-coefficient (D) is the ratio of concentrations of a compound in a mixture of two immiscible phases at equilibrium.
The pCO2, PCO2, p_\ceor P_\ce is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2), often used in reference to blood, but also used in oceanography to describe the partial pressure of CO2 in the Ocean, and in life support systems engineering and underwater diving to describe the partial pressure in a breathing gas.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually.
A pH meter is a scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen-ion activity in water-based solutions, indicating its acidity or alkalinity expressed as pH.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorous acid is the compound described by the formula H3PO3.
Potassium perchlorate is the inorganic salt with the chemical formula KClO4.
Potentiometric titration is a technique similar to direct titration of a redox reaction.
A predominance diagram purports to show the conditions of concentration and pH where a chemical species has the highest concentration in solutions in which there are multiple acid-base equilibria.
Propionic acid (from the Greek words protos, meaning "first", and pion, meaning "fat"; also known as propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula C2H5COOH.
In computational biology, protein pKa calculations are used to estimate the p''K''a values of amino acids as they exist within proteins.
In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
The proton affinity (PA, Epa) of an anion or of a neutral atom or molecule is the negative of the enthalpy change in the reaction between above species and proton in the gas phase: These reactions are always exothermic in the gas phase, i.e. energy is released when the reaction advances in the direction shown and enthalpy is negative, while the proton affinity is positive.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrrolidine, also known as tetrahydropyrrole, is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)4NH.
Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
A RICE chart or RICE box is a tabular system of keeping track of changing concentrations in an equilibrium reaction.
Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative estimate of risk related to a well-defined situation and a recognized threat (also called hazard).
Ronald Percy "Ronnie" Bell FRS FRSC FRSE (24 November 1907 – 9 January 1996) was a leading British physical chemist who worked in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory at the University of Oxford, England.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or in an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H2O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH−.
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings.
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Solubility equilibrium is a type of dynamic equilibrium that exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
Spermine is a polyamine involved in cellular metabolism found in all eukaryotic cells.
A stability constant (formation constant, binding constant) is an equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex in solution.
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% pure sulfuric acid, which has a Hammett acidity function (H0) of −12.
In chemistry, a superbase is an extremely basic compound or caustic substance that has a high affinity for protons.
Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid that occurs naturally in many fruits, most notably in grapes, but also in bananas, tamarinds and citrus.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol) is a measure of the "effective concentration" of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
Titrations are often recorded on graphs called titration curves, which generally contain the volume of the titrant as the independent variable and the pH of the solution as the dependent variable (because it changes depending on the composition of the two solutions).
The total inorganic carbon (CT, or TIC) or dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the sum of inorganic carbon species in a solution.
Tricine is an organic compound that is used in buffer solutions.
Triethylamine is the chemical compound with the formula N(CH2CH3)3, commonly abbreviated Et3N.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, abbreviated as 2-DE or 2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze proteins.
A universal indicator is a pH indicator composed of a solution of several compounds that exhibits several smooth colour changes over a pH value range from 0 to 14 (it may be negative or higher depending on the concentration) to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of solutions, where 7 indicates neutral.
The van 't Hoff equation relates the change in the equilibrium constant,, of a chemical reaction to the change in temperature, T, given the standard enthalpy change,, for the process.
In chemistry, a vanadate is a compound containing an oxoanion of vanadium generally in its highest oxidation state of +5.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
In analytic geometry, using the common convention that the horizontal axis represents a variable x and the vertical axis represents a variable y, a y-intercept or vertical intercept is a point where the graph of a function or relation intersects the y-axis of the coordinate system.
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane commonly known as ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon.
1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.
1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene is an organic compound with the formula C10H6(NMe2)2 (Me.
2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2.
Acid constant, Acid ionisation constant, Acid ionization constant, Acid-base equilibrium, Acidity Constant, Acidity constant, Acid–base balance, Acid–base equilibrium, Base dissociation constant, Base ionization constant, Basicity constant, Ionization constant, Kₐ, List of acid dissociation constants, Molecular acid, PKa, PKb, PKₐ.