275 relations: A Civil Action, Abdomen, Acceptance, Accident, Adaptation, Addiction, Adverse effect, Aid, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Amnesia, Amputation, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anxiety, Aptitude, Aristotle, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Assault, Asthma, Atrophy, Attendant circumstance, Autism, Autoimmune disease, Bacteria, Battery (crime), Behavior, Behavioural genetics, Biotic material, Bipolar disorder, Birth defect, Birth trauma (physical), Black's Law Dictionary, Blister, Body art, Body modification, Body piercing, Bodybuilding, Bone, Bonsai, Bonsai cultivation and care, Caffeine, Cannabis (drug), Charles Darwin, Chemical substance, Chickenpox, Child development stages, Childbirth, Chlorpromazine, Christopher Hitchens, Chromosome abnormality, ..., Chronic condition, Cleavage (embryo), Cognition, Collaboration, Complication (medicine), Complications of pregnancy, Component causes, Concussion, Consumption (economics), Contamination, Coping (psychology), Cosmetics, Cousin, Cutlery, Cystic fibrosis, Dangerous goods, Death, Dermatitis, Determinant, Developed country, Developmental disability, Developmental impact of child neglect in early childhood, Dialect, Disability, Disease, Diseases of affluence, Down syndrome, Drive-through, Drug, Emotion, Environmental disease, Environmental factor, Epidemiology, Epigenetics, Experience, Eye color, Failure to thrive, Fascia, Fast food, Fastball, Feeling, Fertilisation, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Fetal disease, Fetus, Food allergy, Foot binding, Foreign accent syndrome, Forensic anthropology, Forensic footwear evidence, Frustration, Functional disorder, Fungus, Gait (human), Gene, Genetic disorder, Genetic predisposition, Genital modification and mutilation, Genotype–phenotype distinction, Gestational diabetes, Gout, Hair coloring, Hazardous waste, Head injury, Healing, Health, Health care, Health effects of tobacco, Henna, Hepatitis B, Heredity, Hippocrates, HIV/AIDS, Hobby, Homeostasis, Hormone, Host factor, Huntington's disease, Hygiene, Hygiene hypothesis, Hypothesis, Idea, Illegal drug trade, Immune system, Immune tolerance in pregnancy, Incidence (epidemiology), Infection, Inflammatory bowel disease, Injury, Injury prevention, Insular dwarfism, Intention (criminal law), Inverse function, Iodine deficiency, Iris (anatomy), Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Knowledge, Lactose intolerance, Lamarckism, Large for gestational age, Laser hair removal, LASIK, Lead poisoning, Learning, Leave of absence, Lifestyle (sociology), Lifestyle disease, Limp, List of surgical procedures, Little Albert experiment, Localized disease, Maldevelopment, Malnutrition, Mammal, Manual labour, Maternal effect, Maternal health, Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy, Medical test, Medication, Meiosis, Mental disorder, Mental health, Microorganism, Minor League Baseball, Mirror syndrome, Mutation, Mutilation, Natural history, Nature, Nature versus nurture, Necessity and sufficiency, Neck ring, Neutral spine, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Non-Mendelian inheritance, North Korea, North Korean famine, Nutrition and pregnancy, Occupational disease, Offspring, Organ transplantation, Organism, Orientation (geometry), Outline of nutrition, Parasitism, Parenting styles, Passive immunity, Pathogen, Peer pressure, Perm (hairstyle), Personality, Phalanx bone, Phineas Gage, Physical examination, Physical fitness, Pigment, Placenta, Plastic surgery, Precancerous condition, Pregnancy, Prenatal development, Prenatal memory, Prenatal nutrition, Prenatal stress, Prion, Progressive disease, Racism, Recreational drug use, Regulatory T cell, Relaxed pronunciation, Reproductive health, Risk, Risk factor, Rite of passage, Ritual, Rubella, Scar, Schizophrenia, Season of birth, Significant other, Skill, Slate (magazine), Small for gestational age, Smoking and pregnancy, Socialization, Sociological illness, Somatic (biology), South Korea, Spurious relationship, Stress (biology), Stroke, Structural coloration, Stunted growth, Stuttering, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Sun tanning, Superfund, Symptom, Synonym, Syphilis, Systemic disease, Taboo, Tattoo, Termination of employment, Theory, Thyroid disease in pregnancy, Toleration, Tooth whitening, Toxic waste, Trauma trigger, Ulcer, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations System, Urban legend, Vaccination, Vertically transmitted infection, Violence, Virus, Vitamin B12 deficiency, World Food Programme, World Health Organization, XY sex-determination system. Expand index (225 more) » « Shrink index
A Civil Action is a non-fiction book by Jonathan Harr about a water contamination case in Woburn, Massachusetts, in the 1980s.
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Acceptance in human psychology is a person's assent to the reality of a situation, recognizing a process or condition (often a negative or uncomfortable situation) without attempting to change it or protest it.
An accident, also known as an unintentional injury, is an undesirable, incidental, and unplanned event that could have been prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its occurrence.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.
An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
In law, attendant circumstances (sometimes external circumstances) are the facts surrounding an event.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Battery is a criminal offense involving the unlawful physical acting upon a threat, distinct from assault which is the act of creating apprehension of such contact.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Birth trauma (BT) refers to damage of the tissues and organs of a newly delivered child, often as a result of physical pressure or trauma during childbirth.
Black's Law is the most widely used law dictionary in the United States.
A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.
Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body.
Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance.
Body piercing, a form of body modification, is the practice of puncturing or cutting a part of the human body, creating an opening in which jewelry may be worn.
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
(tray planting) is a Japanese art form using cultivation techniques to produce small trees in containers that mimic the shape and scale of full size trees.
Bonsai cultivation and care involves the long-term cultivation of small trees in containers, called bonsai in the Japanese tradition of this art form.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Child development stages are the theoretical milestones of child development, some of which are asserted in nativist theories.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
Complications of pregnancy are health problems that are caused by pregnancy.
A component cause of a disease is an event required for the disease to develop.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.
Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Commonly, "cousin" refers to a "first cousin" or equivalently "full cousin", people whose most recent common ancestor is a grandparent.
Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in Western culture.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
In linear algebra, the determinant is a value that can be computed from the elements of a square matrix.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Child neglect, often overlooked, is the most common form of child maltreatment.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Diseases of affluence is a term sometimes given to selected diseases and other health conditions which are commonly thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
A drive-through, or drive-thru, is a type of service provided by a business that allows customers to purchase products without leaving their cars.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
In epidemiology, environmental diseases are diseases that can be directly attributed to environmental factors (as distinct from genetic factors or infection).
Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.
Failure to thrive (FTT), more recently known as faltering weight or weight faltering, is a term used in pediatric medicine, as well as veterinary medicine (where it is also referred to as ill-thrift), to indicate insufficient weight gain or inappropriate weight loss.
A fascia (plural fasciae; adjective fascial; from Latin: "band") is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs.
Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.
The fastball is the most common type of pitch thrown by pitchers in baseball and softball.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal disease refers to disorders originating in utero.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.
Foreign accent syndrome is a rare medical condition in which patients develop speech patterns that are perceived as a foreign accent that is different from their native accent, without having acquired it in the perceived accent's place of origin.
Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.
Forensic footwear evidence can be used in legal proceedings to help prove that a shoe was at a crime scene.
In psychology, frustration is a common emotional response to opposition, related to anger, annoyance and disappointment, frustration arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of an individual's will or goal and is likely to increase when a will or goal is denied or blocked.
A functional disorder is a medical condition that impairs normal functioning of bodily processes that remains largely undetected under examination, dissection or even under a microscope.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions.
The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to human sex organs.
The genotype–phenotype distinction is drawn in genetics.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Hair coloring, or hair dyeing, is the practice of changing the hair color.
Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history.
Henna (حِنَّاء) is a dye prepared from the plant Lawsonia inermis, also known as hina, the henna tree, the mignonette tree, and the Egyptian privet, the sole species of the genus Lawsonia.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A hobby is a regular activity that is done for enjoyment, typically during one's leisure time.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Host factor is a medical term referring to the traits of an individual person or animal that affect susceptibility to disease, especially in comparison to other individuals.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis states a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (such as the gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases susceptibility to allergic diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance in pregnancy or gestational/maternal immune tolerance is the absence of a maternal immune response against (in other words, immune tolerance towards) the fetus and placenta during pregnancy, which thus may be viewed as unusually successful allografts, since they genetically differ from the mother.
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur.
Insular dwarfism, a form of phyletic dwarfism, is the process and condition of large animals evolving or having a reduced body size when their population's range is limited to a small environment, primarily islands.
In criminal law, intent is one of three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional, as opposed to strict liability, crime.
In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.
Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.
Large for gestational age (LGA) is an indication of high prenatal growth rate.
Laser hair removal is the process of hair removal by means of exposure to pulses of laser light that destroy the hair follicle.
LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
A leave of absence (LOA) is a period of time that one must be away from one's primary job, while maintaining the status of employee.
Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.
Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life.
A limp is a type of asymmetric abnormality of the gait.
The names of many surgical procedure names can be broken into parts to indicate the meaning.
The Little Albert experiment was a controlled experiment showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans.
A localized disease is an infectious or neoplastic process that originates in and is confined to one organ system or general area in the body, such as a sprained ankle, a boil on the hand, an abscess of finger.
Maldevelopment is the state of an organism or an organisation that did not develop in the "normal" way (used in medicine, e.g. "brain maldevelopment of a fetus").
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manual labour (in British English, manual labor in American English) or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals.
A maternal effect is a situation where the phenotype of an organism is determined not only by the environment it experiences and its genotype, but also by the environment and genotype of its mother.
Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy are the adaptations during pregnancy that a woman’s body undergoes to accommodate the growing embryo or fetus.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Minor League Baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball (MLB) and provide opportunities for player development and a way to prepare for the major leagues.
Mirror syndrome or triple edema or Ballantyne syndrome is a rare disorder affecting pregnant women.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mutilation or maiming (from the Latin: mutilus) is cutting off or injury to a body part of a person so that the part of the body is permanently damaged, detached or disfigured.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
Neck rings, or neck-rings, are any form of stiff jewellery worn as an ornament around the neck of an individual, as opposed to a loose necklace.
A good posture refers to the "three natural curves are present in a healthy spine.". It is also called Neutral Spine.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Non-Mendelian inheritance is a general term that refers to any pattern of inheritance in which traits do not segregate in accordance with Mendel's laws.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The North Korean famine, which together with the accompanying general economic crisis are known as the Arduous March or The March of Suffering (고난의 행군) in North Korea, occurred in North Korea from 1994 to 1998.
Nutrition and pregnancy refers to the nutrient intake, and dietary planning that is undertaken before, during and after pregnancy.
An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
In geometry the orientation, angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it occupies.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing.
Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.
A permanent wave, commonly called a perm or "permanent", involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure.
Personality is defined as the set of habitual behaviors, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors.
The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.
Phineas P. Gage (18231860) was an American railroad construction foreman remembered for his improbable survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his lifeeffects sufficiently profound (for a time at least) that friends saw him as "no longer Gage".
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
A precancerous condition or premalignant condition, sometimes called a potentially precancerous condition or potentially premalignant condition, is a term used to describe certain conditions or lesions involving abnormal cells which are associated with an increased risk of developing into cancer.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Prenatal memory, also called fetal memory, is important for the development of memory in humans.
Nutrition and weight management before and during:pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants.
Prenatal stress (or prenatal maternal stress) is exposure of an expectant mother to stress, which can be caused by stressful life events or by environmental hardships.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Progressive disease or progressive illness is a disease or physical ailment whose course in most cases is the worsening, growth, or spread of the disease.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
The time of a year in which a person is born has been linked to physiological and psychological changes to humans.
Significant other (SO) colloquially used as a gender-neutral term for a person's partner in an intimate relationship without disclosing or presuming anything about marital status, relationship status, or sexual orientation.
A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns are those who are smaller in size than normal for the gestational age, most commonly defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco.
In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.
Sociological Illness is a term from sociology that is similar to the term mental illness, but emphasizes that emotional illnesses, mental illnesses and/or behavioral illnesses can all result not only from psychiatric causes, but from sociological causes instead of or in addition to.
The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
In statistics, a spurious relationship or spurious correlation is a mathematical relationship in which two or more events or variables are not causally related to each other, yet it may be wrongly inferred that they are, due to either coincidence or the presence of a certain third, unseen factor (referred to as a "common response variable", "confounding factor", or "lurking variable").
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Structural coloration is the production of colour by microscopically structured surfaces fine enough to interfere with visible light, sometimes in combination with pigments.
Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.
Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels. According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication. In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, or about 1% of the world's population. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly seen as a symptom of anxiety, but there is actually no direct correlation in that direction (though as mentioned the inverse can be true, as social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of their stuttering). Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Acute nervousness and stress do not cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, exacerbating the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition. Neither acute nor chronic stress, however, itself creates any predisposition to stuttering. The disorder is also variable, which means that in certain situations, such as talking on the telephone or in a large group, the stuttering might be more severe or less, depending on whether or not the stutterer is self-conscious about their stuttering. Stutterers often find that their stuttering fluctuates and that they have "good" days, "bad" days and "stutter-free" days. The times in which their stuttering fluctuates can be random. Although the exact etiology, or cause, of stuttering is unknown, both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech therapy techniques available that may help decrease speech disfluency in some people who stutter to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present. The severity of the person's stuttering would correspond to the amount of speech therapy needed to decrease disfluency. For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned.
Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink, dyes and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment.
Termination of employment, is an employee's departure from a job and the end of an employee's duration with an employer.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
Thyroid disease in pregnancy can affect the health of the mother as well as the child before and after delivery.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Tooth whitening (termed tooth bleaching when utilising bleach), is either the restoration of a natural tooth shade or whitening beyond the natural shade.
Toxic waste is any unwanted material in all forms that can cause harm (e.g. by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin).
A trauma trigger is the subjective attribution that a psychologic stimulus caused someone to recall the memory of a previous psychological trauma, although the stimulus itself need not be frightening or traumatic and can be indirectly or superficially reminiscent of an earlier traumatic incident.
An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations System consists of the United Nations, and the six principal organs of the United Nations: the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and the UN Secretariat, specialized agencies, and affiliated organizations.
An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a form of modern folklore.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by pathogens (such as bacteria and viruses) that uses mother-to-child transmission, that is, transmission directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).