246 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abdul Hamid II, Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali, Abu'l-Fida, Acco Festival of Alternative Israeli Theatre, Acre Municipal Stadium, Acre Prison, Acre railway station, Acre Sanjak, Acre Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine, Acts of the Apostles, Ahi Acre F.C., Ahmad ibn Tulun, Akçe, Akhenaten, Akko Light, Al-Andalus, Al-Ashraf Khalil, Al-Baladhuri, Al-Maqdisi, Al-Mutawakkil, Alexander Balas, Alexander Jannaeus, Alexander the Great, Amalfi, Amarna letters, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Arab world, Arabs, Asher, Assassin's Creed, Atlit, Avigail Alfatov, Ayelet Ohayon, Ayyubid dynasty, Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'í orthography, Bahá'í World Centre buildings, Bahá'u'lláh, Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Battle of Hattin, Battle of Yarmouk, BBC, Beersheba, Beirut, Beirut Vilayet, Bielsko-Biała, Book of Judges, Bregenz, Bremen, ..., Bronze Age, Bus station, Byzantine army, Byzantine Empire, Caesarea, Cambridge University Press, Canaan, Cannon, Canton, Ohio, Caravanserai, Christian, Citadel, Cleopatra, Coastal railway line, Israel, Colonia (Roman), Columbia University, Columbia University Press, Copyright, Crusades, Cyprus, Deerfield Beach, Florida, Defensive wall, Defter, Delila Hatuel, Demetrius, Development town, Dining room, Dov Gruner, Druze, Early Muslim conquests, Egged (company), Egypt, El-Jazzar Mosque, Ella German, Execration texts, Fatimid Caliphate, First Crusade, Football in Israel, Football team, Fortification, Francis of Assisi, Free City of Lübeck, Galilee, Gallows, Ghassan Kanafani, Gothic architecture, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Guy of Lusignan, Gymnasium (ancient Greece), Haaretz, Haifa, Haifa Bay, Haim Farhi, Hapoel Acre F.C., Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim, Hejaz railway, Henry Maundrell, Heracles, Heraclius, Herod the Great, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Hittin, Ibn Jubayr, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Irgun, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Israeli Premier League, Israelites, Jama Masjid, Jazzar Pasha, Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Jews, Jezreel Valley, Joan of Acre, Jonathan Apphus, Josephus, Judas Maccabeus, Jund al-Urdunn, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Khan al-Umdan, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kiryat Ata, Knights Hospitaller, La Rochelle, Land of Israel, Lee Harvey Oswald, Levant, Liga Bet, List of cities in Israel, List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, Liwa (Arabic), Louis-Marie-Joseph Maximilian Caffarelli du Falga, Luke the Evangelist, Lydia Hatuel-Czuckermann, Maccabees, Maccabi Ironi Acre F.C., Maccabi Ironi Kiryat Ata F.C., Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mandatory Palestine, Mansion of Bahjí, Marble, Marco Polo, Mírzá Muhammad `Alí, Mediterranean Sea, Middle Ages, Moat, Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut, Mosque, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muslim, Nachmanides, Nagykanizsa, Nahariya, Nahiyah, Napoleon, Nasir Khusraw, Nateev Express, Northern District (Israel), Olive, Operation Ben-Ami, Oriental Crisis of 1840, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Palestine Exploration Fund, Parthian Empire, Paul the Apostle, Persian people, Philip II of France, Phoenicia, Pisa, Ptolemaic dynasty, Qiblih, Rashidun army, Rashidun Caliphate, Raymonda Tawil, Recklinghausen, Refectory, Republic of Pisa, Resistance movement, Richard I of England, Roman Empire, Safed, Saint George, Saladin, Saleh, Seleucid Empire, Shalmaneser V, Sheikhdom, Shimon Lankri, Shlomo Ben-Yosef, Shoghi Effendi, Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, Shurahbil ibn Hasana, Sidney Smith (Royal Navy officer), Sidon, Sidon Eyalet, Siege of Acre (1189–1191), Siege of Acre (1291), Sister city, Sixth Crusade, Solomon, Strabo, Sukkot, Sulayman Pasha al-Adil, Tanakh, Tell (archaeology), Temple in Jerusalem, Terra Sancta Church, Teutonic Order, The Jerusalem Post, The New York Times, Third Crusade, Thutmose III, Tigranes the Great, Turkish bath, Tyre, Lebanon, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, UNESCO, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, University of Michigan Press, Via Maris, Vivien Duffield, Waqf, Wars of the Diadochi, World Heritage site, World War I, Yom Kippur, Zahir al-Umar, Ze'ev Jabotinsky, Zev Vilnay, 1922 census of Palestine, 1931 census of Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 2008–09 Liga Leumit. Expand index (196 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
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Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
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Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali
Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali (commonly referred to simply as Abdullah Pasha; 1801–?) was the Ottoman governor (wali) of Sidon Eyalet between May 1820 and May 1832, with a nine-month interruption in 1822–23.
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Abu al-Fida (أبو الفداء; November 1273October 27, 1331), fully Abu Al-fida' Isma'il Ibn 'ali ibn Mahmud Al-malik Al-mu'ayyad 'imad Ad-din and better known in English as Abulfeda, was a Kurdish historian, geographer and local governor of Hama.
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Acco Festival of Alternative Israeli Theatre
The Acco Festival of Alternative Israeli Theatre (also Acco Fringe Theatre Festival, Israel Fringe Theatre Festival) is a four-day performing arts festival held annually in the city of Acre, Israel during the Intermediate Days of the Sukkot holiday in early autumn.
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Acre Municipal Stadium
Acre Municipal Stadium (האצטדיון העירוני של עכו, HaItztadion HaIroni Shel Akko), also Toto Acre Stadium (אצטדיון טוטו עכו, Itztadion Toto Akko), is a soccer stadium in Acre, Israel.
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The Acre Prison also known as Akko Prison is a former prison and current museum in Acre, Israel.
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Acre railway station
Acre railway station (תחנת הרכבת עכו, Taḥanat HaRakevet Ako) is an Israel Railways passenger station serving the city of Acre (Akko) and the surrounding towns and villages.
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The Sanjak of Acre (Akka Sancağı), often referred as Late Ottoman Galilee, was a prefecture (sanjak) of the Ottoman Empire, located in modern-day northern Israel.
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Acre Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine
The Acre Subdistrict (قضاء عكا Qadaa Akka, נפת עכו Nefat Akko) was one of the subdistricts of Mandatory Palestine.
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Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
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Ahi Acre F.C.
Ahi Acre (אחי עכו) is an Israeli football club based in the Old City of Acre.
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Ahmad ibn Tulun
Ahmad ibn Tulun (translit; ca. 20 September 835 – 10 May 884) was the founder of the Tulunid dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria between 868 and 905.
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The akçe (آقچه) was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire, a silver coin.
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Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
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Akko Light (מגדלור עכו) or Acre Light, is an active lighthouse in the port of Acre, Israel.
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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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Al-Ashraf Salāh ad-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn (الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون; c. 1260s – 14 December 1293) was the eighth Mamluk sultan between November 1290 until his assassination in December 1293.
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ʾAḥmad Ibn Yaḥyā al-Balādhurī (أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري) was a 9th-century Muslim historian.
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Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
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Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.
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Alexander I Balas (Ἀλέξανδρoς Bάλας), was the ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 150–146 BC.
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Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; יהונתן "ינאי" אלכסנדר, born Jonathan Alexander) was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC.
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Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
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Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno.
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The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
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Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.
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The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
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Asher, in the Book of Genesis, is the second son of Jacob and Zilpah, and the founder of the Tribe of Asher.
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Assassin's Creed is a franchise centered on an action-adventure video game series developed by Ubisoft.
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Atlit (עַתְלִית) is a coastal town located south of Haifa, Israel.
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Avigail Alfatov (אביגיל אלפטוב; born 1996) is an Israeli national fencing champion, soldier, model and beauty pageant titeholder.
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Ayelet Ohayon (איילת אוחיון; born October 20, 1974) is a three-time Olympian Israeli foil fencer.
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The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
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The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
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Bahá'í orthography refers to the standardized system of Romanization of the Persian or Arabic words and names contained in the literature of the Bahá'í Faith.
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Bahá'í World Centre buildings
The Bahá'í World Centre buildings are buildings that are part of the Bahá'í World Centre in Israel.
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Bahá'u'lláh (بهاء الله, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (میرزا حسینعلی نوری), was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
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Baldwin I of Jerusalem
Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first King of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death.
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Battle of Hattin
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
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Battle of Yarmouk
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
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Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע; بئر السبع), is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
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Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
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The Vilayet of Beirut was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire.
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Bielsko-Biała (Bílsko-Bělá; Bielitz-Biala) is a city in Southern Poland with the population of approximately 174,000 (December 2013).
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Book of Judges
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
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Bregenz is the capital of Vorarlberg, the westernmost federal state of Austria.
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The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
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The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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A bus station is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers.
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The Byzantine army or Eastern Roman army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine navy.
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The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
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Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
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Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
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Canton is a city in and the county seat of Stark County, Ohio, United States.
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A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
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A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
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Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
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Coastal railway line, Israel
The Coastal railway line (mesilat ha-ḥof) is a mainline railway in Israel, which begins just south of the Lebanon-Israel border on the Mediterranean coast, near the town of Nahariya in Northern Israel and stretches almost the entire Mediterranean coast of the country, to just north of the border with the Gaza Strip in the south.
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A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it.
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Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
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Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
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Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
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Deerfield Beach, Florida
Deerfield Beach is a city in Broward County, Florida, United States.
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A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
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A defter (plural: defterler) was a type of tax register and land cadastre in the Ottoman Empire.
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Delila Hatuel (דלילה חטואל; born November 15, 1980) is an Israeli Olympic foil fencer.
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Demetrius is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek male given name Dēmḗtrios (Δημήτριος), meaning "devoted to Demeter." Alternate forms include Demetrios, Dimitrios, Dimitris, Dmytro, Dimitri, Demitri, Dhimitër, and Dimitrije, in addition to other forms (such as Russian Dmitri) descended from it.
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Development town (עיירת פיתוח, Ayarat Pitu'ah) is a term used to refer to the new settlements that were built in Israel during the 1950s in order to provide permanent housing to a large influx of Jewish immigrants from Arab countries, Holocaust survivors from Europe and other new immigrants (Olim), who arrived to the newly established State of Israel.
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A dining room is a room for consuming food.
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Dov Bela Gruner (דב בלה גרונר; 1912–1947) was a Hungarian-born Zionist activist in Mandatory Palestine and a member of the pre-state Jewish underground Irgun.
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The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
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Early Muslim conquests
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
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Egged Israel Transport Cooperative Society Ltd (אֶגֶד), a cooperative owned by its members, is the largest transit bus company in Israel.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The el-Jazzar Mosque (مسجد الجزار, Masjid al-Jazzar; מסגד אל-ג'זאר, Misgad al-G'zar), also known as the White Mosque, is located on el-Jazzar Street inside the walls of the old city of Acre, overlooking the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and is named after the Ottoman Bosnian governor Ahmad Pasha el-Jazzar ("the Butcher").
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Ella German (Эла Герман; born 1937) is a Belarusian woman known for having a brief relationship with Lee Harvey Oswald after his defection to the Soviet Union in 1959.
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Execration texts, also referred to as Proscription Lists, are ancient Egyptian hieratic texts, listing enemies of the Pharaoh, most often enemies of the Egyptian state or troublesome foreign neighbors.
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The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
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The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
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Football in Israel
Football (כַּדוּרֶגֶל, Kaduregel) is the most popular sport in Israel.
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A football team is a group of players selected to play together in the various team sports known as football.
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A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
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Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.
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Free City of Lübeck
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
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Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
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A gallows (or scaffold) is a frame, typically wooden, used for execution by hanging.
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Ghassan Kanafani (غسان كنفاني, 8 April 1936 in Acre, Mandatory Palestine – 8 July 1972 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian author and a leading member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).
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Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
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Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
The Grand Master (Hochmeister; Magister generalis) is the holder of the supreme office of the Teutonic Order. It is equivalent to the grand master of other military orders and the superior general in non-military Roman Catholic religious orders. Hochmeister, literally "high master", is only used in reference to the Teutonic Order, as Großmeister ("grand master") is used in German to refer to the leaders of other orders of knighthood. An early version of the full title in Latin was Magister Hospitalis Sanctae Mariae Alemannorum Hierosolymitani. Since 1216, the full title Magister Hospitalis Domus Sanctae Mariae Teutonicorum Hierosolymitani ("Master of the Hospital House of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Germans of Jerusalem") was used. The offices of Hochmeister and Deutschmeister (Magister Germaniae) were united in 1525. The title of Magister Germaniae had been introduced in 1219 as the head of the bailiwicks in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1381 also those in Italy, raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1494, but merged with the office of grand master under Walter von Cronberg in 1525, from which time the head of the order had the title of Hoch- und Deutschmeister.
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Guy of Lusignan
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 18 July 1194) was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty.
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Gymnasium (ancient Greece)
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
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Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
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The Bay of Haifa or Haifa Bay (מפרץ חיפה, Mifratz Haifa), formerly Gulf of Acre or Bay of Acre, is a bay along the Mediterranean coast of Northern Israel.
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Haim Farhi (חיים פרחי,; حيم فارحي, also known as Haim "El Mu'allim" المعلم lit. "The Teacher"), (1760 – August 21, 1820) was an adviser to the governors of the Galilee in the days of the Ottoman Empire.
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Hapoel Acre F.C.
Hapoel Acre Football Club (מועדון כדורגל הפועל עכו, Moadon Kaduregel Hapoel Akko) is an Israeli football club based in Acre, Israel.
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Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim
Statue of Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim Heinrich Walpot von Bassenheim (died 1200), also known as Henry Walpot, was the first Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights serving from 1198 to 1200.
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The Hejaz (or Hedjaz) railway (Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (track gauge) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, with a branch line to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea.
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Henry Maundrell (1665–1701) was an academic at Oxford University and later a Church of England clergyman, who served from 20 December 1695 as chaplain to the Levant Company in Syria.
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Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
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Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
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Herod the Great
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
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Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
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Hittin (حطّين, transliterated Ḥiṭṭīn (حِـطِّـيْـن) or Ḥaṭṭīn (حَـطِّـيْـن)) was a Palestinian village located west of Tiberias.
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Ibn Jubayr (1 September 1145 –29 November 1217; ابن جبير), also written Ibn Jubair, Ibn Jobair, and Ibn Djubayr, was an Arab geographer, traveller and poet from al-Andalus.
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Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
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The Irgun (ארגון; full title:, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948.
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Israel Central Bureau of Statistics
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
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Israeli Premier League
The Israeli Premier League (ליגת העל, Ligat HaAl, lit. The Super League), commonly known as Ligat Winner (ליגת ווינר) for sponsorship reasons with Toto Winner, is an Israeli professional league for association football clubs.
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The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
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Jama Masjid (جَامع مَسجد|Jāma‘ Masjid, also spelt Jame Mosque, Jami Masjid, Jameh Mosque, Jamia Masjid, or Jomeh Mosque) refers to the main mosque of a town, city or village, and is usually the place of gathering for Eid prayers and Friday prayers.
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Ahmad Pasha al-Jazzar (أحمد الجزار; Cezzar Ahmet Paşa; ca. 1720–30s7 May 1804) was the Acre-based Ottoman governor of Sidon from 1776 until his death in 1804.
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Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries
The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, or Jewish exodus from Arab countries, was the departure, flight, expulsion, evacuation and migration of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Muslim countries, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.
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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
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The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
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Joan of Acre
Joan of Acre (April 1272 – 23 April 1307) was an English princess, a daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor of Castile.
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Jonathan Apphus (Hebrew: יונתן אפפוס Yōnāṯān 'Apefūs, Ancient Greek: Ἰωνάθαν Ἀπφοῦς Iōnáthan Apphoûs) was leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE.
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Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
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Judah Maccabee (or Judas Maccabeus, also spelled Machabeus, or Maccabaeus, Hebrew: יהודה המכבי, Yehudah ha-Makabi) was a Jewish priest (kohen) and a son of the priest Mattathias.
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Jund al-Urdunn (جُـنْـد الْأُرْدُنّ, translation: "Military district of Jordan") was one of the five districts of Bilad ash-Sham during the period of the Arab Caliphates.
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Khalid ibn al-Walid
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
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Khan al-Umdan (خان العمدان: "Caravanserai of the Pillars" or "Inn of the Columns", also known as Khán-i-'Avámid) is the largest and best preserved khan in Israel.
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Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
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Kiryat Ata (קִרְיַת אָתָא; also Qiryat Ata, كريات آتا, Kiryāt ʾĀtā) is a city in the Haifa District of Israel.
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The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
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La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
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Land of Israel
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
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Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was a Marxist and ex-Marine who assassinated United States President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963.
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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
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Liga Bet (ליגה ב', lit. B League) is the fourth tier of the Israeli football league system.
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List of cities in Israel
Israeli cities in this list are the cities in Israel, and Israeli settlements with city status in the occupied West Bank; Jerusalem includes occupied East Jerusalem.
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List of oldest continuously inhabited cities
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
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Liwa, or Liwā’, is an Arabic term meaning ensign, or banner.
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Louis-Marie-Joseph Maximilian Caffarelli du Falga
Louis-Marie-Joseph Maximilian Caffarelli du Falga (February 13, 1756, in the château de Falga, Haute-Garonne – 27 April 1799, Egypt) was a French commander and scholar.
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Luke the Evangelist
Luke the Evangelist (Latin: Lūcās, Λουκᾶς, Loukãs, לוקאס, Lūqās, לוקא, Lūqā&apos) is one of the Four Evangelists—the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels.
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Lydia Hatuel-Czuckermann (born August 15, 1963, in Casablanca, Morocco) is an Israeli fencer.
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The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
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Maccabi Ironi Acre F.C.
Maccabi Ironi Acre (מכבי עירוני עכו) is an Israeli football club based in Acre.
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Maccabi Ironi Kiryat Ata F.C.
Maccabi Ironi Kiryat Ata (מכבי עירוני קריית אתא) is an Israeli football club, located in Kiryat Ata.
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Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
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Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
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Mansion of Bahjí
The Mansion of Bahjí (قصر بهجي, Qasr Bahjī, mansion of delight) is a summer house in Acre, Israel where Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, died in 1892.
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Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
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Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
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Mírzá Muhammad `Alí
Mírzá Muhammad `Alí (میرزا محمد علی 1852–1937) was one of the sons of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence.
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Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut (מוֹדִיעִין-מַכַּבִּים-רֵעוּת) is an Israeli city located in central Israel, about southeast of Tel Aviv and west of Jerusalem, and is connected to those two cities via Highway 443.
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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
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Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
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Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.
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Nagykanizsa (Kan(j)iža, Velika Kan(j)iža; Großkirchen, Groß-Kanizsa, Canissa, Velika Kaniža, Kanije) is a medium-sized city in Zala County in southwestern Hungary.
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Nahariya (נַהֲרִיָּה) is the northernmost coastal city in Israel.
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A nāḥiyah (ناحية, plural nawāḥī نواحي), or nahia, is a regional or local type of administrative division that usually consists of a number of villages and/or sometimes smaller towns.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nāsir Khusraw Qubādiyānī Balkhi (1004 – 1088 CE) (ناصر خسرو قبادیانی) was a Persian poet, philosopher, Isma'ili scholar, traveler and one of the greatest writers in Persian literature.
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Nateev Express (נתיב אקספרס, Nativ Express) is an Israeli bus company.
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Northern District (Israel)
The Northern District (מחוז הצפון, Mehoz HaTzafon; منطقة الشمال, Minṭaqat ash-Shamal) is one of Israel's six administrative districts.
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The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
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Operation Ben-Ami (מבצע בן עמי) was one of the last operations launched by the Haganah before the end of the British Mandate.
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Oriental Crisis of 1840
The Oriental Crisis of 1840 was an episode in the Egyptian–Ottoman War in the eastern Mediterranean, triggered by the self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan Muhammad Ali Pasha's aims to establish a personal empire in the Ottoman province of Egypt.
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The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
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Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
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Palestine Exploration Fund
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
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The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
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Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
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The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
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Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
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Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
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The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
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In the Bahá'í Faith the Qiblih (قبلة, "direction") is the location that Bahá'ís should face when saying their daily obligatory prayers, and is fixed at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, near Acre, in present-day Israel; approximately at.
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The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
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The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
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Raymonda Tawil Hawa (ريموندا الطويل حوا) is a Palestinian writer and journalist, born in 1940 in Acre in Mandatory Palestine.
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Recklinghausen is the northernmost city in the Ruhr-Area and the capital of the Recklinghausen district.
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A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions.
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Republic of Pisa
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
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A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
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Richard I of England
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
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Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
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An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
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The name, Salih, originate from ancient Egyptian: means Upright Saleh or Salih (صالح Ṣāliḥ "Pious") was a prophet of pre-Islamic Arabia mentioned in the Qur'an who prophesied to the tribe of Thamud.
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The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
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Shalmaneser V was king of Assyria from 727 to 722 BC.
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A sheikhdom (alt. sheikdom) (مشيخة) is a geographical area or a society ruled by a sheikh (Arabic). Sheikhdoms exist almost exclusively within Arab countries, particularly in the Arabian Peninsula.
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Shimon Lankri is the mayor of Acre, Israel (Akko).
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Shlomo Ben-Yosef (שלמה בן-יוסף; 1913–1938) was a member of the Revisionist Zionist underground group Irgun.
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Shoghí Effendí Rabbání (1 March 1897 – 4 November 1957), better known as Shoghi Effendi, was the Guardian and appointed head of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957.
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Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh
The Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, located in Bahjí near Acre, Israel, is the most holy place for Bahá'ís and represents their Qiblih, or direction of prayer.
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Shurahbil ibn Hasana
Shurahbil ibn Hasana, or Ibn Hasanah, (583-639), was a companion of Muhammad and later one of the commanders of Rashidun army.
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Sidney Smith (Royal Navy officer)
Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, GCB, GCTE, KmstkSO, FRS (21 June 1764 – 26 May 1840) was a British naval officer.
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Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
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The Eyalet of Sidon (ایالت صیدا, Eyālet-i Ṣaydā) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire.
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Siege of Acre (1189–1191)
The Siege of Acre was the first significant counter attack by King Guy of Jerusalem to the losses the kingdom experienced to Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade.
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Siege of Acre (1291)
The Siege of Acre (also called the Fall of Acre) took place in 1291 and resulted in the loss of the Crusader-controlled city of Acre to the Mamluks.
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Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
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The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem.
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Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
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Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).
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Sulayman Pasha al-Adil
Sulayman Pasha al-Adil (c. 1760s – August 1819; given name also spelled Suleiman or Sulaiman) was the Ottoman governor of Sidon Eyalet between 1805 and 1819, ruling from his Acre headquarters.
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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
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In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
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Temple in Jerusalem
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
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Terra Sancta Church
The Terra Sancta Church (Ecclesia Terra Sancta which means Holy Land Church) also alternatively Church of St.
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The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
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The Jerusalem Post
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
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The New York Times
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
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The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
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Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
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Tigranes the Great
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
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A Turkish bath (hamam, translit) is a type of public bathing associated with the culture of the Ottoman Empire and more widely the Islamic world.
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Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
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Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
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University of Michigan Press
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
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Via Maris is the modern name for an ancient trade route, dating from the early Bronze Age, linking Egypt with the northern empires of Syria, Anatolia and Mesopotamia — modern day Iran, Iraq, Israel, Turkey and Syria.
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Dame Vivien Louise Duffield, (née Clore; born 26 March 1946) is an English philanthropist.
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A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
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Wars of the Diadochi
The Wars of the Diadochi (Πόλεμοι των Διαδόχων), or Wars of Alexander's Successors, were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire after his death.
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World Heritage site
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
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World War I
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
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Zahir al-Umar al-Zaydani (alternatively spelled Dhaher al-Omar or Dahir al-Umar) (ظاهر آل عمر الزيداني; Ẓāhir āl-ʿUmar az-Zaydānī, 1689/90 – 21 August 1775) was the virtually autonomous Arab ruler of northern Palestine in the mid-18th century,Philipp, ed.
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Ze'ev Jabotinsky, MBE (זאב ז'בוטינסקי, Ze'ev Zhabotinski; זאב זשאבאטינסקי; born Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky, Влади́мир Евге́ньевич Жаботи́нский; 5 (17) October 1880, Odessa – 4 August 1940, Hunter, New York), was a Russian Jewish Revisionist Zionist leader, author, poet, orator, soldier and founder of the Jewish Self-Defense Organization in Odessa.
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Zev Vilnay (זאב וילנאי, 1900–1988) was an Israeli geographer, author and lecturer.
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1922 census of Palestine
The 1922 census of Palestine was the first census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate of Palestine, on 23 October 1922.
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1931 census of Palestine
1931 census of Palestine was the second census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate for Palestine.
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1948 Arab–Israeli War
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
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2008–09 Liga Leumit
The 2008–09 Liga Leumit season began on 29 August 2008, and ended on 29 May 2009.
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'Akka, 'Akká, Accho, Acre (Israel), Acre (city), Acre (kingdom), Acre in the middle ages, Acre, Palestine, Akka, Israel, Akka, Palestine, Akko, Akko, Israel, Akkon, Akká, Akre, Israel, Ancient acre, City of Acre, Classical acre, Medieval acre, Old City of Acre, Palestine Acre, Ptolemais Akko, Saint John d'Acre, Saint-Jean d'Acre, Saint-Jean-d'Acre, St Jean D'Acre, St Jean d'Acre, St John d'Acre, St. Jean d'Acre, `Akka, עַכּוֹ, عكّا, ‘Akká.