306 relations: Acetonitrile, Acetylacetone, Actinides in the environment, Actinium, Adsorption, Aerosol, Aesthetics, Albert Ghiorso, Alloy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Americium, Americium dioxide, Americium-241, Ammonium carbonate, Ammonium nitrate, Amphoterism, André-Louis Debierne, Annales de chimie et de physique, Apollo 14, Apollo program, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Aufbau principle, Autunite, Barium, Base (chemistry), Berkeley, California, Berkelium, Beryllium, Beta decay, Beta particle, Block (periodic table), Boiling point, Boric acid, Boron, Breeder reactor, Bromide, Cadmium, Calcium, Calcium fluoride, Californium, Carbide, Carbon, Carbonate, Carnotite, CAS Registry Number, Catalysis, Cerium, ..., Chalcogen, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical nomenclature, Chloride, Cold War, Colorado, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, Coordination complex, Coordination number, Corrosion, Critical mass, Crystal bar process, Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Curie, Curium, Cyclotron, Decay chain, Density, Deuterium, Distillation, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dolomite, Dysprosium, Edwin McMillan, Einsteinium, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolysis, Electron, Electron shell, Enrico Fermi, Erbium, Eugène-Melchior Péligot, Europium, Fat Man, Fergusonite, Fermium, Fluoride, Frederick Soddy, Friedrich Oskar Giesel, Friedrich Wöhler, Gadolinium, Galileo (spacecraft), Gamma ray, Gas centrifuge, Gas mantle, Gaseous diffusion, Generation II reactor, Georgy Flyorov, Glenn T. Seaborg, Graphite, Greek language, Group 3 element, Group 6 element, Hafnium, Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Hanford Site, Hexagonal crystal family, Holmium, Homology (chemistry), HSAB theory, Hydrazine, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroxide, Intermetallic, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Iodate, Iodide, Ion, Ionic radius, Ionization chamber, Iron(II) sulfate, Isomorphism, Isotope, Isotopes of actinium, Isotopes of americium, Isotopes of berkelium, Isotopes of boron, Isotopes of californium, Isotopes of curium, Isotopes of einsteinium, Isotopes of fermium, Isotopes of lawrencium, Isotopes of mendelevium, Isotopes of neon, Isotopes of neptunium, Isotopes of nitrogen, Isotopes of nobelium, Isotopes of protactinium, Isotopes of radium, Isotopes of thorium, Isotopes of uranium, Ivy Mike, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kazakhstan, Kazimierz Fajans, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanum, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrencium, Liquid–liquid extraction, Lise Meitner, Liver, Lutetium, Lymphatic system, Magnesite, Magnesium, Major actinide, Manhattan Project, Marie Curie, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Mass number, Median lethal dose, Melting point, Mendelevium, Metallic bonding, Minor actinide, Missile, Molar mass, Monazite, Monoclinic crystal system, MOX fuel, Namibia, Natural environment, Nauka (publisher), Neodymium, Neptune, Neptunium, Neptunium(IV) oxide, Neutron, Neutron moderator, Neutron temperature, Niger, Niobium, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nobelium, Non-stoichiometric compound, Norse mythology, North Carolina, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear explosion, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear power, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclide, Orbital hybridisation, Organic acid anhydride, Organometallic chemistry, Orthorhombic crystal system, Otto Hahn, Oxalate, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen-18, Paramagnetism, Particle accelerator, Periodic table, PH, Philip Abelson, Phosphate, Physical Review, Picometre, Pierre Curie, Planet, Platinum, Plutonium, Plutonium(IV) oxide, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239, Polyelectrolyte, Polymerization, Potassium, Praseodymium, Primordial nuclide, Promethium, Protactinium, Protactinium(IV) oxide, Pyrophoricity, Pyrophosphate, Radioactive decay, Radium, Rare-earth element, Redox, Royal Society of Chemistry, Russia, Rutherfordium, Samarium, Skeleton, Smoke detector, Sodium carbonate, Sodium diuranate, Sodium hydroxide, Space group, Spontaneous fission, Sublimation (phase transition), Sulfate, Synthetic element, Tantalum, Terbium, Tetragonal crystal system, Thermal-neutron reactor, Thermonuclear weapon, Thermopile, Thor, Thorianite, Thorite, Thorium, Thorium dioxide, Thorium fuel cycle, Thulium, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Titanium, TNT, Tonne, Transition metal, Transuranium element, Tributyl phosphate, Tungsten, Underground nuclear weapons testing, Uraninite, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium ore, Uranium tetrachloride, Uranium tetrafluoride, Uranium-233, Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Uranus, Uranyl, Valence (chemistry), Victor Goldschmidt, William Crookes, Ytterbium, Ytterby, Zinc, Zirconium. Expand index (256 more) » « Shrink index
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Acetylacetone is an organic compound that exists in two tautomeric forms that interconvert rapidly and are treated as a single compound in most applications.
Actinides in the environment refer to the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in Earth's environment.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Albert Ghiorso (July 15, 1915 – December 26, 2010) was an American nuclear scientist and co-discoverer of a record 12 chemical elements on the periodic table.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Americium dioxide (AmO2) is a black compound of americium.
Americium-241 (241Am) is an isotope of americium.
Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound, the nitrate salt of the ammonium cation.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
André-Louis Debierne (14 July 1874 – 31 August 1949) was a French chemist and is considered the discoverer of the element actinium.
Annales de chimie et de physique (French for Annals of Chemistry and of Physics) is a scientific journal that was founded in Paris, France, in 1789 under the title Annales de chimie.
Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels.
Autunite (hydrated calcium uranyl phosphate) with formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2·10-12H2O is a yellow - greenish fluorescent mineral with a hardness of 2 -. Autunite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and often occurs as tabular square crystals.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
Californium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Cf and atomic number 98.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.
A CAS Registry Number, also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) is an international scientific committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) under its Division of Inorganic Chemistry.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The crystal bar process (also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process) was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
The curie (symbol Ci) is a non-SI unit of radioactivity originally defined in 1910.
Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm and atomic number 96.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.
Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907 – September 7, 1991) was an American physicist and Nobel laureate credited with being the first-ever to produce a transuranium element, neptunium.
Einsteinium is a synthetic element with symbol Es and atomic number 99.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
Eugène-Melchior Péligot (24 March 1811 in Paris – 15 April 1890 in Paris), also known as Eugène Péligot, was a French chemist who isolated the first sample of uranium metal in 1841.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
Fergusonite is a mineral comprising a complex oxide of various rare-earth elements.
Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100.
Frederick Soddy FRS (2 September 1877 – 22 September 1956) was an English radiochemist who explained, with Ernest Rutherford, that radioactivity is due to the transmutation of elements, now known to involve nuclear reactions.
Friedrich Oskar Giesel (20 May 1852 – 13 November 1927, known as Fritz) was a German organic chemist.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gas centrifuge is a device that performs isotope separation of gases.
An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.
Gaseous diffusion is a technology used to produce enriched uranium by forcing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) through semipermeable membranes.
A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, and refers to the class of commercial reactors built up to the end of the 1990s.
Georgy Nikolayevich Flyorov (p; 2 March 1913 – 19 November 1990) was a Russian physicist who is known for his discovery of spontaneous fission and his contribution towards the physics of thermal reactions.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Group 6, numbered by IUPAC style, is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
The Hanford Site is a decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Holmium is a chemical element with symbol Ho and atomic number 67.
In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues.
HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
An intermetallic (also called an intermetallic compound, intermetallic alloy, ordered intermetallic alloy, and a long-range-ordered alloy) is a solid-state compound exhibiting metallic bonding, defined stoichiometry and ordered crystal structure.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An iodate is a conjugate base of iodic acid.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism or morphism (i.e. a mathematical mapping) that can be reversed by an inverse morphism.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Actinium (89Ac) has no stable isotopes and no characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Americium (95Am) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Berkelium (97Bk) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Boron (5B) naturally occurs as isotopes 10B and 11B, the latter of which makes up about 80% of natural boron.
Californium (98Cf) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Curium (96Cm) is an artificial element with an atomic number of 96.
Einsteinium (99Es) is a synthetic element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Fermium (100Fm) is a synthetic element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Lawrencium (103Lr) is a synthetic element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Mendelevium (101Md) is a synthetic element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Neon (10Ne) possesses three stable isotopes, 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne.
Neptunium (93Np) is usually considered an artificial element, although trace quantities are found in nature, so thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Natural nitrogen (7N) consists of two stable isotopes, nitrogen-14, which makes up the vast majority of naturally occurring nitrogen, and nitrogen-15, which is less common.
Nobelium (102No) is a synthetic element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Protactinium (91Pa) has no stable isotopes.
Radium (88Ra) has no stable or nearly stable isotopes, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Uranium (92U) is a naturally occurring radioactive element that has no stable isotopes but two primordial isotopes (uranium-238 and uranium-235) that have long half-life and are found in appreciable quantity in the Earth's crust, along with the decay product uranium-234.
Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazimierz Fajans (Kasimir Fajans in many American publications; 27 May 1887 – 18 May 1975) was a Polish American physical chemist of Polish-Jewish origin, a pioneer in the science of radioactivity and the discoverer of chemical element protactinium.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Lawrencium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Lr (formerly Lw) and atomic number 103.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Lise Meitner (7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Magnesite is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate).
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Major actinides is a term used in the nuclear power industry that refers to the plutonium and uranium present in used nuclear fuel, as opposed to the minor actinides neptunium, americium, curium, berkelium, and californium.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Marie Skłodowska Curie (born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 November 18674 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mendelevium is a synthetic element with chemical symbol Md (formerly Mv) and atomic number 101.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
The minor actinides are the actinide elements in used nuclear fuel other than uranium and plutonium, which are termed the major actinides.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Neptunium(IV) oxide, or neptunium dioxide, is a radioactive, olive green cubic crystalline solid with the formula NpO2.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nobelium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol No and atomic number 102.
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy released when that particular nuclear weapon is detonated, usually expressed as a TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT), in megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), or sometimes in terajoules (TJ).
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Philip Hauge Abelson (April 27, 1913 – August 1, 2004) was an American physicist, a scientific editor, and a science writer.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium(IV) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula PuO2.
Plutonium-238 (also known as Pu-238 or 238Pu) is a radioactive isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 87.7 years.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Polyelectrolytes are polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Praseodymium is a chemical element with symbol Pr and atomic number 59.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Promethium is a chemical element with symbol Pm and atomic number 61.
Protactinium (formerly protoactinium) is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
Protactinium(IV) oxide is a chemical compound with the formula PaO2.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Rutherfordium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Rf and atomic number 104, named after physicist Ernest Rutherford.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium diuranate or yellow uranium oxide, Na2U2O7·6H2O, is a uranium salt also known as the yellow oxide of uranium.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
In chemistry, a synthetic element is a chemical element that does not occur naturally on Earth, and can only be created artificially.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
A thermal-neutron reactor is a nuclear reactor that uses slow or thermal neutrons.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
A thermopile is an electronic device that converts thermal energy into electrical energy.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
Thorianite is a rare thorium oxide mineral, ThO2.
Thorite, (Th,U)SiO4, is a rare nesosilicate of thorium that crystallizes in the tetragonal system and is isomorphous with zircon and hafnon.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide, is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color.
The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses an isotope of thorium,, as the fertile material.
Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
Tributyl phosphate, known commonly as TBP, is an organophosphorus compound with the chemical formula (CH3CH2CH2CH2O)3PO.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Underground nuclear testing is the test detonation of nuclear weapons that is performed underground.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium ore deposits are economically recoverable concentrations of uranium within the Earth's crust.
Uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) is compound of uranium in oxidation state +4.
Uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) is a green crystalline solid compound of uranium with an insignificant vapor pressure and very slight solubility in water.
Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (Zürich, January 27, 1888 – March 20, 1947, Oslo) was a Norwegian mineralogist considered (together with Vladimir Vernadsky) to be the founder of modern geochemistry and crystal chemistry, developer of the Goldschmidt Classification of elements.
Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Ytterby is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
Actinide Element, Actinide Series, Actinide element, Actinide elements, Actinide metal, Actinide series, Actinides, Actinium Series, Actinoid, Actinoid elements, Actinoid series elements, Actinoids, Radioactive rare earth element.