177 relations: Alpha, Alphabet, AltaVista, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Ancien Régime, Ancient Greek, Apex (diacritic), Arabic, Athabaskan languages, Ḱ, Á, Â, Å, Æ, É, Ê, Í, Ó, Ø, Ú, Ă, Ć, Ń, Ŕ, Ś, Ź, Ơ, Ư, Bahá'í orthography, Basque language, Belarusian language, Belarusian Latin alphabet, Bislama, Blackfoot language, Bulgarian language, Calque, Cantonese, Caron, Catalan language, Celtic languages, Circumflex, Classical Latin, Clitic, Close vowel, Close-mid front unrounded vowel, Code page 437, Code point, Collation, Combining character, Computer keyboard, ..., Copula (linguistics), Coup d'état, Crème brûlée, Cuneiform script, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Danish language, Dead key, Diacritic, Diphthong, Double acute accent, Dutch language, Emilian dialect, Emilian-Romagnol language, Epsilon, Eta, Faroese orthography, French language, G, Galician language, Gje, Grave accent, Grave and acute, Greek alphabet, Greek diacritics, Homograph, Hopi, Hungarian alphabet, Hungarian language, Iamb (poetry), Icelandic orthography, IJ (digraph), Indonesian language, Interrogative word, Iota, Irish language, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Italian language, Italic type, Kashubian alphabet, Kje, Koti language, L, Lakota language, Languages of Africa, Larry Trask, Latin, Latin alphabet, Leonese dialect, Letter case, Ligurian (Romance language), Loanword, M, Macedonian language, Macintosh, Macron (diacritic), Malé, Microsoft Office, Minimal pair, Modern Greek, Navajo language, Nobiin language, Northern Sami, Norwegian language, Nynorsk, Occitan language, Old Norse, Omega, Omicron, Open back rounded vowel, Open front unrounded vowel, Open-mid front unrounded vowel, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Pashto, Persian language, Phoneme, Pièce de résistance, Pinyin, Pitch-accent language, Pokémon, Polish alphabet, Polish language, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-Indo-European language, Relative pronoun, Ring (diacritic), Romagnol dialect, Romance languages, Romanization, Russian language, Rusyn language, Sabino Arana, Sake, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Qualifications Authority, Serbo-Croatian, Silent e, Slovak language, Spanish language, Spondee, Standard Basque, Standard Chinese, Stress (linguistics), Swedish language, Syllabic consonant, Syllable, Tone (linguistics), Transliteration, Turkmen alphabet, Typography, U with double acute (Cyrillic), Ukrainian language, Unicode, Upsilon, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vowel, Vowel length, W, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, Windows-1252, Y, Yerba mate, Yoruba language. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
Alpha (uppercase, lowercase; ἄλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
AltaVista was a Web search engine established in 1996.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In written Latin, the apex (plural "apices") is a mark with roughly the shape of an acute accent (´) which is placed over vowels to indicate that they are long.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
Ḱ ḱ (K with acute accent) is used in the following sense.
Á, á (a-acute) is a letter of the Blackfoot, Czech, Dutch, Faroese, Galician, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, Kazakh, Lakota, Navajo, Occitan, Portuguese, Sámi, Slovak, Spanish, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages as a variant of the letter a. It is sometimes confused with à; e.g. "5 apples á $1", which is more commonly written as "5 apples à $1" (meaning "5 apples at 1 dollar each").
Â, â (a-circumflex) is a letter of the Inari Sami, Romanian, and Vietnamese alphabets.
Å (lower case: å) — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.
Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae.
É, é (e-acute) is a letter of the Latin alphabet.
Ê, ê (e-circumflex) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, found in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Friulian, Kurdish, Portuguese, Vietnamese, and Welsh.
Í, í (i-acute) is a letter in the Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Czech, Slovak, and Tatar languages, where it often indicates a long /i/ vowel.
Ó, ó (o-acute) is a letter in the Czech, Emilian-Romagnol, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, Kashubian, Kazakh, Polish, Slovak, and Sorbian languages.
Ø (or minuscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Southern Sami languages.
Ú or ú (U with acute) is a Latin letter used in the Czech, Faroese, Hungarian, Icelandic, and Slovak writing systems.
Ă (upper case) or ă (lower case), usually referred to in English as A-breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian language, Vietnamese language and Chuvash language orthographies.
The grapheme Ć (minuscule: ć), formed from C with the addition of an acute accent, is used in various languages.
Ń (minuscule: ń) is a letter formed by putting an acute accent over the letter N. In the Belarusian Łacinka alphabet; the alphabets of Polish, Kashubian, Wymysorys and the Sorbian languages; and the romanization of Khmer, it represents, which is the same as Czech and Slovak ň, Serbo-Croatian nj, Spanish ñ, Italian and French gn, Hungarian and Catalan ny, and Portuguese nh.
Ŕ (minuscule: ŕ) is a letter of the Slovak and Lower Sorbian alphabets.
Ś (minuscule: ś) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from S with the addition of an acute accent.
Ź (minuscule: ź) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of an acute accent.
Ơ is one of the 12 Vietnamese language vowels.
Bahá'í orthography refers to the standardized system of Romanization of the Persian or Arabic words and names contained in the literature of the Bahá'í Faith.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Belarusian Latin alphabet or Łacinka (from Лацінка (BGN/PCGN: latsinka) for the Latin script in general) is the common name of the several historical alphabets to render the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in the Latin script.
Bislama (also known under its earlier name in French bichelamar) is a creole language, one of the official languages of Vanuatu.
The Blackfoot language, also called Siksiká (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ, its denomination in ISO 639-3), (Siksiká siksiká, syllabics ᓱᖽᐧᖿ), often anglicised as Siksika, is an Algonquian language spoken by the Niitsitapi people, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Code page 437 is the character set of the original IBM PC (personal computer), or DOS.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Crème brûlée, also known as burnt cream or Trinity cream, is a dessert consisting of a rich custard base topped with a contrasting layer of caramelized sugar.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The double acute accent (˝) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Emilian is a group of dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the area historically called Emilia, the western portion of today's Emilia-Romagna region in Italy.
Emilian-Romagnol (emiliân-rumagnōl or langua emiglièna-rumagnôla), also known as Emiliano-Romagnolo, is a Gallo-Italic language.
Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid<!-- not close-mid, see Arvanti (1999) - Illustrations of the IPA: Modern Greek. --> front unrounded vowel.
Eta (uppercase, lowercase; ἦτα ē̂ta or ήτα ita) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet.
Faroese orthography is the method employed to write the Faroese language, using a 29-letter Latin alphabet.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Gje (Ѓ ѓ; italics: Ѓ ѓ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
In some schools of phonetics, sounds are distinguished as grave or acute.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.
A homograph (from the ὁμός, homós, "same" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a word that shares the same written form as another word but has a different meaning.
The Hopi are a Native American tribe, who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona.
The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
An iamb or iambus is a metrical foot used in various types of poetry.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
Iota (uppercase Ι, lowercase ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
The Kashubian or Cassubian alphabet (kaszëbsczi alfabét, kaszëbsczé abecadło) is the script of the Kashubian language, based on the Latin alphabet.
Kje (Ќ ќ; italics: Ќ ќ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used only in the Macedonian alphabet, where it represents the voiceless palatal plosive, or the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.
The Koti language, or Ekoti (pronounced), is a Bantu language spoken in Mozambique by about 64,200 people, the Koti people (Akoti).
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
Robert Lawrence "Larry" Trask (November 10, 1944 – March 27, 2004) was an American–British professor of linguistics at the University of Sussex, and an authority on the Basque language and field of historical linguistics.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
Malé (މާލެ) is the capital and most populous city in the Republic of Maldives.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan phylum.
Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Omega (capital: Ω, lowercase: ω; Greek ὦ, later ὦ μέγα, Modern Greek ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet.
Omicron (uppercase Ο, lowercase ο, literally "small o": όμικρον back rounded vowel. Letters that arose from omicron include Roman O and Cyrillic O. The upper-case letter of omicron (O) was originally used in mathematics as a symbol for Big O notation (representing a function's asymptotic growth rate), but has fallen out of favor because omicron is indistinguishable from the Latin letter O and easily confused with the digit zero (0). Omicron is used to designate the fifteenth star in a constellation group, its ordinal placement a function of both magnitude and position. Such stars include Omicron Andromedae, Omicron Ceti, and Omicron Persei.
The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as an extra-open/low unrounded vowel at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells. In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol for an open ''central'' unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with (which officially signifies a ''near-open'' front unrounded vowel). This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, one can use symbols like (advanced/fronted), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
is a media franchise managed by The Pokémon Company, a Japanese consortium between Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
Romagnol (also known as Rumagnol) is a group of closely related dialects of the Emilian-Romagnol language spoken in the historical region of Romagna, which is today in the south-eastern part of Emilia-Romagna.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Sabino Policarpo Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin (26 January 1865 – 25 November 1903), was a Spanish writer.
, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA; Gaelic: Ùghdarras Theisteanas na h-Alba) is the executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government responsible for accrediting educational awards.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
In English orthography, many words feature a silent, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A spondee (Latin: spondeus) is a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables, as determined by syllable weight in classical meters, or two stressed syllables in modern meters.
Standard Basque (euskara batua or simply batua) is a standardised version of the Basque language, developed by the Basque Language Academy in the late 1960s, which nowadays is the most widely and commonly spoken Basque-language version throughout the Basque Country.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
The Turkmen alphabet used for official purposes in Turkmenistan is a Latin alphabet based on the Turkish alphabet, but with notable differences: J is used instead of the Turkish C; W is used instead of the Turkish V; Ž is used instead of the Turkish J; Y is used instead of the dotless i (I/ı); Ý is used instead of the Turkish consonantal Y; and the letters Ä and Ň have been added to represent the phonetic values and, respectively.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
U with double acute (Ӳ ӳ; italics: Ӳ ӳ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, derived from the Cyrillic letter U (У у У у).
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Yerba mate (from Spanish; erva-mate or; ka'a) is a species of the holly genus (Ilex), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., named by the French botanist Auguste François César Prouvençal de Saint-Hilaire.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
Accent Acute, Accent acute, Accent ague, Accent aigu, Accute accent, Acute (diacritic), Acute accent ('), Acute accent (´), Acute diacritic, Acute mark, Acute vs Grave, Aigu, Carka, J́, Kreska, Q́, Sineadh Fada, Sineadh fada, Síneadh Fada, Síneadh fada, X́, ´, Čárka, Ĺ, Ǽ, ˊ, ́, Ḉ, Ḗ, Ṕ, Ẃ.