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Adal Sultanate

Index Adal Sultanate

The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire. [1]

132 relations: Abasa, Awdal, Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, Abyssinian–Adal war, Afar language, Afar people, Africa, Afroasiatic languages, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Ajuran Sultanate, Ali ibn Umar Din, Amda Seyon I, Amud, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Archery, Armour, Arquebus, Asaita, Awdal, Bab-el-Mandeb, Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din, Baeda Maryam I, Barakat ibn Umar Din, Barquq, Battle of Shimbra Kure, Battle of Wayna Daga, Berbera, Borama, Breastplate, British Museum, British Somaliland, Burji dynasty, Cairo, Cannon, Cape Guardafui, Cavalry, Celadon, Christian, Cistern, Copper, Courtyard, Cristóvão da Gama, Dakkar, Damascus, Dawit I, Dawit II, De jure, Defensive wall, Egypt, ..., Emir, Emirate, Ethiopian Empire, Ethiopian Highlands, Europe, Firearm, Gadaa, Gelawdewos, General officer, George Sale, Gold coin, Harar, Harari language, Harla people, Havilah, Hegira, Helmet, History of Somalia, Horn of Africa, Imam, Indian Ocean, Infantry, Islam, Jamal ad-Din II, Ladder, Lancer, Leo Africanus, Lieutenant, List of Sunni Muslim dynasties, Mahfuz, Mail (armour), Mansur ad-Din of Adal, Masjid al-Qiblatayn (Somalia), Matchlock, Mediterranean Sea, Megalith, Midden, Middle Ages, Mihrab, Ming dynasty, Monarchy, Mosque, Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din, Muhammad ibn Badlay, Musket, Musketeer, Muslim, Na'od, Near East, Negro, Nur ibn Mujahid, Oromo people, Ottoman Empire, Porcelain, Portugal, Qaitbay, Sa'ad ad-Din II, Sabr ad-Din II, Sarong, Shams ad-Din ibn Muhammad, Sherd, Shrine, Siege, Silver coin, Somali language, Somalis, South Asia, Steel, Stele, Sultan, Sultanate of Ifat, Sultanate of Mogadishu, Swordsmanship, Technology, Tiya (archaeological site), Umar Din, Walashma dynasty, Ya'qubi, Yemen, Yeshaq I, Zeila, Zeila Archipelago. Expand index (82 more) »

Abasa, Awdal

Abasa is an ancient town in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.

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Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad

Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad (أبو بكر بن محمد) (reigned 1525–1526) was a Somali Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal.

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Abyssinian–Adal war

The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.

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Afar language

The Afar language (Qafaraf) (also known as ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Qafar af) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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Afar people

The Afar (Qafár), also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.

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Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi

Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.

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Ajuran Sultanate

The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.

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Ali ibn Umar Din

Ali ibn Umar Din (علي بن عمر الدين) (reigned 1553–1555) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal.

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Amda Seyon I

Amda Seyon I (also Amde Tsiyon and other variants, Ge'ez ዐምደ ፡ ጽዮን ʿamda ṣiyōn, Amharic āmde ṣiyōn, "Pillar of Zion") was Emperor of Ethiopia (1314–1344; throne name Gebre Mesqel Ge'ez ገብረ ፡ መስቀል gabra masḳal, Amh. gebre mesḳel, "slave of the cross"), and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.

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Amud or Amoud (Camuud, العامود) is an ancient, ruined town in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.

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Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.

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The arquebus, derived from the German Hakenbüchse, was a form of long gun that appeared in Europe during the 15th century.

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Asaita (አሳይታ - Asayəta), also known as Aussa, is a town in northeastern Ethiopia, and before 2007, it was the capital of the Afar Region of Ethiopia.

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Awdal (Awdal) is an administrative region in Somaliland.

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The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.

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Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din

Badlay ibn Sa'ad ad-Din II (بادلاي بن سعد الدين) (also known as Sihab ad-Din Ahmad Badlay, Arwe Badlay – "Badlay the Beast" in Somali) (died 1445) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and a son of Sa'ad ad-Din II.

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Baeda Maryam I

Baeda Maryam I (በእደ ማርያም; ba'ida māryām "He who is in the Hand of Mary," modern be'ide māryām) (1448 – November 8, 1478) was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (August 26, 1468 – November 8, 1478) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.

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Barakat ibn Umar Din

Barakat ibn Umar Din (بركات بن عمر الدين) (reigned 16th century) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and brother of Ali ibn Umar Din.

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Al-Malik Az-Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq (الملك الظاهر سيف الدين برقوق) (ruled 1382–1389 and 1390 –1399) was the first Sultan of the Mamluk Burji dynasty.

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Battle of Shimbra Kure

The Battle of Shimbra Kure ("chickpea swamp") was fought in March 1529 between the forces of Adal led by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, and the Ethiopian army, under Dawit II (Lebna Dengel).

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Battle of Wayna Daga

The Battle of Wayna Daga (Amharic for "grape-cultivating altitude") occurred on 21 February 1543 east of Lake Tana in Ethiopia.

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Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.

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Borama (Boorama, بوراما) is the capital and the largest city of the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.

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A breastplate or chestplate is a device worn over the torso to protect it from injury, as an item of religious significance, or as an item of status.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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British Somaliland

British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.

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Burji dynasty

The Burji dynasty (المماليك البرجية) was a Circassian Mamluk dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517, during the Mamluk Sultanate.

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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

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Cape Guardafui

Cape Guardafui (Gees Gardafuul), also known historically as Aromata promontorium, is a headland in the autonomous Puntland region in Somalia.

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Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Celadon is a term for pottery denoting both wares glazed in the jade green celadon color, also known as greenware (the term specialists now tend to use) and a type of transparent glaze, often with small cracks, that was first used on greenware, but later used on other porcelains.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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A cistern (Middle English cisterne, from Latin cisterna, from cista, "box", from Greek κίστη, "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.

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Cristóvão da Gama

Cristóvão da Gama (c. 1516 – 29 August 1542), anglicised as Christopher da Gama, was a Portuguese military commander who led a Portuguese army of 400 musketeers on a crusade in Ethiopia and Somalia (1541–1543) against the far larger Adal Muslim army of Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (also known as Ahmad Gragn) aided by the Ottoman Empire.

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Dakkar was a Somali historical town located in modern day of Somali Region in Ethiopia.

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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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Dawit I

Dawit I (Ge'ez: ዳዊት dāwīt, "David") was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1382 – 6 October 1413) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.

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Dawit II

Dawit II (ዳዊት), also known as Wanag Segad (wanag sagad, 'to whom lions bow'), better known by his birth name Lebna Dengel (ልብነ ድንግል; 1501 – September 2, 1540), was nəgusä nägäst (1508–1540) of the Ethiopian Empire.

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De jure

In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.

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Defensive wall

A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.

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Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.

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Ethiopian Highlands

The Ethiopian Highlands is a rugged mass of mountains in Ethiopia, situated in the Horn region in Northeast Africa.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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Gadaa (older spelling: Gada) is the traditional social stratification system of Oromos in Ethiopia and northern Kenya; it is also practiced by the Gedeo people of southern Ethiopia.

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Gelawdewos (ገላውዴዎስ galāwdēwōs, modern gelāwdēwōs, "Claudius"; 1521/1522 – 23 March 1559) was Emperor (throne name Asnaf Sagad I (አጽናፍ ሰገድ aṣnāf sagad, modern āṣnāf seged, "to whom the horizon bows" or "the remotest regions submit "; September 3, 1540 – March 23, 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was a younger son of Dawit II by Sabla Wengel.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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George Sale

George Sale (1697, Canterbury, Kent, England – 1736, London, England) was an Orientalist and practising solicitor, best known for his 1734 translation of the Qur'an into English.

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Gold coin

A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.

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Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.

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Harari language

Harari is the language of the Harari people of Ethiopia.

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Harla people

The Harla, also known as Harla Koombe, Harala and Arla, were an ethnic group that inhabited Ethiopia and Somalia.

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Havilah (Ḥăwîlāh, "Circular") refers to both a land and people in several books of the Bible.

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The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.

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A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries.

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History of Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال الفدرالية) and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Jamal ad-Din II

Jamal ad-Din II (جمال اد الدين) (died 1433) was a Sultan of the Adal Sultanate.

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A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps.

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A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance.

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Leo Africanus

Joannes Leo Africanus, (c. 1494 – c. 1554?) (born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي) was a Berber Andalusi diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa (Description of Africa) centered on the geography of the Maghreb and Nile Valley.

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A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.

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List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

The following is a list of Sunni Muslim dynasties.

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Mahfuz (or Mohammed) (محفوظ, Harari: ማሕፉዝ) (died July 1517) was a Harari Emir of the city of Harar, and later a Governor of Zeila in the Adal Sultanate.

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Mail (armour)

Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.

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Mansur ad-Din of Adal

Mansur ad-Din (منصور اد الدين) (died 1424) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and a son of Sa'ad ad-Din II.

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Masjid al-Qiblatayn (Somalia)

Masjid al-Qiblaṫayn (مَـسْـجِـد الْـقِـبْـلَـتَـيْـن; "Mosque of the two Qiblahs") is a mosque in Zeila, situated in the northwestern Awdal region of Somalia.

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The matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mihrab (محراب, pl. محاريب) is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.

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A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.

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Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din

Muhammad ibn Azhar ad-Din (محمد بن الأزهر اد الدين) (reigned 1488–1518) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal.

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Muhammad ibn Badlay

Muhammad ibn Badlay (محمد بن بادلاي) (reigned 1445–1471) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal.

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A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.

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A musketeer (mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Na'od (ናዖስ) (? – 31 July 1508) was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1494 - 31 July 1508) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.

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Nur ibn Mujahid

Nur ibn Mujahid ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah al Dhuhi Suha (Harari አሚር ኑር, Somali: Nuur ibn Mujaahid, Arabic: نور بن مجاهد السمروني) (literally, "Light"; died 1567).

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Oromo people

The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf ad-Din Qa'it Bay (السلطان أبو النصر سيف الدين الأشرف قايتباي) (c. 1416/14181496) was the eighteenth Burji Mamluk Sultan of Egypt from 872-901 A.H. (1468-1496 C.E.). (Other transliterations of his name include Qaytbay and Kait Bey.) He was Circassian (شركسيا) by birth, and was purchased by the ninth sultan Barsbay (1422 to 1438 C.E.) before being freed by the eleventh Sultan Jaqmaq (1438 to 1453 C.E.). During his reign, he stabilized the Mamluk state and economy, consolidated the northern boundaries of the Sultanate with the Ottoman Empire, engaged in trade with other contemporaneous polities, and emerged as a great patron of art and architecture.

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Sa'ad ad-Din II

Sa'ad ad-Din II (سعد الدين زنكي) (ruled circa 1400) was a Somali Sultan of the Ifat Sultanate.

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Sabr ad-Din II

Sabr ad-Din II (الصبر اد الدين) (died 1422 or 1423) was a Sultan of Adal and the oldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II.

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A sarong or sarung (Malay:, formal Indonesian:, colloquial Indonesian:, Tamil: சரம், Arabic: صارون, Sinhalese: සරම; meaning "sheath" in Indonesian and Malay) is a large tube or length of fabric, often wrapped around the waist, worn in South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, and on many Pacific islands.

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Shams ad-Din ibn Muhammad

Shams ad-Din ibn Muhammad (شمس اد الدين بن محمد) (reigned 1472–1487) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal and a son of Muhammad ibn Badlay.

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In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd, is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.

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A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.

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A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Silver coin

Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.

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Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.

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Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Sultanate of Ifat

The Sultanate of Ifat was a medieval Muslim state in the eastern regions of the Horn of Africa between the late 13th century and early 15th century.

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Sultanate of Mogadishu

The Sultanate of Mogadishu (Saldanadda Muqdisho, سلطنة مقديشو) (fl. 10th-16th centuries), also known as the Kingdom of Magadazo, was a medieval Somali trading empire centered in southern Somalia.

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Swordsmanship or sword fighting refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Tiya (archaeological site)

Tiya is an archaeological site in central Ethiopia.

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Umar Din

Umar Din (عمر الدين) (r. 1526–1553) was a Sultan of the Sultanate of Adal.

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Walashma dynasty

The Walashma dynasty was a medieval Muslim dynasty of the Horn of Africa.

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Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (اليعقوبي), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.

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Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Yeshaq I

Yeshaq I or Isaac (Ge'ez ይሥሓቅ, yisḥāḳ; throne name: Gabra Masqal II ገብረ መስቀል, gabra masḳal) was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1414–29) of Ethiopia.

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Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.

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Zeila Archipelago

The Sa'ad ad-Din Islands (Jasiirada Sacadadiin, جزر سعد الدين), also Romanized as Sa'ad-ed-din and known as the Zeila Archipelago, are group of islands off the northern coast of Somalia.

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Redirects here:

Adal Kingdom, Adalite Sultanate, Adel Sultanate, Kingdom of Adal, Sultan of Adal, Sultanate of Adal, Sultanate of Adel, The Adal Sultanate.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adal_Sultanate

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