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Adam Smith

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Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era. [1]

237 relations: A Treatise of Human Nature, Adam Smith Institute, Alan Greenspan, Alexander Stoddart, Alfred Marshall, André Morellet, Andrew Millar, Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, Anti-Corn Law League, Aristotle, Astronomy, Atheism, Auguste Comte, Ayn Rand, Éric Pichet, Balliol College, Oxford, Bank of England, Bank of England £20 note, Bank of England note issues, Belles-lettres, Benjamin Franklin, Bernard Mandeville, Bill Paterson (actor), Binary code, Bodleian Library, British Empire, Cambridge University Press, Canongate Kirkyard, Cato Institute, Central Connecticut State University, Central Intelligence Agency, Charles Townshend, Church of England, Church of Scotland, Classical economics, Classical liberalism, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Cleveland State University, Clydesdale Bank, Cobdenism, Corn Laws, D. D. Raphael, Daniel B. Klein, David Douglas, Lord Reston, David Hume, David Ricardo, Dictionary of National Biography, Division of labour, Doctor of Law, ..., Doge, Econ Journal Watch, Economic equilibrium, Economic history, Economics, Economist, Edinburgh, Edinburgh Business School, Edinburgh Evening News, Edinburgh University Press, Edmund Burke, Emma Georgina Rothschild, Empathy, Ernest Mandel, Essays on Philosophical Subjects, Etching, Ethics, Fernando Vianello, Fife, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Food and Drug Administration, François Quesnay, Francis Hutcheson (philosopher), Frédéric Bastiat, Free market, Free trade, Freedom of speech, Friedrich Hayek, General equilibrium theory, Geneva, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Stigler, Great Architect of the Universe, Grove Atlantic, Hartford Courant, Henri de Saint-Simon, Henry George, Henry Home, Lord Kames, Henry Moyes, Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, Herbert Stein, Heriot-Watt University, History of physics, Homo economicus, Industrial Revolution, Inequality of bargaining power, Institute of Economic Affairs, Invisible hand, Jacob Viner, James Boswell, James Currie (physician), James Hutton, James Otteson, James Tassie, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Jean-Baptiste Say, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jim Sanborn, John Forbes Nash Jr., John Kay (caricaturist), John Locke, John Maynard Keynes, John Rae (biographer), John Roemer, John Snell, John Stuart Mill, Jonathan Swift, Joseph Black, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph Shield Nicholson, Joseph Stiglitz, Joshua Reynolds, Journal of Political Economy, Jurisprudence, Karl Marx, Kirkcaldy, Kirkcaldy High School, Kryptos, Labor theory of value, Laissez-faire, Latin, Lectures on Jurisprudence, Liberal Democrat History Group, Liberty, Life of Samuel Johnson, Limited government, List of abolitionist forerunners, List of Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts, List of universities in England, Logic, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Ludwig von Mises, Luxury tax, Manchester Liberalism, Manchester University Press, Marginal utility, Masterpiece, Mercantilism, Mercat cross, Metaphysics, Milton Friedman, Monopoly, Moral sense theory, Murray Rothbard, Natural and legal rights, Natural science, Neoclassical economics, Noam Chomsky, Old Style and New Style dates, Organizational capital, Oxford University Press, P. J. O'Rourke, Panmure House (Edinburgh), Paul Krugman, Paul Samuelson, Philosopher, Physiocracy, Pierangelo Garegnani, Pigovian tax, Political economy, Political philosophy, Pound sterling, Princeton University Press, Professor of Moral Philosophy (Glasgow), Public speaking, Reaganomics, Reason, Rector of the University of Glasgow, Rhetoric, Richard Cobden, Robert Cunninghame Graham of Gartmore, Robert Ekelund, Robert Oliver Cunningham, Ronald Coase, Royal Mile, Royal Society, Royal Society of Edinburgh, SAGE Publications, Samuel Hollander, Scottish Enlightenment, Sin tax, Snell Exhibition, Social philosophy, Society of Writers to Her Majesty's Signet, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stirling, Sumptuary law, Supply and demand, Supply-side economics, Tabur, Karataş, Tanning (leather), The Canongate, The Charlotte Observer, The Club (dining club), The Economic Journal, The Journal of Law and Economics, The Low Road (play), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The New Yorker, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, The Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Washington Times, The Wealth of Nations, Thomas Creevey, Thomas Hodgskin, Thomas Reid, Thomas Robert Malthus, Thomas Sowell, Tories (British political party), Toulouse, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, University of Cambridge, University of Glasgow, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, University of Toronto Press, University Press of Colorado, Utilitarianism, Voltaire, Wallace Monument, Walras, Walter Campbell of Shawfield, Western philosophy, William Hogarth, William Strahan (publisher). Expand index (187 more) »

A Treatise of Human Nature

A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Adam Smith Institute

The Adam Smith Institute (ASI) is a neoliberal (formerly libertarian) think tank and lobbying group based in the United Kingdom, named after Adam Smith, a Scottish moral philosopher and classical economist.

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Alan Greenspan

Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.

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Alexander Stoddart

Alexander "Sandy" Stoddart (born 1959) is a Scottish sculptor, who, since 2008, has been the Queen's Sculptor in Ordinary in Scotland.

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Alfred Marshall

Alfred Marshall, FBA (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was one of the most influential economists of his time.

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André Morellet

André Morellet (7 March 172712 January 1819) was a French economist writer and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.

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Andrew Millar

Andrew Millar (17058 June 1768) was a Scottish publisher in the eighteenth century.

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Anne Robert Jacques Turgot

Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de l'Aulne (10 May 172718 March 1781), commonly known as Turgot, was a French economist and statesman.

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Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury Bt (26 February 1671 – 16 February 1713) was an English politician, philosopher and writer.

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Anti-Corn Law League

The Anti-Corn Law League was a successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Auguste Comte

Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.

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Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum; – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher.

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Éric Pichet

Éric Pichet (born in 1960) is a professor at KEDGE Business School teaching at a post-graduate level and French economist.

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Balliol College, Oxford

Balliol College, founded in 1263,: Graduate Studies Prospectus - Last updated 17 Sep 08 is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of England £20 note

The Bank of England £20 note is a banknote of the pound sterling.

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Bank of England note issues

The Bank of England, which is now the central bank of the United Kingdom, has issued banknotes since 1694.

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Belles-lettres or belles lettres is a category of writing, originally meaning beautiful or fine writing.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Bernard Mandeville

Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist.

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Bill Paterson (actor)

Bill Paterson (born 3 June 1945) is a Scottish actor and commentator, best known for playing the lead role in the BBC One paranormal, mystery drama Sea of Souls between 2004 and 2007.

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Binary code

A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system.

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Bodleian Library

The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canongate Kirkyard

The Canongate Kirkyard (Churchyard) stands around Canongate Kirk on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Central Connecticut State University

Central Connecticut State University (also known as Central and frequently abbreviated as Central Connecticut, Central Connecticut State, and CCSU) is a regional, comprehensive public university in New Britain, Connecticut, United States.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Charles Townshend

Charles Townshend (28 August 1725 – 4 September 1767) was a British politician.

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Church of England

The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.

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Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.

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Classical economics

Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Claude Adrien Helvétius

Claude Adrien Helvétius (26 January 1715 – 26 December 1771) was a French philosopher, freemason and littérateur.

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Cleveland State University

Cleveland State University (CSU) is a public research university in downtown Cleveland, Ohio, United States.

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Clydesdale Bank

Clydesdale Bank plc is a commercial bank in Scotland.

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Cobdenism refers to an economic ideology (and the associated popular movement) which perceives international free trade and a non-interventionist foreign policy as the key requirements for prosperity and world peace.

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.

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D. D. Raphael

David Daiches Raphael (January 25, 1916 - December 22, 2015) was a philosopher.

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Daniel B. Klein

Daniel Bruce Klein (born January 16, 1962) is an American professor of economics at George Mason University and an Associate Fellow of the Swedish Ratio Institute.

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David Douglas, Lord Reston

Hon David Douglas, Lord Reston FRSE (24 July 1769 – 23 April 1819) was a Scottish judge and a cousin and the heir of Adam Smith.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Ricardo

David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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Division of labour

The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.

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Doctor of Law

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.

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A doge (plural dogi or doges) was an elected lord and chief of state in many of the Italian city-states during the medieval and renaissance periods.

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Econ Journal Watch

Econ Journal Watch is a triannual peer-reviewed electronic journal established in 2004.

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Economic equilibrium

In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change.

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Economic history

Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.

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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edinburgh Business School

Edinburgh Business School (EBS) is the Graduate School of Business of Heriot-Watt University (est. 1821), Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Edinburgh Evening News

The Edinburgh Evening News is a local newspaper based in Edinburgh, Scotland, that was founded by John Wilson (1844–1909) and first published in 1873.

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Edinburgh University Press

Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

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Emma Georgina Rothschild

Emma Georgina Rothschild-Sen, CMG (born 16 May 1948) is a British economic historian who is a professor of History at Harvard University.

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Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.

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Ernest Mandel

Ernest Ezra Mandel (also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter; 5 April 1923 – 20 July 1995), was a Marxist economist and a Trotskyist activist and theorist.

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Essays on Philosophical Subjects

Essays on Philosophical Subjects, by the Scottish economist Adam Smith, is a history of astronomy down to Smith's own era, plus some thoughts on ancient physics and metaphysics.

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Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Fernando Vianello

Fernando Vianello (August 17, 1939 – August 10, 2009) was an Italian economist and academic.

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Fife (Fìobha) is a council area and historic county of Scotland.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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François Quesnay

François Quesnay (4 June 1694 – 16 December 1774) was a French economist and physician of the Physiocratic school.

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Francis Hutcheson (philosopher)

Francis Hutcheson (8 August 1694 – 8 August 1746) was an Irish philosopher born in Ulster to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment.

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Frédéric Bastiat

Claude-Frédéric Bastiat (29 June 1801 – 24 December 1850) was a French economist and writer who was a prominent member of the French Liberal School.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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General equilibrium theory

In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that the interaction of demand and supply will result in an overall general equilibrium.

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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Stigler

George Joseph Stigler (January 17, 1911 – December 1, 1991) was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics.

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Great Architect of the Universe

The Great Architect of the Universe (also Grand Architect of the Universe or Supreme Architect of the Universe) is a conception of God discussed by many Christian theologians and apologists.

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Grove Atlantic

Grove Atlantic, Inc. is an American independent publisher, based in New York City, New York, that was formed in 1993 by the merger of Grove Press and Atlantic Monthly Press.

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Hartford Courant

The Hartford Courant is the largest daily newspaper in the U.S. state of Connecticut, and is often recognized as the oldest continuously published newspaper in the United States.

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Henri de Saint-Simon

Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (17 October 1760 – 19 May 1825), was a French political and economic theorist and businessman whose thought played a substantial role in influencing politics, economics, sociology, and the philosophy of science.

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Henry George

Henry George (September 2, 1839 – October 29, 1897) was an American political economist and journalist.

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Henry Home, Lord Kames

Henry Home, Lord Kames (169627 December 1782) was a Scottish advocate, judge, philosopher, writer and agricultural improver.

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Henry Moyes

Henry Moyes (c1750 – 1807) was a blind Scottish lecturer on natural philosophy.

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Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch

Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch and 5th Duke of Queensberry KG KT FRSE (2 September 1746 – 11 January 1812) was a Scottish nobleman and long-time friend of the notable Sir Walter Scott.

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Herbert Stein

Herbert Stein (August 27, 1916 – September 8, 1999) was an American economist, a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute and was on the board of contributors of The Wall Street Journal.

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Heriot-Watt University

Heriot-Watt University is a public university based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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History of physics

Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science.

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Homo economicus

The term homo economicus, or economic man, is a caricature of economic theory framed as a "mythical species" or word play on homo sapiens, and used in pedagogy.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Inequality of bargaining power

In law, economics and the social sciences, inequality of bargaining power is where one party to a "bargain", contract or agreement, has more and better alternatives than the other party.

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Institute of Economic Affairs

The Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) is a privately funded non-profit conservative think tank based in Westminster, London, United Kingdom.

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Invisible hand

The invisible hand is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the unintended social benefits of an individual's self-interested actions.

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Jacob Viner

Jacob Viner (May 3, 1892 – September 12, 1970) was a Canadian economist and is considered with Frank Knight and Henry Simons to be one of the "inspiring" mentors of the early Chicago School of Economics in the 1930s: he was one of the leading figures of the Chicago faculty.

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James Boswell

James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.

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James Currie (physician)

James Currie FRS (31 May 1756 in Dumfriesshire, Scotland – 31 August 1805 in Sidmouth) was a Scottish physician, best known for his anthology and biography of Robert Burns and his medical reports on the use of water in the treatment of fever.

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James Hutton

James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.

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James Otteson

James R. Otteson (born June 19, 1968) is an American philosopher and political economist.

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James Tassie

James Tassie (1735–1799) was a Scottish gem engraver and modeller.

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Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

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Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jim Sanborn

Herbert James Sanborn, Jr. (born November 14, 1945 in Washington, D.C.) is an American sculptor.

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John Forbes Nash Jr.

John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations.

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John Kay (caricaturist)

John Kay (1742 – 21 February 1826) was a Scottish caricaturist and engraver.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John Rae (biographer)

John Rae (1845 – 1915) was a Scottish journalist and biographer.

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John Roemer

John E. Roemer (born February 1, 1945 in Washington D.C.) is an American economist and political scientist.

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John Snell

Sir John Snell (1629 – 6 August 1679), founder of the Snell Exhibitions at the University of Oxford, was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, the son of a blacksmith.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Jonathan Swift

Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

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Joseph Black

Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.

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Joseph Schumpeter

Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.

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Joseph Shield Nicholson

Joseph Shield Nicholson, FBA, FRSE (9 November 1850 – 12 May 1927) was an English economist.

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Joseph Stiglitz

Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.

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Joshua Reynolds

Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.

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Journal of Political Economy

The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.

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Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kirkcaldy (Cair Chaladain) is a town and former royal burgh in Fife, on the east coast of Scotland.

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Kirkcaldy High School

Kirkcaldy High School is a 6-year co-educational comprehensive state school in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland.

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Kryptos is a sculpture by the American artist Jim Sanborn located on the grounds of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Langley, Virginia.

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Labor theory of value

The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lectures on Jurisprudence

Lectures on Jurisprudence, also called Lectures on Justice, Police, Revenue and Arms (1763) is a collection of Adam Smith's lectures, comprising notes taken from his early lectures.

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Liberal Democrat History Group

The Liberal Democrat History Group is an organisation interested in the history of United Kingdom political party the Liberal Democrats, and its predecessor parties, the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party.

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Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Life of Samuel Johnson

The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1791) is a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson written by James Boswell.

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Limited government

In political philosophy, limited government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution.

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List of abolitionist forerunners

Thomas Clarkson (1760 – 1846), the pioneering abolitionist, prepared a "map" of the "streams" of "forerunners and coadjutors" of the abolitionist movement, which he published in his work, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade by the British Parliament published in 1808.

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts

Below is a partial list of Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts (formally, the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce).

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List of universities in England

As of August 2017, there were 109 universities and university colleges in England out of a total of around 130 in the United Kingdom.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Louis XV of France

Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.

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Ludwig von Mises

Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (29 September 1881 – 10 October 1973) was an Austrian-American theoretical Austrian School economist.

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Luxury tax

A luxury tax is a tax on luxury goods: products not considered essential.

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Manchester Liberalism

Manchester Liberalism, Manchester School, Manchester Capitalism and Manchesterism are terms for the political, economic and social movements of the 19th century that originated in Manchester, England.

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Manchester University Press

Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.

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Marginal utility

In economics, utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product; thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from an increase in the consumption of that good or service.

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Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.

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Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).

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Mercat cross

A mercat cross is the Scots name for the market cross found frequently in Scottish cities, towns and villages where historically the right to hold a regular market or fair was granted by the monarch, a bishop or a baron.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Moral sense theory

Moral sense theory (also known as sentimentalism) is a theory in moral epistemology and meta-ethics concerning the discovery of moral truths.

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Murray Rothbard

Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Neoclassical economics

Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.

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Organizational capital

Organizational capital is the value to an enterprise which is derived from organization philosophy and systems which leverage the organization’s capability in delivering goods or services.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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P. J. O'Rourke

Patrick Jake O'Rourke (born November 14, 1947), known as P.J. O'Rourke, is an American political satirist and journalist.

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Panmure House (Edinburgh)

Panmure House is a 17th-century townhouse located in Edinburgh's Canongate.

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Paul Krugman

Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.

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Paul Samuelson

Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.

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Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.

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Pierangelo Garegnani

Pierangelo Garegnani (1930–2011) was an Italian economist and professor of the University of Rome III.

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Pigovian tax

A Pigovian tax (also spelled Pigouvian tax) is a tax on any market activity that generates negative externalities (costs not included in the market price).

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Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Professor of Moral Philosophy (Glasgow)

The Chair of Moral Philosophy is a professorship at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, which was established in 1727.

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Public speaking

Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience.

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Reaganomics (a portmanteau of Reagan and economics attributed to Paul Harvey) refers to the economic policies promoted by U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Rector of the University of Glasgow

The Lord Rector (more commonly known just as the Rector) of the University of Glasgow is one of the most senior posts within that institution, elected every three years by students.

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Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Richard Cobden

Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.

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Robert Cunninghame Graham of Gartmore

Robert Graham (1735 – 11 December 1797), who took the name Bontine in 1770 and Cunninghame Graham in 1796, was a Scottish politician and poet.

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Robert Ekelund

Robert Burton Ekelund, Jr. (born 1940) is an American economist.

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Robert Oliver Cunningham

Robert Oliver Cunningham (27 March 1841 – 1918) was a Scottish naturalist.

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Ronald Coase

Ronald Harry Coase (29 December 1910 – 2 September 2013) was a British economist and author.

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Royal Mile

The Royal Mile (Ryal Mile) is the name given to a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Royal Society of Edinburgh

The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Samuel Hollander

Samuel Hollander, (born April 6, 1937) is a British/Canadian/Israeli economist.

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Scottish Enlightenment

The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.

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Sin tax

A sin tax is an excise tax specifically levied on certain goods deemed harmful to society, for example alcohol and tobacco, candies, drugs, soft drinks, fast foods, coffee, sugar, gambling and pornography.

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Snell Exhibition

The Snell Exhibition is an annual scholarship awarded to students of the University of Glasgow to allow them to undertake postgraduate study at Balliol College, Oxford.

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Social philosophy

Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.

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Society of Writers to Her Majesty's Signet

The Society of Writers to Her Majesty’s Signet is a private society of Scottish solicitors, dating back to 1594 and part of the College of Justice.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stirling (Stirlin; Sruighlea) is a city in central Scotland.

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Sumptuary law

Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempt to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.

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Supply and demand

In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.

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Supply-side economics

Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory arguing that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation.

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Tabur, Karataş

Tabur is a village in the District of Karataş, Adana Province, Turkey.

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Tanning (leather)

Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.

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The Canongate

The Canongate is a district of Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland.

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The Charlotte Observer

The Charlotte Observer is a newspaper serving Charlotte and its metro area.

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The Club (dining club)

The Club or Literary Club is a London dining club founded in February 1764 by the artist Joshua Reynolds and essayist Samuel Johnson, with Edmund Burke, the Irish philosopher-politician.

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The Economic Journal

The Economic Journal (EJ) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics published on behalf of the Royal Economic Society (RES) by Wiley-Blackwell.

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The Journal of Law and Economics

The Journal of Law and Economics is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.

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The Low Road (play)

The Low Road is a 2013 play by the American playwright Bruce Norris.

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The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Theory of Moral Sentiments

The Theory of Moral Sentiments is a 1759 book by Adam Smith.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Wall Street Journal Asia

The Wall Street Journal Asia, a version of The Wall Street Journal, provides news and analysis of global business developments for an Asian audience.

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The Washington Times

The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.

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The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

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Thomas Creevey

Thomas Creevey (March 1768 – 5 February 1838) was an English politician who is known for his papers, which were published in 1903.

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Thomas Hodgskin

Thomas Hodgskin (born 12 December 1787, Chatham, Kent; d. 21 August 1869, Feltham, Middlesex) was an English socialist writer on political economy, critic of capitalism and defender of free trade and early trade unions.

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Thomas Reid

Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Thomas Sowell

Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930) is an American economist and social theorist who is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.

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Tories (British political party)

The Tories were members of two political parties which existed sequentially in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from the 17th to the early 19th centuries.

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Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.

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U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is an independent agency of the United States government.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Glasgow

The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.

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University of North Carolina at Charlotte

The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, also known as UNC Charlotte, is a public research university located in Charlotte, North Carolina, United States.

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University of Toronto Press

The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.

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University Press of Colorado

The University Press of Colorado is a nonprofit publisher supported partly by Adams State University, Colorado State University, Fort Lewis College, Metropolitan State University of Denver, the University of Colorado, the University of Northern Colorado, Utah State University, and Western State Colorado University.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Wallace Monument

The National Wallace Monument (generally known as the Wallace Monument) is a tower standing on the shoulder of the Abbey Craig, a hilltop overlooking Stirling in Scotland.

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Walras is a surname.

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Walter Campbell of Shawfield

Walter Campbell of Shawfield (1741 – 19 October 1816) as a Scottish landowner, advocate and Rector of Glasgow University.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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William Hogarth

William Hogarth FRSA (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist.

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William Strahan (publisher)

William Strahan (24 March 1715 – 9 July 1785) was a Scottish printer and publisher, and a politician who sat in the House of Commons between from 1774 to 1784.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith

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