48 relations: Accommodation (eye), Adaptation (eye), Adaptive system, Anthocyanin, Antioxidant, Averted vision, Bleach, Calcium, Calmodulin, Cat, Cone cell, Contrast (vision), Crohn's disease, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Dark adaptor goggles, Fovea centralis, Hemeralopia, Human eye, Ion, Luminance, Malnutrition, Mesopic vision, Neural adaptation, Night vision, Nyctalopia, Opsin, Optical resolution, Order of magnitude, Phosphodiesterase, Photobleaching, Photopic vision, Photopigment, Photoreceptor cell, Physiology, Primary biliary cholangitis, Pupillary light reflex, Purkinje effect, Recoverin, Retina, Retinal, Retinal ganglion cell, Rhodopsin, Rod cell, Scotopic vision, Tapetum lucidum, Trichromacy, Visual perception, Vitamin A.
Accommodation is the process by which the vertebrate eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies.
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of light.
An adaptive system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole that together are able to respond to environmental changes or changes in the interacting parts, in a way analogous to either continuous physiological homeostasis or evolutionary adaptation in biology.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Averted vision is a technique for viewing faint objects which uses peripheral vision.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for calcium-modulated protein) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Dark adaptor goggles, also called red adaptation goggles, are used in the field of meteorology and astronomy for adapting the eyes to the dark prior to an observation at night.
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
Hemeralopia (from Greek ημέρα hemera, "day", and αλαός alaos, "blindness") is the inability to see clearly in bright light and is the exact opposite of nyctalopia (night blindness), the inability to see clearly in low light.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Mesopic vision is a combination of photopic vision and scotopic vision in low but not quite dark lighting situations.
Neural adaptation or sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
Nyctalopia, also called night-blindness, is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
Optical resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond.
In optics, photobleaching (sometimes termed fading) is the photochemical alteration of a dye or a fluorophore molecule such that it permanently is unable to fluoresce.
Photopic vision is the vision of the eye under well-lit conditions (luminance level 10 to 108 cd/m2).
Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver.
The pupillary light reflex (PLR) or photopupillary reflex is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retinal ganglion cells of the retina in the back of the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness.
The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels as part of dark adaptation.
Recoverin (abbreviated Recov) is a 23 kilodalton (kDa) neuronal calcium-binding protein that is primarily detected in the photoreceptor cells of the eye.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
The tapetum lucidum (Latin: "bright tapestry; coverlet", plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
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