247 relations: Acamprosate, Acetylcysteine, Addiction, Addiction (journal), Addiction medicine, Adjuvant therapy, Adolescence, Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, Affect (psychology), Affective science, Agonist, Alcohol (drug), Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Alcoholism, Amino acid, AMPA, AMPA receptor, Amphetamine, Anhedonia, Animal testing, Anterior cingulate cortex, Anxiety, Assault, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Baclofen, Basolateral amygdala, Behavioral addiction, Behaviour therapy, Binge drinking, Binge eating disorder, Biomarker (medicine), Blood–brain barrier, Brain biopsy, Brain positron emission tomography, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Buprenorphine, Buprenorphine/naloxone, Bupropion, Butyric acid, C-Fos, Cancer, Cannabinoid, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system disease, Chemical synapse, Child abuse, Cholinergic neuron, Cirrhosis, Classical conditioning, ..., Cocaine, Cocaine dependence, Cochrane (organisation), Cognitive behavioral therapy, Community reinforcement approach and family training, Comorbidity, Compulsive behavior, Contingency management, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, CpG site, Craving (withdrawal), CREB, Cue reactivity, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclin-dependent kinase 5, D1-like receptor, Delirium tremens, Demography, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Dihydrocodeine, Dihydroetorphine, Discrimination against drug addicts, Disulfiram, DNA methylation, Dopamine, Dopamine dysregulation syndrome, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopaminergic, Dopaminergic pathways, Dose–response relationship, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug Addiction Treatment Act, Drug withdrawal, DSM-5, Dynorphin, EHMT2, Emotional dysregulation, Endophenotype, Epidemiological method, Epigenetics, Epigenome, Evidence-based medicine, Executive functions, Experimental drug, Food addiction, Forebrain, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, GABAB receptor, GABAergic, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene expression, Gene therapy, Genome-wide association study, Glossary of gene expression terms, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Glutamic acid, GRIA1, GRIA2, H3K9me2, Hallucination, HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC8, Headache, Heredity, Heroin, Hippocampus, Histone, Histone acetyltransferase, Histone deacetylase, Histone deacetylase 2, Histone deacetylase inhibitor, Histone H3, Histone methyltransferase, Histone-modifying enzymes, Homeostasis, ICD-10, Immunoassay, Impulsivity, Indication (medicine), Inhibitory control, Inpatient care, Intraperitoneal injection, Irritability, JunD, KEGG, Learning, Levacetylmethadol, Lung cancer, Lysine, Marathon, Medium spiny neuron, Mesolimbic pathway, Metabotropic glutamate receptor, Meth mouth, Methadone, Methadone clinic, Methylation, Methylphenidate, MicroRNA, Monoclonal antibody, Motivational interviewing, Motivational salience, Naltrexone, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Nausea, Necessity and sufficiency, Neuron, Neuroplasticity, Neurotransmission, NF-κB, Nicotine, Nicotine replacement therapy, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nicotinic antagonist, NMDA receptor, Nora Volkow, Nucleus accumbens, Operant conditioning, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid use disorder, Oral administration, Orbitofrontal cortex, Partial agonist, Pathology, Pathophysiology, Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, Personality theories of addiction, Pew Research Center, Pharmacotherapy, Phencyclidine, Phenotype, Phosphorylation, Physical dependence, Pre-clinical development, Prefrontal cortex, Prescription drug, Prevalence, Problem gambling, Promoter (genetics), Propofol, Protein isoform, Psychiatry, Psychological dependence, Psychological trauma, Psychology, Regulator of G protein signaling, Reinforcement, Reinforcement sensitivity theory, Relapse prevention, Repressor, Reward system, RGS4, RGS9, Sampling (statistics), Self-administration, Sensitization, Sexual addiction, Sexual intercourse, Shopping addiction, Short-chain fatty acid, Sodium butyrate, Sperm, Stereotypy, Stimulation, Stimulus control, Striatum, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, Substance-related disorder, Substituted amphetamine, TAAR1, TEDMED, Testicle, The Journal of Neuroscience, Topiramate, Trait theory, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, Tremor, Trichostatin A, Unified atomic mass unit, University of Utah, Valproate, Varenicline, Ventral tegmental area, Video game addiction, Viral vector, Vorinostat. Expand index (197 more) » « Shrink index
Acamprosate, sold under the brand name Campral, is a medication used along with counselling to treat alcohol dependence.
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Addiction is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1884 by the Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and other Drugs.
Addiction medicine is a medical specialty that deals with the treatment of addiction.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACE Study) is a research study conducted by the American health maintenance organization Kaiser Permanente and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
Affective science is the scientific study of emotion or affect.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) is a compound that is a specific agonist for the AMPA receptor, where it mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter glutamate.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) or basolateral complex, consists of the lateral, basal and accessory-basal nuclei of the amygdala.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism.
Binge drinking, or heavy episodic drinking, is a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with an intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).
In medicine, a biomarker is a measurable indicator of the severity or presence of some disease state.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Brain biopsy is the removal of a small piece of brain tissue for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the brain.
Brain positron emission tomography is a form of positron emission tomography (PET) that is used to measure brain metabolism and the distribution of exogenous radiolabeled chemical agents throughout the brain.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Buprenorphine/naloxone, sold under the brand name Suboxone among others, is a combination medication that includes buprenorphine and naloxone.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Central nervous system diseases, also known as central nervous system disorders, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord, which collectively form the central nervous system (CNS).
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
A cholinergic neuron is a nerve cell which mainly uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) to send its messages.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cocaine dependence is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Community reinforcement approach and family training (CRAFT) is a behavior therapy approach for treating addiction.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
Compulsive behavior is defined as performing an act persistently and repetitively without it necessarily leading to an actual reward or pleasure.
Contingency management (CM) is most-widely used in the field of substance abuse, often implemented as part of clinical behavior analysis.
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971.
The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.
When going through withdrawal, craving is a psychological urge to administer a discontinued medication or recreational drug.
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
Cue reactivity is a type of learned response which is observed in individuals with an addiction and involves significant physiological and subjective reactions to presentations of drug-related stimuli (i.e., drug cues).
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cell division protein kinase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5 gene.
The D1-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.
Dihydroetorphine was developed by K. W. Bentley at McFarlan-Smith in the 1960s and is a potent opioid analgesic, which is used mainly in China.
Discrimination against drug addicts is a form of discrimination against individuals who suffer from a drug addiction.
Disulfiram (sold under the trade names Antabuse and Antabus) is a drug used to support the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to ethanol (drinking alcohol).
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) is a dysfunction of the reward system observed in some individuals taking dopaminergic medications for an extended length of time.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time, or to a food.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA 2000), Title XXXV, Section 3502 of the Children's Health Act, permits physicians who meet certain qualifications to treat opioid addiction with Schedule III, IV, and V narcotic medications that have been specifically approved by the Food and Drug Administration for that indication.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Dynorphins (Dyn) are a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin.
Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2), also known as G9a, is a histone methyltransferase that in humans is encoded by the EHMT2 gene.
Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is poorly modulated, and does not fall within the conventionally accepted range of emotive response.
Endophenotype is a genetic epidemiology term which is used to separate behavioral symptoms into more stable phenotypes with a clear genetic connection.
The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates, Semmelweis and John Snow.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
An epigenome consists of a record of the chemical changes to the DNA and histone proteins of an organism; these changes can be passed down to an organism's offspring via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
An experimental drug is a medicinal product (a drug or vaccine) that has not yet received approval from governmental regulatory authorities for routine use in human or veterinary medicine.
A food addiction or eating addiction is a behavioral addiction that is characterized by the compulsive consumption of palatable (e.g., high fat and high sugar) foods – the types of food which markedly activate the reward system in humans and other animals – despite adverse consequences.
In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral-most (forward-most) portion of the brain.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOSL1 gene.
Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOSL2 gene.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
GABAergic means "pertaining to or affecting the neurotransmitter GABA".
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamate receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIA1 gene.
Glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2 (ionotropic glutamate receptor 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIA2 (or GLUR2) gene.
H3K9me2 is a covalent histone modification – specifically, the dimethylated state of histone H3 at lysine residue 9 – and an epigenetic mark that is strongly associated with transcriptional repression.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC1 gene.
Histone deacetylase 3 is an enzyme encoded by the HDAC3 gene in both humans and mice.
Histone deacetylase 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC8 gene.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to form ε-N-acetyllysine.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC2 gene.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDACi, HDIs) are chemical compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases.
Histone H3 is one of the five main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.
Histone methyltransferases (HMT) are histone-modifying enzymes (e.g., histone-lysine N-methyltransferases and histone-arginine N-methyltransferases), that catalyze the transfer of one, two, or three methyl groups to lysine and arginine residues of histone proteins.
The packaging of the eukaryotic genome into highly condensed chromatin makes it inaccessible to the factors required for gene transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
In medicine, an indication is a valid reason to use a certain test, medication, procedure, or surgery.
Inhibitory control, also known as response inhibition, is a cognitive process that permits an individual to inhibit their impulses and natural, habitual, or dominant behavioral responses to stimuli (prepotent responses) in order to select a more appropriate behavior that is consistent with completing their goals.
Inpatient care is the care of patients whose condition requires admission to a hospital.
Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Transcription factor JunD is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUND gene.
KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Levacetylmethadol (INN), levomethadyl acetate (USAN), OrLAAM (trade name) or levo-α-acetylmethadol (LAAM) is a synthetic opioid similar in structure to methadone.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process.
Meth mouth is severe tooth decay and tooth loss, as well as tooth fracture, acid erosion, and other oral problems, potentially symptomatic of extended use of the drug methamphetamine.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
A methadone clinic is a clinic which has been established for the dispensing of methadone (Dolophine), a schedule II opioid analgesic, to those who abuse heroin and other opioids.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling approach developed in part by clinical psychologists William R. Miller and Stephen Rollnick.
Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.
Naltrexone, sold under the brand names ReVia and Vivitrol among others, is a medication primarily used to manage alcohol or opioid dependence.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
In logic, necessity and sufficiency are terms used to describe an implicational relationship between statements.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a medically-approved way to take nicotine by means other than tobacco.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
A nicotinic antagonist is a type of anticholinergic drug that inhibits the action of acetylcholine (ACh) at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Nora Volkow (born 27 March 1956) is a Mexican-born naturalized American psychiatrist.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS, also known as a "cue") that has been associated with rewarding or aversive stimuli via classical conditioning alters motivational salience and operant behavior.
Personality theories of addiction are psychological models that associate personality traits or modes of thinking (i.e., affective states) with an individual's proclivity for developing an addiction.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Problem gambling (or ludomania, but usually referred to as "gambling addiction" or "compulsive gambling") is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychological dependence is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Regulators of G protein signaling (or RGS) are protein structural domains that activate GTPases for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
Reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposes three brain-behavioral systems that underlie individual differences in sensitivity to reward, punishment, and motivation.
Relapse prevention (RP) is a cognitive-behavioral approach to relapse with the goal of identifying and preventing high-risk situations such as substance abuse, obsessive-compulsive behavior, sexual offending, obesity, and depression.
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
Regulator of G protein signaling 4 also known as RGP4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS4 gene.
Regulator of G-protein signalling 9, also known as RGS9, is a human gene, which codes for a protein involved in regulation of signal transduction inside cells.
In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself.
Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response.
Sexual addiction, also known as sex addiction, is a proposed state characterized by compulsive participation or engagement in sexual activity, particularly sexual intercourse, despite negative consequences.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Shopping addiction is defined as the deficiency of impulse control which appears as the eagerness for constantly making new purchases of unnecessary or superfluous things.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
Sodium butyrate is a compound with formula Na(C3H7COO).
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
A stereotypy is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance.
Stimulation is the encouragement of development or the cause of activity generally.
In behavioral psychology, stimulus control is a phenomenon that occurs when an organism behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another way in its absence.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
TEDMED is an annual conference focusing on health and medicine, with a year-round web-based community.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is the transmission of information from one generation of an organism to the next (i.e., parent–child transmission) that affects the traits of offspring without alteration of the primary structure of DNA (i.e., the sequence of nucleotides)—in other words, epigenetically.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Trichostatin A (TSA) is an organic compound that serves as an antifungal antibiotic and selectively inhibits the class I and II mammalian histone deacetylase (HDAC) families of enzymes, but not class III HDACs (i.e., sirtuins).
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Video game addiction (VGA) has been suggested by some in the medical community as a distinct behavioral addiction characterized by excessive or compulsive use of computer games or video games that interferes with a person's everyday life.
Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.
Vorinostat (rINN) also known as suberanilohydroxamic acid (suberoyl+anilide+hydroxamic acid abbreviated as SAHA) is a member of a larger class of compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC).
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