85 relations: Accumulator (computing), Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Apollo Guidance Computer, ARM architecture, Array data structure, Assembly language, Basic block, Bit, Bitwise operation, Bus error, C (programming language), Cache prefetching, Call stack, Central processing unit, Compiler, Complex instruction set computer, Composite data type, Computer programming, CSG 65CE02, Data General Nova, Digital Equipment Corporation, Drum memory, Elliott 503, Elliott 803, Field (computer science), Handle (computing), HP 2100, IBM, IBM 1620, IBM 650, IBM System/360, IBM System/390, ICT 1900 series, Index register, Infinite loop, Instruction pipelining, Instruction set architecture, Intel 80386, Kilobyte, Literal pool, Locality of reference, Machine code, McGraw-Hill Education, Memory address, MOS Technology 6502, Motorola 6800, Motorola 68010, Motorola 6809, NAR 2, Offset (computer science), ..., Operand, Orthogonal instruction set, Out-of-order execution, Page fault, PDP-10, PDP-11, PDP-8, Pipeline (computing), Pointer (computer programming), Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements, Position-independent code, Power of two, Processor register, Program counter, Reduced instruction set computer, Relocation (computing), Return statement, SECD machine, Self-modifying code, Side effect (computer science), Sizeof, Stack (abstract data type), Static variable, Status register, Stride of an array, Tagged pointer, Value (computer science), VAX, WDC 65816/65802, Word (computer architecture), X86, X86 assembly language, X86-64, 18-bit, 36-bit. Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.
Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum (born March 16, 1944), sometimes referred to by the handle ast, is an American-Dutch computer scientist and professor emeritus of computer science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program that was installed on board each Apollo Command Module (CM) and Lunar Module (LM).
ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
In compiler construction, a basic block is a straight-line code sequence with no branches in except to the entry and no branches out except at the exit.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
In computing, a bus error is a fault raised by hardware, notifying an operating system (OS) that a process is trying to access memory that the CPU cannot physically address: an invalid address for the address bus, hence the name.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
Cache prefetching is a technique used by computer processors to boost execution performance by fetching instructions or data from their original storage in slower memory to a faster local memory before it is actually needed (hence the term 'prefetch').
In computer science, a call stack is a stack data structure that stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
In computer science, a composite data type or compound data type is any data type which can be constructed in a program using the programming language's primitive data types and other composite types.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
The CSG 65CE02 is a 8/16-bit microprocessor developed by Commodore Semiconductor Group in 1988.
The Data General Nova is a series of 16-bit minicomputers released by the American company Data General.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria.
The Elliott 503 was a transistorized computer introduced by Elliott Brothers in 1963.
The Elliott 803 is a small, medium-speed transistor digital computer which was manufactured by the British company Elliott Brothers in the 1960s.
In computer science, data that has several parts, known as a record, can be divided into fields.
In computer programming, a handle is an abstract reference to a resource.
The HP 2100 was a series of minicomputers produced by Hewlett-Packard (HP) from the mid-1960s to early 1990s.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".
The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The IBM System/390 was the third major generation of the System/360 line of computers.
ICT 1900 was the name given to a series of mainframe computers released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and later International Computers Limited (ICL) during the 1960s and '70s.
An index register in a computer's CPU is a processor register used for modifying operand addresses during the run of a program, typically for doing vector/array operations.
An infinite loop (or endless loop) is a sequence of instructions in a computer program which loops endlessly, either due to the loop having no terminating condition, having one that can never be met, or one that causes the loop to start over.
Instruction pipelining is a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.
An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.
The Intel 80386, also known as i386 or just 386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
In computer science, and specifically in compiler and assembler design, a literal pool is a lookup table used to hold literals during assembly and execution.
In computer science, locality of reference, also known as the principle of locality, is a term for the phenomenon in which the same values, or related storage locations, are frequently accessed, depending on the memory access pattern.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In computing, a memory address is a reference to a specific memory location used at various levels by software and hardware.
The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".
The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.
The Motorola MC68010 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1982 as the successor to the Motorola 68000.
The Motorola 6809 ("sixty-eight-oh-nine") is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some 16-bit features from Motorola.
NAR 2 (Serbian Nastavni Računar 2, en. Educational Computer 2) is a theoretical model of a 32-bit word computer created by Faculty of Mathematics of University of Belgrade professor Nedeljko Parezanović as an enhancement to its predecessor, NAR 1.
In computer science, an offset within an array or other data structure object is an integer indicating the distance (displacement) between the beginning of the object and a given element or point, presumably within the same object.
In mathematics an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, i.e. it is the quantity that is operated on.
In computer engineering, an orthogonal instruction set is an instruction set architecture where all instruction types can use all addressing modes.
In computer engineering, out-of-order execution (or more formally dynamic execution) is a paradigm used in most high-performance central processing units to make use of instruction cycles that would otherwise be wasted.
A page fault (sometimes called #PF, PF or hard fault) is a type of exception raised by computer hardware when a running program accesses a memory page that is not currently mapped by the memory management unit (MMU) into the virtual address space of a process.
The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.
The PDP-11 is a series of 16-bit minicomputers sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s, one of a succession of products in the PDP series.
The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
In computer science, a pointer is a programming language object that stores the memory address of another value located in computer memory.
The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements are a set of conditions sufficient for a computer architecture to support system virtualization efficiently.
In computing, position-independent code (PIC) or position-independent executable (PIE) is a body of machine code that, being placed somewhere in the primary memory, executes properly regardless of its absolute address.
In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
The program counter (PC), commonly called the instruction pointer (IP) in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, and sometimes called the instruction address register (IAR), the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence.
A reduced instruction set computer, or RISC (pronounced 'risk'), is one whose instruction set architecture (ISA) allows it to have fewer cycles per instruction (CPI) than a complex instruction set computer (CISC).
Relocation is the process of assigning load addresses to position-dependent, but locatable code of a program and adjusting the code and data in the program to reflect the assigned addresses.
In computer programming, a return statement causes execution to leave the current subroutine and resume at the point in the code immediately after where the subroutine was called, known as its return address.
The SECD machine is a highly influential (See: #Landin's contribution) virtual machine and abstract machine intended as a target for functional programming language compilers.
In computer science, self-modifying code is code that alters its own instructions while it is executing – usually to reduce the instruction path length and improve performance or simply to reduce otherwise repetitively similar code, thus simplifying maintenance.
In computer science, a function or expression is said to have a side effect if it modifies some state outside its scope or has an observable interaction with its calling functions or the outside world besides returning a value.
In the programming languages C and C++, the unary operator sizeof generates the size of a variable or datatype, measured in the number of char-sized storage units required for the type.
In computer science, a stack is an abstract data type that serves as a collection of elements, with two principal operations.
In computer programming, a static variable is a variable that has been allocated "statically", meaning that its lifetime (or "extent") is the entire run of the program.
A status register, flag register, or condition code register (CCR) is a collection of status flag bits for a processor.
In computer programming, the stride of an array (also referred to as increment, pitch or step size) is the number of locations in memory between beginnings of successive array elements, measured in bytes or in units of the size of the array's elements.
In computer science, a tagged pointer is a pointer (concretely a memory address) with additional data associated with it, such as an indirection bit or reference count.
In computer science, a value is the representation of some entity that can be manipulated by a program.
VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.
The W65C816S (also 65C816 or 65816) is a 16-bit microprocessor (MPU) developed and sold by the Western Design Center (WDC).
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
x86 assembly language is a family of backward-compatible assembly languages, which provide some level of compatibility all the way back to the Intel 8008 introduced in April 1972.
x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64 and Intel 64) is the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set.
18 binary digits have (1000000 octal, 40000 hexadecimal) distinct combinations.
Prior to the introduction of computers, the state of the art in precision scientific and engineering calculation was the ten-digit, electrically powered, mechanical calculator, such as those manufactured by Friden, Marchant and Monroe.
Absolute and relative coding, Absolute coding, Address mode, Addressing modes, Conditional execution, Effective address, Indexed addressing, Indirect address, Indirect addressing, Indirection (computing), Indirection bit, Load Effective Address, Push Effective Address, Register indirect, Relative coding, Special addressing modes for implementation of stacks.