47 relations: Actin, Adenine, Adenosine, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine receptor, Adenosine triphosphate, Apyrase, ATP synthase, ATPase, Blood, Calorie, Catabolism, Cell (biology), Citric acid cycle, Cofactor (biochemistry), Cytoplasm, Dephosphorylation, DNA, Ectonucleotidase, Electron transport chain, Energy, Enzyme, Glucose, Glycolysis, Joule, Kinetic energy, Metabolism, Mole (unit), Muscle contraction, Myosin, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, Oligonucleotide, Organic compound, Oxidative phosphorylation, P2Y12, Phosphate, Photophosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Platelet, Potential energy, Ribose, RNA, Substrate-level phosphorylation, Sugar, Thermodynamics.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Apyrase (ATP-diphosphatase, adenosine diphosphatase, ADPase, ATP diphosphohydrolase) is a calcium-activated plasma membrane-bound enzyme (magnesium can also activate it) that catalyses the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and inorganic phosphate.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Ectonucleotidases consist of families of nucleotide metabolizing enzymes that are expressed on the plasma membrane and have externally oriented active sites.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In the field of purinergic signaling, the P2Y12 protein is found mainly but not exclusively on the surface of blood platelets, and is an important regulator in blood clotting.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
In the process of photosynthesis, the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Substrate-level phosphorylation is a metabolic reaction that results in the formation of ATP or GTP by the direct transfer of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to ADP or GDP from another phosphorylated compound.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.