69 relations: Adenosine, Adenosine A1 receptor, Adenosine A2A receptor, Adenosine A2B receptor, Adenosine A3 receptor, Adenosine receptor, Adenylyl cyclase, Anti-inflammatory, Asthma, Barbiturate, BAY 60–6583, Benzodiazepine, Bronchoconstriction, Bronchospasm, Caffeine, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac pacemaker, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CCPA (biochemistry), CGS-21680, Chocolate, Coffee, Coronary, Coronary circulation, CP-532,903, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Degranulation, Diglyceride, Dipropylcyclopentylxanthine, Dopamine, Endogeny (biology), G protein–coupled receptor, Gi alpha subunit, Glutamic acid, Gs alpha subunit, Heart rate, Hypotension, Inositol trisphosphate, Intravenous therapy, Ischemia, Istradefylline, Ligand (biochemistry), Magnesium in biology, MRS-1706, Myocardial infarction, Myosin light-chain kinase, N6-Cyclopentyladenosine, Neonatology, Neurotransmitter, ..., NMDA receptor, Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Purinergic receptor, Receptor antagonist, Regadenoson, SCH-442,416, SCH-58261, Sedative, Shock (circulatory), Stimulant, Synaptic vesicle, Tachycardia, Tea, Theophylline, Vasodilation, Ventriculomegaly, Xanthine, ZM-241,385, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine. Expand index (19 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
The adenosine A1 receptor is one member of the adenosine receptor group of G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The adenosine A2B receptor, also known as ADORA2B, is a G-protein coupled adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human adenosine A2b receptor gene which encodes it.
The adenosine A3 receptor, also known as ADORA3, is an adenosine receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
BAY 60–6583 is a selective adenosine A2B receptor agonist.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) is a specific receptor agonist for the Adenosine A1 receptor.
CGS-21680 is a specific adenosine A2A subtype receptor agonist.
Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Coronary may, as shorthand in English, be used to mean: to coronate or cremate a body.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
CP-532,903 is a selective adenosine A3 subtype receptor agonist.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, PD-116,948) is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine A1 receptor.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Istradefylline (KW-6002) is a selective antagonist at the A2A receptor.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems.
MRS-1706 is a selective inverse agonist for the adenosine A2B receptor.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myosin light-chain kinase also known as MYLK or MLCK is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates a specific myosin light chain, namely, the regulatory light chain of myosin II.
N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) is a drug which acts as a selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist.
Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a drug that blocks one or more of the five subtypes of the enzyme phosphodiesterase (PDE), thereby preventing the inactivation of the intracellular second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by the respective PDE subtype(s).
Purinergic receptors, also known as purinoceptors, are a family of plasma membrane molecules that are found in almost all mammalian tissues.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Regadenoson (CVT-3146, Lexiscan) is an A2A adenosine receptor agonist that is a coronary vasodilator that is commonly used in pharmacologic stress testing.
SCH-442,416 is a highly selective adenosine A2a subtype receptor antagonist.
SCH-58261 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine receptor A2A, with more than 50x selectivity for A2A over other adenosine receptors.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Ventriculomegaly is a brain condition that occurs in the fetus when the lateral ventricles become dilated.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
ZM-241,385 is a high affinity antagonist ligand selective for the adenosine A2A receptor.
8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-Cyclopentyltheophylline, 8-CPT, CPX) is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine receptors, with some selectivity for the A1 receptor subtype, as well as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor.
ATL-146e, Adenosine receptors, Cl-IB-MECA, KW6002, MRE3008F20, MRS-1191, MRS-1523, MRS-3558, MRS1191, MRS1523, MRS3558, P1 receptor, P1 receptors, Receptor, adenosine a1, Receptor, adenosine a2a, Receptor, adenosine a2b, Receptor, adenosine a3, Receptors, adenosine a2.