130 relations: Acetyl group, Acetyl-CoA, Active site, Adenine, Adenosine, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine-tetraphosphatase, Adenylyl cyclase, Alexander R. Todd, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Ammonium, Anaerobic respiration, Antiporter, Aspartic acid, ATP hydrolysis, ATP synthase, ATP test, ATP-binding cassette transporter, ATP:guanido phosphotransferase family, ATPase, Beta oxidation, Binding constant, Binding site, Biochemistry, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Carboxy-lyases, Cell (biology), Cellular respiration, Chelation, Chemiosmosis, Chloroplast, Citrate synthase, Citric acid, Citric acid cycle, Cofactor (biochemistry), Concentration, Currency, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytochrome c, Cytochrome c oxidase, Deoxyribonucleotide, Divalent, DNA replication, Electric potential, Electron transport chain, Energy, Enzyme inhibitor, Eukaryote, ..., Exocytosis, Fermentation, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin group, Flavin mononucleotide, Fritz Albert Lipmann, G protein–coupled receptor, Glycerol phosphate shuttle, Glycolysis, Guanosine triphosphate, Harvard Medical School, Hexokinase, High-energy phosphate, Hydrolysis, In vitro, Integral membrane protein, Ion, Jens Christian Skou, John E. Walker, Joule per mole, Kinase, Lactic acid, Light-independent reactions, Magnesium, Malate dehydrogenase, Malate-aspartate shuttle, Malic acid, Mitochondrion, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Molar concentration, Mole (unit), NDPCP, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrate, Nobel Foundation, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase, Nucleotide exchange factor, Organic compound, Oxaloacetic acid, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxygen, Paul D. Boyer, PH, Phosphagen, Phosphofructokinase, Phosphoglycerate kinase, Phosphorylation, Photophosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Protein Data Bank, Protein structure, Proton, Purinergic receptor, Purinergic signalling, Pyrophosphate, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, Pyruvate kinase, Pyruvic acid, Ribose, RNA, RNA polymerase, Second messenger system, Signal transduction, Standard state, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Substrate-level phosphorylation, Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, Sulfate, Sulfur, Tetrameric protein, Thermodynamic free energy, Thylakoid, Transaminase, Transcription (biology), Transition state, Triose, Vanadate, X-ray crystallography, Yellapragada Subbarow. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
In enzymology, an adenosine-tetraphosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate and H2O, whereas its two products are ATP and phosphate.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Alexander Robertus Todd, Baron Todd (2 October 1907 – 10 January 1997) was a British biochemist whose research on the structure and synthesis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleotide coenzymes gained him the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
An antiporter (also called exchanger or counter-transporter) is a cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
ATP hydrolysis is the catabolic reaction process by which chemical energy that has been stored in the high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released by splitting these bonds, for example in muscles, by producing work in the form of mechanical energy.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The ATP test is a process of rapidly measuring actively growing microorganisms through detection of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.
In molecular biology, the ATP:guanido phosphotransferase family is a family of structurally and functionally related enzymes, that reversibly catalyse the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
In biochemistry and metabolism, beta-oxidation is the catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the cytosol in prokaryotes and in the mitochondria in eukaryotes to generate acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle, and NADH and FADH2, which are co-enzymes used in the electron transport chain.
The binding constant, or association constant, is a special case of the equilibrium constant K, and is the inverse of the dissociation constant.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carboxy-lyases, also known as decarboxylases, are carbon–carbon lyases that add or remove a carboxyl group from organic compounds.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
The enzyme citrate synthase E.C. 188.8.131.52 (previously 184.108.40.206) exists in nearly all living cells and stands as a pace-making enzyme in the first step of the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle).
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
A deoxyribonucleotide is the monomer, or single unit, of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid.
In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Flavin (from Latin flavus, "yellow") is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine.
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.
Fritz Albert Lipmann (June 12, 1899 – July 24, 1986) was a German-American biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A. For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 (shared with Hans Adolf Krebs).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle is a mechanism that regenerates NAD+ from NADH, a by-product of glycolysis.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University.
A hexokinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates hexoses (six-carbon sugars), forming hexose phosphate.
High-energy phosphate can mean one of two things.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Jens Christian Skou (8 October 1918 – 28 May 2018) was a Danish medical doctor and Nobel laureate.
Sir John Ernest Walker One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: (born 7 January 1941) is a British chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1997.
The joule per mole (symbol: J·mole−1 or J/mol) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate using the reduction of NAD+ to NADH.
The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
5'-guanosyl-methylene-triphosphate (GDPCP) and 5'-adenosyl-methylene-triphosphate (ADPCP) are analogues of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), which store chemical energy from metabolism in the cell.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
Nucleoside-diphosphate kinases (NDPKs, also NDP kinase, (poly)nucleotide kinases and nucleoside diphosphokinases) are enzymes that catalyze the exchange of terminal phosphate between different nucleoside diphosphates (NDP) and triphosphates (NTP) in a reversible manner to produce nucleotide triphosphates.
Nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) are proteins that stimulate the exchange (replacement) of nucleoside diphosphates for nucleoside triphosphates bound to other proteins.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paul Delos Boyer (July 31, 1918 – June 2, 2018) was an American biochemist, analytical chemist, and a professor of chemistry at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA).
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phosphagens, also known as macroergic compounds, are energy storage compounds, also known as high-energy phosphate compounds, chiefly found in muscular tissue in animals.
Phosphofructokinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate in glycolysis.
Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK 1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) to ADP producing 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and ATP: Like all kinases it is a transferase.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
In the process of photosynthesis, the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
Purinergic receptors, also known as purinoceptors, are a family of plasma membrane molecules that are found in almost all mammalian tissues.
Purinergic signalling (or signaling: see American and British English differences) is a form of extracellular signalling mediated by purine nucleotides and nucleosides such as adenosine and ATP.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a complex of three enzymes that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA by a process called pyruvate decarboxylation.
X-ray Crystallography Derived --> Pyruvate kinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of glycolysis.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a Gram-positive bacterium, and one of over 40 species belonging to the genus Staphylococcus.
Substrate-level phosphorylation is a metabolic reaction that results in the formation of ATP or GTP by the direct transfer of a phosphoryl (PO3) group to ADP or GDP from another phosphorylated compound.
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase (SCS, also known as succinyl-CoA synthetase or succinate thiokinase or succinate-CoA ligase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of succinyl-CoA to succinate.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A tetrameric protein is a protein with a quaternary structure of four subunits (tetrameric).
The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
The transition state of a chemical reaction is a particular configuration along the reaction coordinate.
A triose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, containing three carbon atoms.
In chemistry, a vanadate is a compound containing an oxoanion of vanadium generally in its highest oxidation state of +5.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Yellapragada Subbarao (12 January 1895 – 8 August 1948) was an Indian biochemist who discovered the function of adenosine triphosphate as an energy source in the cell, developed methotrexate for the treatment of cancer and discovered a broad spectrum antibiotic Auromycin and Tetracycline.
ATP (molecule), ATP cycle, ATP thermochemistry, ATP/ADP cycle, Adenosine 5'-triphosphate, Adenosine Triphospate, Adenosine Triphosphate, Adenosine tri-phosphate, Adenosine triphosphoric acid, Adenosine-triphosphoric acid, Adenosinetriphosphate, Adenyl triphosphate, Adenylate charge, Adephos, Adetol, Adynol, Atipi, Atriphos, Cardenosine, C₁₀H₁₆N₅O₁₃P₃, Fosfobion, Glucobasin, Myotriphos, Phosphobion, Striadyne, Triadenyl, Triphosphaden.