39 relations: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Adipogenesis, Adipokine, Adiponectin, Adipose tissue, Androgen, Apelin, Bone, Brown adipose tissue, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Cholesteryl ester, Connective tissue, Cytoplasm, Estrogen, Fat, Fatty acid synthesis, Fibroblast, Hyperplasia, Hypertrophy, Infertility, Insulin resistance, Insulin-induced gene 1 protein, Leptin, Lipid, List of human cell types derived from the germ layers, Marrow adipose tissue, Mesenchymal stem cell, Mitochondrion, Obesity, Overweight, Polygon, Pyruvate dehydrogenase, Resistin, SREBP cleavage-activating protein, Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, Triglyceride, Underweight, White adipose tissue.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA through its two catalytic activities, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT).
Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes.
The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue.
Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Apelin (also known as APLN) is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the APLN gene.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cholesterol Oleate, a member of the cholesteryl ester family Cholesteryl ester, a dietary lipid, is an ester of cholesterol.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.
Hypertrophy (from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Insulin induced gene 1, also known as INSIG1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the INSIG1 gene.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
This is a list of cells in humans derived from the germ layers, which includes the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT), also known as bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, skeletal unweighting, anti-diabetes therapies). The marrow adipocytes originate from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitors that also give rise to osteoblasts, among other cell types. Thus, it is thought that MAT results from preferential MSC differentiation into the adipocyte, rather than osteoblast, lineage in the setting of osteoporosis. Since MAT is increased in the setting of obesity and is suppressed by endurance exercise, or vibration, it is likely that MAT physiology- in the setting of mechanical input/exercise- approximates that of white adipose tissue (WAT). MAT has qualities of both white and brown fat. Subcutaneous white fat contain excess energy, indicating a clear evolutionary advantage during times of scarcity. WAT is also the source of adipokines and inflammatory markers which have both positive (e.g., adiponectin) and negative effects on metabolic and cardiovascular endpoints. Visceral abdominal fat (VAT) is a distinct type of WAT that is "proportionally associated with negative metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity", regenerates cortisol, and recently has been tied to decreased bone formation Both types of WAT substantially differ from brown adipose tissue (BAT) as by a group of proteins that help BAT’s thermogenic role. MAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat storage by larger expression of bone transcription factors", and likely indicates a different fat phenotype. Recently, MAT was noted to "produce a greater proportion of adiponectin - an adipokine associated with improved metabolism - than WAT", suggesting an endocrine function for this depot, akin, but different, from that of WAT.
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase is the first component enzyme of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
Resistin also known as adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF) or C/EBP-epsilon-regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein (XCP1) is a cysteine-rich adipose-derived peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the RETN gene.
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein, also known as SREBP cleavage-activating protein or SCAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCAP gene.
Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) also known as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SREBF1 gene.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
An underweight person is a person whose body weight is considered too low to be healthy.
White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals.