162 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Abdominal obesity, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adipocyte, Adipokine, Adiponectin, Adipose capsule of kidney, Adipose tissue, Adipose tissue macrophages, Adipose-derived hormones, Adiposopathy, Adrenergic receptor, Adult stem cell, Aerobic exercise, Anatomical terms of location, Apelin, Aromatase, Bariatrics, Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Bioinformatics, Blood vessel, Blubber, Body fat percentage, Bone marrow, Brown adipose tissue, Cardiovascular disease, Catecholamine, CCR2, Cell growth, Cellular differentiation, Cellulite, ChIP-sequencing, Classification of childhood weight, Classification of obesity, Connective tissue, Conrad Gessner, Cytokine, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 2, DNA microarray, Doctor Who, Douglas L. Coleman, Electric current, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electron transport chain, Embryonic stem cell, Endocrine system, Endothelium, ..., Eosinophil, Epididymis, Epigenetics, EPODE International Network, Ester, Estradiol, Estrogen, Fatty acid, Fatty acid metabolism, FGF21, Fibroblast, FNDC5, Gastric bypass surgery, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene expression, Glycerol, Guanosine triphosphate, Heart, Histology, Histone, Hormone, Human fat, Human skin, Hunger (motivational state), Hypertension, Hypothalamus, ILC2, Immunophenotyping, Induced pluripotent stem cell, Inflammation, Insulin, Insulin resistance, Integumentary system, Interleukin 33, Interleukin 6, Intramuscular fat, James V. Neel, Jeffrey M. Friedman, Leptin, Lipid, Lipodystrophy, Lipolysis, Lipoprotein, Lipoprotein lipase, Liver, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Macrophage, Marrow adipose tissue, Melanocortin, Menopause, Mesenchymal stem cell, Mesentery, Metabolic equivalent, Metabolism, Milky spots, Mitochondrion, Mouse, Muscle, Muscular system, Mutation, Obesity, Obesity and walking, Organ (anatomy), Ovary, Oxidative phosphorylation, Pancreas, Panniculus, Pericardium, Perilipin-2, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, Pharmacology, Physiology, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PPARGC1A, PRDM16, Receptor (biochemistry), Resistin, RNA-Seq, Rockefeller University, Rudolph Leibel, Sex differences in humans, Skeletal muscle, Social stigma of obesity, Spleen, Starvation, Steatosis, Stem cell, Stomach, Stress (biology), Stroke, Stromal vascular fraction, Subcutaneous tissue, Sympathetic nervous system, Symporter, Testicle, Thermal insulation, Thermogenesis, Thermogenin, Thorax, Thrifty gene hypothesis, Time (magazine), Triglyceride, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Uterus, Wake Forest University, WDTC1, Weight loss, White adipose tissue, Wild type, World Fit, 2,4-Dinitrophenol. Expand index (112 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.
Abdominal obesity, also known as central obesity, occurs when excessive abdominal fat around the stomach and abdomen has built up to the extent that it is likely to have a negative impact on health.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling proteins) secreted by adipose tissue.
Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.
The adipose capsule of kidney (or perinephric fat or perirenal fat) is a structure between the renal fascia and renal capsule, and may be regarded as a part of the latter.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.
Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes numerous protein hormones, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin.
Adiposopathy (or sick fat) is defined as pathologic adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomic & functional disturbances, promoted by positive caloric balance, in genetically and environmentally susceptible individuals. The ensuing pathogenic endocrine and immune responses may directly promote cardiovascular disease, and may also cause or worsen among the most common metabolic disease encountered in developed countries.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Apelin (also known as APLN) is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the APLN gene.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Bariatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition, and in particular body fat.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Blubber is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.
The body fat percentage (BFP) of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass, times 100; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat).
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR2 gene. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cellulite (also known as adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome) is the herniation of subcutaneous fat within fibrous connective tissue that manifests topographically as skin dimpling and nodularity, often on the pelvic region (specifically the buttocks), lower limbs, and abdomen.
ChIP-sequencing, also known as ChIP-seq, is a method used to analyze protein interactions with DNA.
Defining the parameters for childhood obesity has created substantial public awareness over the past decades.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Conrad Gessner (Conradus Gesnerus; Conrad Geßner or Cůnrat Geßner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss physician, naturalist, bibliographer, and philologist.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
Doctor Who is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963.
Douglas L. Coleman (6 October 1931 – 16 April 2014) was a scientist and professor at The Jackson Laboratory, in Bar Harbor, Maine.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
EPODE International Network (EIN) is a not for profit, non-governmental organisation that seeks to support childhood obesity-prevention programmes across the world, via best practice sharing and capacity building.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).
Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a protein that in mammals is encoded by the FGF21 gene.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5, the precursor of irisin, is a protein that is encoded by the FNDC5 gene.
Gastric bypass surgery refers to a surgical procedure in which the stomach is divided into a small upper pouch and a much larger lower "remnant" pouch and then the small intestine is rearranged to connect to both.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human fat (German Menschenfett, Latin Axungia hominis) was mentioned in European pharmacopoeias since the 16th century as an important fatty component of quality deemed ointments and other pharmaceuticals in Europe.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
Hunger and satiety are sensations.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
ILC2 cells, or type 2 innate lymphoid cells are a type of innate lymphoid cell.
Immunophenotyping is a technique used to study the protein expressed by cells.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated directly from adult cells.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL33 gene.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
Intramuscular fat (also known as intramuscular triglycerides, intramuscular triacylglycerol, or intramyocellular triacylglycerol) is located inside skeletal muscle fibers.
James Van Gundia Neel (March 22, 1915 – February 1, 2000) was an American geneticist who played a key role in the development of human genetics as a field of research in the United States.
Jeffrey Friedman (born July 20, 1954) is a molecular geneticist at New York City's Rockefeller University and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipodystrophy syndromes are a group of genetic or acquired disorders in which the body is unable to produce and maintain healthy fat tissue.
Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a member of the lipase gene family, which includes pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT), also known as bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, skeletal unweighting, anti-diabetes therapies). The marrow adipocytes originate from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitors that also give rise to osteoblasts, among other cell types. Thus, it is thought that MAT results from preferential MSC differentiation into the adipocyte, rather than osteoblast, lineage in the setting of osteoporosis. Since MAT is increased in the setting of obesity and is suppressed by endurance exercise, or vibration, it is likely that MAT physiology- in the setting of mechanical input/exercise- approximates that of white adipose tissue (WAT). MAT has qualities of both white and brown fat. Subcutaneous white fat contain excess energy, indicating a clear evolutionary advantage during times of scarcity. WAT is also the source of adipokines and inflammatory markers which have both positive (e.g., adiponectin) and negative effects on metabolic and cardiovascular endpoints. Visceral abdominal fat (VAT) is a distinct type of WAT that is "proportionally associated with negative metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity", regenerates cortisol, and recently has been tied to decreased bone formation Both types of WAT substantially differ from brown adipose tissue (BAT) as by a group of proteins that help BAT’s thermogenic role. MAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat storage by larger expression of bone transcription factors", and likely indicates a different fat phenotype. Recently, MAT was noted to "produce a greater proportion of adiponectin - an adipokine associated with improved metabolism - than WAT", suggesting an endocrine function for this depot, akin, but different, from that of WAT.
The melanocortins are a group of peptide hormones which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the pituitary gland.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
The Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET), or simply metabolic equivalent, is a physiological measure expressing the energy cost of physical activities and is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (and therefore the rate of energy consumption) during a specific physical activity to a reference metabolic rate, set by convention to 3.5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1 or approximately: \text\.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Milky spots are very small white-coloured areas of lymphoid tissue, found in the peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavities.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obesity and walking describes how the locomotion of walking differs between an obese individual (BMI >30) and a non-obese individual (BMI According to the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 66% of the American population is either overweight or obese and this number is predicted to increase to 75% by 2015. Obesity is linked to health problems such as decreased insulin sensitivity and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleep apnea, and joint pain such as osteoarthritis. It is thought that a major factor of obesity is that obese individuals are in a positive energy balance, meaning that they are consuming more calories than they are expending. Humans expend energy through their basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food, non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), and exercise. While many treatments for obesity are presented to the public, exercise in the form of walking is an easy, relatively safe activity that has the potential to move a person towards a negative energy balance and if done for a long enough time may reduce weight.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Panniculus, sometimes referred to incorrectly as FUPA (Fat Upper Pelvic Area) or pannus, is a medical term describing a dense layer of fatty tissue growth, consisting of subcutaneous fat in the lower abdominal area.
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2, ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT family of cytoplasmic lipid droplet(CLD) binding protein.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) also known as endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor or serpin E1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINE1 gene.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARGC1A gene.
PR domain containing 16, also known as PRDM16, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PRDM16 gene.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Resistin also known as adipose tissue-specific secretory factor (ADSF) or C/EBP-epsilon-regulated myeloid-specific secreted cysteine-rich protein (XCP1) is a cysteine-rich adipose-derived peptide hormone that in humans is encoded by the RETN gene.
RNA-Seq (RNA sequencing), also called whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS), uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment.
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research, primarily in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education.
Rudolph Leibel, MD, (born 1942) is the Christopher J. Murphy Professor of Diabetes Research, Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center, and Director of the Division of Molecular Genetics in the Department of Pediatrics.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
The social stigma of obesity has created negative psychosocial impacts and has caused disadvantages for overweight and obese people.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
Steatosis, also called fatty change, is the process describing the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a source of preadipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), endothelial progenitor cell, T cells, B cells, mast cells as well as adipose tissue macrophages.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
A symporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (i.e. the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence.
Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms.
Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT).
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The thrifty gene hypothesis, or Gianfranco's hypothesis is an attempt by geneticist James V. Neel to explain why certain populations and subpopulations in the modern day are prone to diabetes mellitus type 2.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Wake Forest University is a private, independent, nonprofit, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, founded in 1834.
WDTC1 ("Adipose") is a gene associated with obesity.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals.
Wild type (WT) refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
World Fit is a program of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), and the United States Olympians and Paralympians Association (USOP) to promote physical fitness and the Olympic Games ideals to school children through kids fitness programs, school fitness programs, and childhood obesity programs.
2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2.
Abdominal Fat, Abdominal fat, Adipose, Adipose Tissue, Adipose body, Adipose depot, Adipose fat, Adiposity, Adispose, Belly fat, Body fat, Body fat meter, Body fat scale, Epicardial adipose tissue, Fat accumulation, Fat bodies, Fat body, Fat deposition, Fat droplet, Fat mass, Fat tissue, Fatty tissue, Fibrofatty, Internal body fat, Internal fat, Intra-abdominal fat, Intraperitoneal fat, Neoplasms, adipose tissue, Organ fat, Squishy muscles, Subcutaneous adipose tissue, Textus adiposus, Visceral fat.