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Index Adolescence

AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd. [1]

242 relations: Abstinence-only sex education, Abstraction, Adam's apple, Adolescent cliques, Adolescent medicine, Adolescent sexuality, Adult, Age of consent, Age of majority, Agency (philosophy), Alcoholic drink, Allowance (money), American Psychological Association, Androgen, Anna Freud, Anorexia nervosa, Assault, Attention, Autonomy, Bar and Bat Mitzvah, Behavioral medicine, Belief, Big Five personality traits, Body image, Brain, Brazil, Breast, Bulbourethral gland, Cannabis (drug), Casual sex, Cengage, Channel 4, Chemical substance, Child, Child custody, Child labour, Childhood, Children and adolescents in the United States, Cigarette, Circulatory system, Classical conditioning, Clique, Cognition, Cognitive development, Cognitive dissonance, Coming out, Comprehensive sex education, Compulsory education, Confirmation, Constructivism (philosophy of education), ..., Corpus callosum, Correlation does not imply causation, Cotillion, Critical phenomena, Crowds (adolescence), Culture, Cyberbullying, Darwinism, Dating violence, Debutante, Decision-making, Deductive reasoning, Delayed puberty, Developmental biology, Developmental psychology, Divorce, Dopamine, Driving under the influence, Dual systems model, Eating disorder, Egocentrism, Ejaculation, Emancipation of minors, Emerging adulthood and early adulthood, Ephebiphobia, Ephebophilia, Epiphysis, Erik Erikson, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Estrogen, Ethnocentrism, Evolutionary psychology, Executive functions, Extinction (psychology), Facial hair, Fallibilism, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, G. Stanley Hall, Gay, Gender identity, Glen Elder (sociologist), Glutamic acid, Gonad, Great Depression, Grey matter, Gynecomastia, Heredity, Herpes simplex, Heteronormativity, Hip, HIV/AIDS, Homosexuality, Hormone, Human behavior, Human development (biology), Human height, Human papillomavirus infection, Identity crisis, Identity formation, Imaginary audience, Infantilization, Information processing, Intelligence quotient, Internet café, Interpersonal relationship, Intimate partner violence, Intimate relationship, Introspection, Ivan Pavlov, Jean Macfarlane, Jean Piaget, Jeremy Griffith, Jock (stereotype), John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Early Adolescence, Juvenile delinquency, Kaiser Family Foundation, Laptop, Legal working age, Lesbian, LGBT, Life course approach, Limbic system, List of countries by suicide rate, Long-term memory, Margaret Mead, Marriageable age, McGraw-Hill Education, MDMA, MedlinePlus, Menarche, Merriam-Webster, Metacognition, Military, Minor (law), Moustache, MSNBC, Muscle, Myelin, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Nature versus nurture, Nerd, Neuroscience, Neurotransmitter, Obesity, Oslo, Osteoporosis, Paleolithic, Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Paternalism, PBS, Peer group, Peer pressure, Personal fable, Pituitary gland, Popular culture, Pornography, Preadolescence, Precocious puberty, Prefrontal cortex, Prescription drug, Prostate, Prostitution, Psychodynamics, Psychology, Psychology Today, Puberty, Public humiliation, Questioning (sexuality and gender), Quinceañera, Rave, Recapitulation theory, Relational aggression, Respiratory system, Right to privacy, Risky sexual behavior, Rite of passage, Robert Epstein, Routledge, SAGE Publications, Sarcasm, School-leaving age, Scientific American, Secondary sex characteristic, Self-consciousness, Self-esteem, Seminal vesicle, Sensation seeking, Serotonin, Sex education, Sex organ, Sex steroid, Sexual identity, Sexual intercourse, Sexual maturity, Sexual orientation, Sexually transmitted infection, Social anxiety, Social change, Social rejection, Spermarche, Student, Student voice, Substance abuse, Suitable age and discretion, Sweet sixteen (birthday), Synaptic pruning, Tanner scale, Teenage pregnancy, Testosterone, Theory of mind, Thyroid hormones, Timeline of young people's rights in the United Kingdom, Timeline of young people's rights in the United States, Trait theory, Transgender youth, United Kingdom, United States Department of Health and Human Services, University, University of California, Berkeley, University of Michigan, Uzbekistan, Voting age, White matter, Wisdom, Working memory, World War II, YouGov, Young adult (psychology), Young worker safety and health, Youth, Youth culture. Expand index (192 more) »

Abstinence-only sex education

Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education that teaches not having sex outside of marriage.

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Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.

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Adam's apple

The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.

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Adolescent cliques

Adolescent cliques are cliques that develop amongst adolescents.

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Adolescent medicine

Adolescent medicine or hebiatrics is a medical subspecialty that focuses on care of patients who are in the adolescent period of development, generally ranging from the last years of elementary school until graduation from high school (some doctors in this subspecialty treat young adults attending college at area clinics, in the subfield of college health).

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Adolescent sexuality

Adolescent sexuality is a stage of human development in which adolescents experience and explore sexual feelings.

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Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

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Age of consent

The age of consent is the age below which a minor is considered to be legally incompetent to consent to sexual acts.

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Age of majority

The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.

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Agency (philosophy)

Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Allowance (money)

An allowance is an amount of money given or allotted usually at regular intervals for a specific purpose.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.

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Anna Freud

Anna Freud (3 December 1895 – 9 October 1982) was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst.

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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.

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An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Bar and Bat Mitzvah

Bar Mitzvah (בַּר מִצְוָה) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys.

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Behavioral medicine

Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness.

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Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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Big Five personality traits

The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five factor model (FFM), is a taxonomy for personality traits.

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Body image

Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.

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Bulbourethral gland

A bulbourethral gland, also called a Cowper's gland for English anatomist William Cowper, is one of two small exocrine glands in the reproductive system of many male mammals (of all domesticated animals, they are only absent in the dog).

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

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Casual sex

Casual sex is sexual activity that takes places outside a romantic relationship and implies an absence of commitment, emotional attachment, or familiarity between sexual partners.

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Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Channel 4

Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.

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Child custody

Child custody and legal guardianship are legal terms which are used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent or guardian and a child in that person's care, such as the right to make decisions on behalf of a child and the duty to care for and support the child.

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Child labour

Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.

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Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.

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Children and adolescents in the United States

Children and adolescents in the United States can be regarded as one age group in the demographics of the United States.

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A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

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A clique (AusE, CanE, or), in the social sciences, is a group of individuals who interact with one another and share similar interests.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive development

Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.

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Cognitive dissonance

In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values.

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Coming out

Coming out of the closet, or simply coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity.

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Comprehensive sex education

Comprehensive sex education (CSE) is a sex education instruction method based on-curriculum that aims to give students the knowledge, attitudes, skills and values to make appropriate and healthy choices in their sexual lives.

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Compulsory education

Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.

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In Christianity, confirmation is seen as the sealing of Christianity created in baptism.

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Constructivism (philosophy of education)

Constructivism is a philosophical viewpoint about the nature of knowledge.

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Corpus callosum

The corpus callosum (Latin for "tough body"), also callosal commissure, is a wide commissure, a flat bundle of commissural fibers, about 10 cm long beneath the cerebral cortex in the brains of placental mammals.

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Correlation does not imply causation

In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.

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The cotillion (also cotillon or "French country dance") is a social dance, popular in 18th-century Europe and America.

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Critical phenomena

In physics, critical phenomena is the collective name associated with the physics of critical points.

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Crowds (adolescence)

Crowds are large groups of adolescents defined by their shared image and reputation.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means.

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Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

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Dating violence

Dating abuse or dating violence is defined as the perpetration or threat of an act of violence by at least one member of an unmarried couple on the other member within the context of dating or courtship.

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A debutante or deb (from the French débutante, "female beginner") is a girl or young woman of an aristocratic or upper-class family who has reached maturity and, as a new adult, comes out into society at a formal "debut".

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In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

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Delayed puberty

Delayed puberty is described as delayed puberty with exceptions when an organism has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Developmental psychology

Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.

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Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Driving under the influence

Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.

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Dual systems model

The dual systems model, also known as the maturational imbalance model, is a theory arising from developmental cognitive neuroscience which posits that increased risk-taking during adolescence is a result of a combination of heightened reward sensitivity and immature impulse control.

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Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.

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Egocentrism is the inability to differentiate between self and other.

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Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.

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Emancipation of minors

Emancipation of minors is a legal mechanism by which a minor is freed from control by their parents or guardians, and the parents or guardians are freed from any and all responsibility toward the child.

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Emerging adulthood and early adulthood

Emerging adulthood is a phase of the life span between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood which encompasses late adolescence and early adulthood, proposed by Jeffrey Arnett in a 2000 article in the American Psychologist.

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Ephebiphobia is the fear of youth.

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Ephebophilia is the primary sexual interest in mid-to-late adolescents, generally ages 15 to 19.

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The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone, at its joint with adjacent bone(s).

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Erik Erikson

Erik Homberger Erikson (born Erik Salomonsen; 15 June 1902 – 12 May 1994) was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings.

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Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated in the second half of the 20th century by Erik Erikson, in collaboration with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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Executive functions

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.

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Extinction (psychology)

Extinction is observed in both operantly conditioned and classically conditioned behavior.

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Facial hair

Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region.

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Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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G. Stanley Hall

Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1846 – April 24, 1924) was a pioneering American psychologist and educator.

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Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual.

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Gender identity

Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.

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Glen Elder (sociologist)

Glen Holl Elder, Jr., (28 February 1934 in Cleveland, Ohio) is the Howard W. Odum Research Professor of Sociology (emeritus), a research professor of Psychology and a current professor at the Carolina Population Center all at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.

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Heteronormativity is the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (male and female) with natural roles in life.

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In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"Latin coxa was used by Celsus in the sense "hip", but by Pliny the Elder in the sense "hip bone" (Diab, p 77) in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human behavior

Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.

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Human development (biology)

Human development is the process of growing to maturity.

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Human height

Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.

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Human papillomavirus infection

Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).

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Identity crisis

In psychology, the term identity crisis means the failure to achieve ego identity during adolescence.

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Identity formation

Identity formation, also known as individuation, is the development of the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity (known as personal continuity) in a particular stage of life in which individual characteristics are possessed and by which a person is recognized or known (such as the establishment of a reputation).

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Imaginary audience

The imaginary audience refers to a state where an individual imagines and believes that multitudes of people are enthusiastically listening to or watching him or her.

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Infantilization is the prolonged treatment of one who has a mental capacity greater than that of a child as though he or she is a child.

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Information processing

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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Internet café

An Internet café, also known as a cybercafé, is a place which provides Internet access to the public, usually for a fee.

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Interpersonal relationship

An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

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Intimate partner violence

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner.

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Intimate relationship

An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy.

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Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.

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Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

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Jean Macfarlane

Jean Walker Macfarlane (1894–1989) was an American psychologist.

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Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.

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Jeremy Griffith

Jeremy Griffith (born 1945) is an Australian biologist and author on the subject of the human condition.

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Jock (stereotype)

In the United States and Canada, a jock is a stereotype of an athlete, or someone who is primarily interested in sports and sports culture, and does not take much interest in intellectual culture.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Journal of Early Adolescence

The Journal of Early Adolescence is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Psychology.

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Juvenile delinquency

Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles, i.e. individuals younger than the statutory age of majority).

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Kaiser Family Foundation

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, or just Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), is an American non-profit organization, headquartered in San Francisco, California.

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A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.

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Legal working age

The legal working age is the minimum age required by law for a person to work, in each country or jurisdiction.

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A lesbian is a homosexual woman.

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LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

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Life course approach

The life course approach, also known as the life course perspective or life course theory, refers to an approach developed in the 1960s for analyzing people's lives within structural, social, and cultural contexts.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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List of countries by suicide rate

The following is a list of suicide rates by country according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other sources.

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Long-term memory

Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

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Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s.

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Marriageable age

Marriageable age (or marriage age) is the minimum age at which a person is allowed by law to marry, either as a right or subject to parental or other forms of consent.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.

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MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine.

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Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills.

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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Minor (law)

In law, a minor is a person under a certain age, usually the age of majority, which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood.

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A moustache (mustache) is facial hair grown on the upper lip.

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MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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National Institute on Drug Abuse

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is a United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to "lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction." The institute has conducted an in-depth study of addiction according to its biological, behavioral and social components.

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Nature versus nurture

The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.

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A nerd is a person seen as overly intellectual, obsessive, introvert or lacking social skills.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Palo Alto Medical Foundation

The Palo Alto Medical Foundation for Health Care, Research and Education (PAMF) is a not-for-profit health care organization with medical offices in more than 15 cities in the Bay Area.

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Paternalism is action limiting a person's or group's liberty or autonomy which is intended to promote their own good.

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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Peer group

In sociology, a peer group is both a social group and a primary group of people who have similar interests (homophily), age, background, or social status.

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Peer pressure

Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.

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Personal fable

According to Alberts, Elkind, and Ginsberg the personal fable "is the corollary to the imaginary audience.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.

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Preadolescence, also known as pre-teen or tween, is a stage of human development following early childhood and preceding adolescence.

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Precocious puberty

In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Prescription drug

A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.

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The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.

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Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.

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Psychodynamics, also known as psychodynamic psychology, in its broadest sense, is an approach to psychology that emphasizes systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychology Today

Psychology Today is a magazine published every two months in the United States since 1967.

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Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.

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Public humiliation

Public humiliation is the dishonoring showcase of a person, usually an offender or a prisoner, especially in a public place.

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Questioning (sexuality and gender)

The questioning of one's gender, sexual identity, sexual orientation, or all threeWebber, Carlisle K. (2010).

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The fiesta de quince años (also fiesta de quinceañera, quince años and quince) is a celebration of a girl's 15th birthday.

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A rave (from the verb: to rave) is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance music.

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Recapitulation theory

The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism—often expressed using Ernst Haeckel's phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"—is a historical hypothesis that the development of the embryo of an animal, from fertilization to gestation or hatching (ontogeny), goes through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of the animal's remote ancestors (phylogeny).

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Relational aggression

Relational aggression or alternative aggressionSimmons, Rachel (2002).

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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Right to privacy

The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental and private actions that threaten the privacy of individuals.

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Risky sexual behavior

Risky sexual behavior is the description of the activity that will increase the probability that a person engaging in sexual activity with another person infected with a sexually transmitted infection will be infected or become pregnant, or make a partner pregnant.

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Rite of passage

A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.

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Robert Epstein

Robert Epstein (born June 19, 1953) is an American psychologist, professor, author, and journalist.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Sarcasm is "a sharp, bitter, or cutting expression or remark; a bitter gibe or taunt".

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School-leaving age

The school leaving age is the minimum age a person is legally allowed to cease attendance at an institute of compulsory secondary education.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Secondary sex characteristic

Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.

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Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of self-awareness.

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Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.

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Seminal vesicle

The seminal vesicles (glandulae vesiculosae), vesicular glands, or seminal glands, are a pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of some male mammals.

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Sensation seeking

Sensation seeking is a personality trait defined by the search for experiences and feelings, that are "varied, novel, complex and intense", and by the readiness to "take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experiences." Risk is not an essential part of the trait, as many activities associated with it are not risky.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sex education

Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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Sex steroid

Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.

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Sexual identity

Sexual identity is how one thinks of oneself in terms of to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Sexual maturity

Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.

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Sexual orientation

Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.

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Sexually transmitted infection

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

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Social anxiety

Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations.

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Social change

Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.

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Social rejection

Social rejection occurs when an individual is deliberately excluded from a social relationship or social interaction.

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Spermarche—also known as semenarche—is the beginning of development of sperm in boys' testicles at puberty.

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A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.

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Student voice

Student voice is "any expression of any learner regarding anything related to education" and describes "the distinct perspectives and actions of young people throughout schools focused on education.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Suitable age and discretion

Suitable age and discretion is both a legal definition of maturity,Temple v. Norris, 55 N.W. 133, 133–134 (Minn. 1893), found at.

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Sweet sixteen (birthday)

A sweet sixteen is a coming of age party celebrating a teenager's 16th birthday.

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Synaptic pruning

Synaptic pruning, which includes both axon and dendrite pruning, is the process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and the onset of puberty in many mammals, including humans.

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Tanner scale

The Tanner scale (also known as the Tanner stages) is a scale of physical development in children, adolescents and adults.

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Teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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Theory of mind

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Timeline of young people's rights in the United Kingdom

The timeline of children's rights in the United Kingdom includes a variety of events that are both political and grassroots in nature.

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Timeline of young people's rights in the United States

The timeline of young peoples' rights in the United States, including children and youth rights, includes a variety of events ranging from youth activism to mass demonstrations.

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Trait theory

In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.

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Transgender youth

Transgender youth are children and adolescents who are transgender and/or transsexual.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Voting age

A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain before they become eligible to vote in a public election.

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.

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Working memory

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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YouGov is an international Internet-based market research and data analytics firm, headquartered in the UK, with operations in Europe, North America, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific.

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Young adult (psychology)

A young adult is generally a person ranging in age from their late teens or early twenties to their thirties, although definitions and opinions, such as Erik Erikson's stages of human development, vary.

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Young worker safety and health

Around the world, nearly 250 million children, about one in every six children, ages 5 through 17, are involved in child labor.

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Youth is the time of life when one is young, and often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity).

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Youth culture

Youth culture is the way adolescents live, and the norms, values, and practices they share.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescence

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