534 relations: A History of US, Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, Adolf Hitler and vegetarianism, Adventism, Aktion T4, Alan Bullock, Albert Forster, Albert Speer, Alexander the Great, Alfons Heck, Alfred Hugenberg, Alfred Jodl, Alfred Rosenberg, Algis Budrys, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Alois Hitler, Amphetamine, Amphibious warfare, Angela Hitler, Anglo-German Naval Agreement, Anglo-Iraqi War, Anschluss, Anti-capitalism, Anti-clericalism, Anti-Comintern Pact, Anti-communism, Antisemitic canard, Antisemitism, Anton Drexler, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Arms race, Army Detachment Steiner, Army Group Centre, Army Group Vistula, Arthur Greiser, Arthur Schopenhauer, Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, Article 48 (Weimar Constitution), Atherosclerosis, Atropa belladonna, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Aufbau Vereinigung, August Kubizek, Auschwitz concentration camp, Austria-Hungary, Austrian German, Austro-Hungarian Army, Authoritarianism, Autobahn, ..., Autocracy, Axis powers, Édouard Daladier, Balkans, Ballantine Books, Baltic region, Barbiturate, Battle of Arras (1917), Battle of Belgium, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Britain, Battle of Crete, Battle of France, Battle of Greece, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of Smolensk (1941), Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Netherlands, Battle of the Seelow Heights, Battle of the Somme, Bavarian Army, Bavarian language, Bürgerbräukeller, BBC, Beelitz, Beer Hall Putsch, Belarus, Benito Mussolini, Berchtesgaden, Berghof (residence), Berlin, Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Blomberg–Fritsch affair, Blondi, Bloodlands, Bohemia, Bohemianism, Bolsheviks, Borderline personality disorder, Braunau am Inn, Breast cancer, British and French declaration of war on Germany, Bulgaria, Bundesrealgymnasium Linz Fadingerstraße, Calvin College, Centre Party (Germany), Chancellor of Germany, Charismatic authority, Charles Darwin, Chiang Kai-shek, Child euthanasia in Nazi Germany, Claus von Stauffenberg, Clemson University, Cocaine, Cold War, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, Commonwealth of Nations, Communist Party of Germany, Coventry, Crowd manipulation, Cult of personality, Cutaneous condition, Cyanide, Czechoslovakia, Düsseldorf, Death of Adolf Hitler, Death of Benito Mussolini, Defamation, Demagogue, Demilitarisation, Democide, Deutschlandlied, Dictator, Dietrich Eckart, Dietrich Klagges, Doktor Koster's Antigaspills, Dunkirk evacuation, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Front (World War II), Edvard Beneš, Einsatzgruppen, Elbe, Empire of Japan, Enabling Act of 1933, Erich Ludendorff, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Ernst Röhm, Ernst-Günther Schenck, Ethnic cleansing, European theatre of World War II, Euthanasia, Eva Braun, Evil, Explaining Hitler, F&W Media International, Fall Grün (Czechoslovakia), Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, Fall Weiss (1939), Führer, Führer Headquarters, Führerbunker, Führermuseum, Führerprinzip, Fecal incontinence, Federal Foreign Office, Felix Steiner, Ferdinand Schörner, Field marshal, First Battle of Ypres, Fischlham, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, Four Year Plan, Fournes-en-Weppes, Francisco Franco, Franklin D. 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Waite, Roger Moorhouse, Romani genocide, Royal Air Force, Rudolf Hess, Runner (soldier), Saar status referendum, 1935, Saarbrücken, Saarland, Saburō Kurusu, Sacraments of the Catholic Church, Saint Petersburg, Salient (military), Salzburg, Scapegoat, Schutzstaffel, Scorched earth, Sebastian Haffner, Second Battle of El Alamein, Sino-German cooperation (1926–1941), Slavs, SMERSH, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Soldier, Soong Mei-ling, Spanish Civil War, Stab-in-the-back myth, Stars and Stripes (newspaper), State of emergency, Statelessness, Steyr, Stunde Null, Sturmabteilung, Sudeten German Party, Sudeten Germans, Sudetenland, Suez Canal, Sulfur mustard, Survival of the fittest, Swastika, Syphilis, Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht, Telegraph Media Group, The Blitz, The Bunker (book), The Daily Telegraph, The Globe and Mail, The Guardian, The Historical Journal, The Holocaust, The Journal of Modern History, The Mind of Adolf Hitler, The Nazis: A Warning from History, The Psychopathic God, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Third Reich Trilogy, The Victory of Faith, Theodor Morell, Thule Society, Time (magazine), Time Person of the Year, Tinnitus, Toothbrush moustache, Total war, Totalitarianism, Traudl Junge, Treaty of Versailles, Tripartite Pact, Triumph of the Will, Ukraine, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Untermensch, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Vienna, Volksgemeinschaft, Volksschule, Vyacheslav Molotov, W. W. Norton & Company, Wall Street Crash of 1929, Walter Charles Langer, Walther von Brauchitsch, Wannsee Conference, Wehrmacht, Weimar Republic, Werner von Blomberg, Werner von Fritsch, Western Bloc, Western Front (World War I), White émigré, Wilhelm Burgdorf, Wilhelm Frick, Wilhelm Keitel, Wilhelmshaven, William L. Shirer, Winston Churchill, Wolf's Lair, World Disarmament Conference, World War I, Wound Badge, Yad Vashem, Yehuda Bauer, 1936 Summer Olympics, 1936 Winter Olympics, 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony, 1st Belorussian Front, 20 July plot, 6th Army (Wehrmacht), 6th Bavarian Reserve Division, 9th Army (Wehrmacht). Expand index (484 more) » « Shrink index
A History of US is a ten-volume (and one sourcebook) historical book series for children, written by Joy Hakim and first published in its entirety in 1995.
The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (Akademie der bildenden Künste Wien) is a public art school of higher education in Vienna, Austria.
Towards the end of his life, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) followed a vegetarian diet.
Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.
Aktion T4 (German) was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.
Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock, (13 December 1914 – 2 February 2004) was a British historian.
Albert Maria Forster (26 July 1902 – 28 February 1952) was a Nazi German politician and war criminal.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alfons Heck (3 November 1928 – 12 April 2005) was a Hitler Youth member who eventually became a Hitler Youth Officer and a fanatical adherent of Nazism during the Third Reich.
Alfred Ernst Christian Alexander Hugenberg (19 June 1865 – 12 March 1951) was an influential German businessman and politician.
Alfred Josef Ferdinand Jodl (10 May 1890 – 16 October 1946) was a German general during World War II, who served as the Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht).
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Algirdas Jonas "Algis" Budrys (January 9, 1931 – June 9, 2008) was a Lithuanian-American science fiction author, editor, and critic.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alois J. Hitler Sr. (born Alois Johann Schicklgruber; 7 June 1837 – 3 January 1903) was an Austrian civil servant and the father of German dictator and leader of the Nazi Party, Adolf Hitler.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Angela Franziska Johanna Hammitzsch (née Hitler; 28 July 1883 – 30 October 1949) was the elder half-sister of Adolf Hitler.
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 18 June 1935 was a naval agreement between the United Kingdom and Germany regulating the size of the Kriegsmarine in relation to the Royal Navy.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Antisemitic canards are unfounded rumors or false allegations which are defamatory towards Judaism as a religion, or defamatory towards Jews as an ethnic or religious group.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Anton Drexler (13 June 1884 – 24 February 1942) was a German far-right political leader of the 1920s who was instrumental in the formation of the pan-German and anti-Semitic German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP), the antecedent of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP).
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces.
Army Detachment Steiner (Armeeabteilung Steiner) was a temporary military unit, something more than a corps but less than an army, created on paper by German dictator Adolf Hitler on 21 April 1945 during the Battle of Berlin, and placed under the command of SS-Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner.
Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
Army Group Vistula was an Army Group of the Wehrmacht, formed on 24 January 1945.
Arthur Karl Greiser (22 January 1897 – 21 July 1946) was a Nazi German politician, SS-Obergruppenführer and Reichsstatthalter (Reich Governor) of the German-occupied territory of Wartheland.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Article 231, often known as the War Guilt Clause, was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.
Article 48 of the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) allowed the President, under certain circumstances, to take emergency measures without the prior consent of the Reichstag.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
Atropa belladonna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the nightshade family Solanaceae, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, and aubergine.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
The Aufbau Vereinigung (Reconstruction Organisation) was a Munich-based counterrevolutionary conspiratorial group formed in the aftermath of the German occupation of the Ukraine in 1918 and of the Latvian Intervention of 1919.
August ("Gustl") Kubizek (3 August 1888 – 23 October 1956) was an Austrian man best known for being a close friend of Adolf Hitler, when both were in their late teens.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Austrian German (Österreichisches Deutsch), Austrian Standard German, Standard Austrian German (Österreichisches Standarddeutsch) or Austrian High German (Österreichisches Hochdeutsch), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The Autobahn (plural) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Édouard Daladier (18 June 1884 – 10 October 1970) was a French "radical" (i.e. centre-left) politician and the Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.
The Battle of Belgium or Belgian Campaign, often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (Campagne des 18 jours, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an offensive campaign by Germany during the Second World War.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The First Battle of Smolensk (Kesselschlacht bei Smolensk ("Cauldron-battle) of Smolensk)";, Smolenskaya strategicheskaya oboronitelnaya operatsiya, "Smolensk strategic defensive operation") was a battle during the second phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, in World War II. It was fought around the city of Smolensk between 10 July and 10 September 1941, about west of Moscow. The Wehrmacht had advanced into the USSR in the 18 days after the invasion on 22 June 1941. During the battle the German Army encountered unexpected resistance, leading to a two-month delay in their advance on Moscow. Three Soviet armies (the 16th, 19th and the 20th army) were encircled and destroyed just to the south of Smolensk, though significant numbers from the 19th and 20th armies managed to escape the pocket. Some historians have asserted that the losses of men and materiel incurred by the Wehrmacht during this drawn-out battle and the delay in the drive towards Moscow led to the defeat of the Wehrmacht by the Red Army in the Battle of Moscow of December 1941.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was a military campaign part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
The Battle of the Seelow Heights (Schlacht um die Seelower Höhen) was part of the Seelow-Berlin Offensive Operation (16 April-2 May 1945).
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British Empire and France against the German Empire.
The Bavarian Army was the army of the Electorate (1682–1806) and then Kingdom (1806–1919) of Bavaria.
Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.
The Bürgerbräukeller was a large beer hall in Munich, Germany.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Beelitz is a historic town in Potsdam-Mittelmark district, in Brandenburg, Germany.
The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Berchtesgaden is a municipality in the Bavarian Alps of southeastern Germany.
The Berghof was Adolf Hitler's home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, Germany.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Berlin: The Downfall 1945 (also known as The Fall of Berlin 1945 in the US) is a narrative history by Antony Beevor of the Battle of Berlin during World War II.
The Blomberg–Fritsch affair, also known as the Blomberg–Fritsch crisis (German: Blomberg–Fritsch–Krise), was two related scandals in early 1938 that resulted in the subjugation of the German Armed Forces (Wehrmacht) to dictator Adolf Hitler.
Blondi (1941 – 29 April 1945) was Adolf Hitler's German Shepherd, a gift as a puppy from Martin Bormann in 1941.
Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin is a book by Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, first published by Basic Books on October 28, 2010.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
(German for Braunau on the Inn) is a town in Upper Austria.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
The Declaration of war by France and the United Kingdom was given on 3 September 1939, after German forces invaded Poland.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bundesrealgymnasium Linz Fadingerstraße (Fadingergymnasium) is a general secondary school in the inner city of Linz, Austria.
Calvin College is a liberal arts college located in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Charismatic authority is a concept about leadership that was developed in 1922 (he died in 1920) by the German sociologist Max Weber.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
Child Euthanasia (Kinder-Euthanasie) was the name given to the organised murder of severely mentally and physically handicapped children and young people up to 16 years old during the Nazi era in over 30 so-called special children's wards.
Claus Philipp Maria Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer and member of the Bavarian noble family von Stauffenberg, who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power.
Clemson University is an American public, coeducational, land-grant and sea-grant research university in Clemson, South Carolina.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
Crowd manipulation is the intentional use of techniques based on the principles of crowd psychology to engage, control, or influence the desires of a crowd in order to direct its behavior toward a specific action.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The death of Benito Mussolini, the deposed Italian fascist dictator, occurred on 28 April 1945, in the final days of World War II in Europe, when he was summarily executed by Italian partisans in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra in northern Italy.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
A demagogue (from Greek δημαγωγός, a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from δῆμος, people, populace, the commons + ἀγωγός leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a leader in a democracy who gains popularity by exploiting prejudice and ignorance among the common people, whipping up the passions of the crowd and shutting down reasoned deliberation.
Demilitarisation or demilitarization may mean the reduction of state armed forces.
Democide is a term proposed by R. J. Rummel, who defined it as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command".
The "italic" (English: "Song of Germany",; also known as "italic", or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany since 1922, except in East Germany, whose anthem was "Auferstanden aus Ruinen" ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
Dietrich Eckart (23 March 1868 – 26 December 1923) was a German journalist, playwright, poet, and politician who was one of the founders of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party - DAP), which later evolved into the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Dietrich Klagges (1 February 1891 in Herringsen, now part of Bad Sassendorf – 12 November 1971 in Bad Harzburg) was a National Socialist politician and from 1933 to 1945 the appointed premier (Ministerpräsident) of the now abolished state of Braunschweig.
Doktor Koster's Antigaspills were an early 20th century alternative medication intended to treat stomach upset and excessive flatulence.
The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet—in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler—the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstaengl (2 February 1887 – 6 November 1975) was a German-American businessman and intimate friend of Adolf Hitler.
Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (28 November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German military officer and an early member of the Nazi Party.
Ernst-Günther Schenck (3 October 1904 – 21 December 1998) was a German doctor and member of the SS in Nazi Germany.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Eva Anna Paula Hitler (née Braun; 6 February 1912 – 30 April 1945) was the longtime companion of Adolf Hitler and, for less than 40 hours, his wife.
Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.
Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil is a 1998 book by historian-journalist Ron Rosenbaum, which tells of Rosenbaum's struggles with the "exceptionalist" character of Adolf Hitler's personality and impact on the world or, worse from his point of view, his struggle with the possibility that Hitler is not an exception at all, but on the natural continuum of human destructive possibility.
F&W Media International Limited, formerly known as David & Charles Publishers (also styled as David and Charles), is a publisher of illustrated non-fiction books, eBooks, digital products, craft patterns and online education courses.
Fall Grün (English: "Case Green") was a German plan for an aggressive war against Czechoslovakia before World War II.
The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
Fall Weiss ("Case White", "Plan White"; German spelling Fall Weiß) was the Nazi strategic plan for the invasion of Poland.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Führer Headquarters (Führerhauptquartiere in German), abbreviated FHQ, is a common name for a number of official headquarters used by the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and various German commanders and officials throughout Europe during the Second World War.
The Führerbunker was an air raid shelter located near the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany.
The Führermuseum (English, Leader's Museum), also referred to as the Linz art gallery, was an unrealized art museum within a cultural complex planned by Adolf Hitler for his hometown, the Austrian city of Linz, near his birthplace of Braunau.
The Führerprinzip (German for "leader principle") prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the governmental structures of the Third Reich.
Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.
The Federal Foreign Office (German), abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign policy and its relationship with the European Union.
Felix Martin Julius Steiner (23 May 1896 – 12 May 1966) was a German SS commander during the Nazi era.
Ferdinand Schörner (12 June 1892 – 2 July 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914.
Fischlham is a municipality in the district of Wels-Land in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.
The use of forced labour and slavery in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
The Four Year Plan was a series of economic measures initiated by Adolf Hitler, who put Hermann Göring in charge of them.
Fournes-en-Weppes is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Franz Pfeffer von Salomon (19 February 1888 in Düsseldorf – 12 April 1968 in Munich), also known as Franz von Pfeffer, was the first commander of the SA upon its re-establishment in 1925, following its temporary abolition in 1923 after the abortive Beer Hall Putsch.
Franz von Papen (29 October 18792 May 1969) was a German nobleman, General Staff officer and politician.
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.
The Free State of Brunswick was a state of the German Reich in the time of the Weimar Republic.
Friedrich Meinecke (October 20, 1862 – February 6, 1954) was a German historian, with Liberal and anti-semitic views.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a ski town in Bavaria, southern Germany.
The Garrison Church (full name: Court and Garrison Church Potsdam, German: was a Protestant Baroque church in Potsdam. It was a parish church of the Prussian royal family until 1918. Originally built as a Calvinist church for Prussian monarchs, it became a United Protestant church with both Calvinist and Lutheran participation after the Prussian Union of Churches in 1817. The architect Philipp Gerlach was commissioned by king Friedrich Wilhelm I. to build the church for members of the court and for the soldiers garrisoned in Potsdam. It was consecrated on August 17, 1732 and was soon well-attended by both the civilian and military communities. Friedrich Wilhelm I was buried at his request in the crypt of the church in 1740. In 1786 his son, Frederick the Great, was buried there also, but against his will. History can hardly happen in a more compact form than here: Both Czar Alexander I and Napoleon visited Frederick II's grave. It was here that the first freely-elected Potsdam City Parliament met and the Lutheran and Reformed Churches celebrated their union. The Nazis used the church for their Day of Potsdam, and many members of the 20th July conspiracy and their families worshiped there. The nave and bell tower were destroyed by fire during an air raid in the night from April 14 to April 15, 1945. Only the outside walls remained standing. In 1950 the Holy Cross Chapel was built within the cruciform walls of the bell tower. A new congregation met there for services until on a summer Sunday in 1968, the GDR head of state Walter Ulbricht and his Communist Party ignored widespread protests and ordered the remaining walls left standing to be torn down. In its place, in 1971 a Computing Center was built. The remaining empty space continues to demand an important community effort to rectify. The Garnisonkirche is a monument of national importance; a place of learning, a workshop for the advancement of freedom an reconciliation and today should be a city symbol. Since 2004 it belongs to the International Community of the Cross of Nails (founded in Dresden, Germany in February 1991). In 2004 a group of highly motivated citizens formed the Promotion Committee for the Reconstruction of the Garrison Church, a non-profit organization. In June 2008 followed the Garnisonkirche Potsdam foundation. Both organizations work together for the reconstruction of the Garrison church Potsdam not only as a parish church for its citizens but also as a reminder that future German-European cooperation is possible and essential. In 2013 the German National Committee for Cultural an Media Affairs named the Garrison church Potsdam an important cultural monument and offered 12 million Euro towards the funding of its reconstruction.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
A Gauleiter was the party leader of a regional branch of the NSDAP (more commonly known as the Nazi Party) or the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau.
Gefreiter (abbr. Gefr.) is a German, Swiss and Austrian military rank that has existed since the 16th century.
Angela Maria "Geli" Raubal (4 June 1908 – 18 September 1931) was Adolf Hitler's half-niece.
The Gemlich letter refers to a letter written by Adolf Hitler at the behest of Karl Mayr to Adolf Gemlich, a German army soldier.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Georg Ritter von Schönerer (17 July 1842 – 14 August 1921) was an Austrian landowner and politician of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born 1 January 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War II.
On 11 December 1941, four days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States declaration of war against the Japanese Empire, Nazi Germany declared war against the United States, in response to what was claimed to be a series of provocations by the United States government when the US was still officially neutral during World War II.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 20 May 1928.
The German federal election occurred on 14 September 1930.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 7 December 1924, the second that year.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 31 July 1932, following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 5 March 1933, after the Nazi seizure of power and just six days after the Reichstag fire.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 4 May 1924.
Federal elections were held in Germany on 6 November 1932.
The German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront,; DAF) was the National Socialist labour organisation which replaced the various independent trade unions in Germany after Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
The German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II began in May 1940 after the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg was invaded by Nazi Germany.
The 1932 German presidential elections were held on 13 March (first round) and 10 April (second round run-off).
A referendum was held in Germany on 22 December 1929.
A referendum on merging the posts of Chancellor and President was held in Germany on 19 August 1934,D. Nohlen and P. Stöver (2010), Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook, p. 762,.
The German Socialist Party (German: Deutschsozialistische Partei, DSP) was a short-lived German nationalist, far-right party during the early years of the Weimar Republic.
The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, DAP) was a short-lived political party established in Weimar Germany after World War I. It was the precursor of the Nazi Party, which was officially known as the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP).
The German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact (Deutsch-polnischer Nichtangriffspakt; Polsko-niemiecki pakt o nieagresji) was an international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic, signed on January 26, 1934.
Germania, in full Welthauptstadt Germania ("World Capital Germania") was the projected renewal of the German capital Berlin during the Nazi period, part of Adolf Hitler's vision for the future of Nazi Germany after the planned victory in World War II.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany and the Second World War (Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg) is a 12,000-page, 13-volume work published by the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA), that has taken academics from the military history centre of the German armed forces 30 years to finish.
Giant-cell arteritis (GCA), also called temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels.
The Goebbels children were the five daughters and one son born to Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magda Goebbels.
Gotthard Heinrici (25 December 1886 – 10 December 1971) was a German general during World War II.
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government.
The Grand Council of Fascism (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Greater Germanic Reich (Großgermanisches Reich), fully styled the Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation (Großgermanisch Reich der Deutschen Nation) is the official state name of the political entity that Nazi Germany tried to establish in Europe during World War II.
Gregor Strasser (also Straßer, see ß; 31 May 1892 – 30 June 1934) was an early prominent German Nazi official and politician who was murdered during the Night of the Long Knives in 1934.
Gustav Ritter von Kahr (29 November 1862 – 30 June 1934) was a German right-wing politician, active in the state of Bavaria.
Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon (7 May 1841 – 13 December 1931) was a French polymath whose areas of interest included anthropology, psychology, sociology, medicine, invention, and physics.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
Hans Krebs (4 March 1898 – 2 May 1945) was a German Army general of infantry who served during World War II.
Colonel Hans Ritter von Seisser (German Seißer; 9 December 1874 – 14 April 1973) was the head of the Bavarian State Police in 1923.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning (26 November 1885 – 30 March 1970) was a German Centre Party politician and academic, who served as Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.
Heinrich Held (6 June 1868 – 4 August 1938) was a German Catholic politician and Minister President of Bavaria.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Generalmajor Heinz Brandt (11 March 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German officer during World War II who served as an aide to General Adolf Heusinger, the head of the operations unit of the General Staff.
Hermann Esser (29 July 1900 – 7 February 1981) was a very early member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Hans Otto Georg Hermann Fegelein (30 October 1906 – 28 April 1945) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
The Hitler and Mannerheim recording is a voice recording of a private conversation between Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, and Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, Commander-in-Chief of the Finnish Defence Forces, during a secret visit honoring Mannerheim's 75th birthday on 4 June 1942 during the Continuation War.
The Hitler Cabinet de jure formed the government of Nazi Germany between 30 January 1933 and 30 April 1945 upon the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of the German Reich by president Paul von Hindenburg.
The Hitler family comprises the relatives and ancestors of Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, abbreviated NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party.
The term Hitler oath (German: Führereid or Eid auf den Führer, "Oath to the Leader") — also often referred to in English as simply the Soldier's Oath or Soldiers' Oath — refers to the oaths of allegiance, sworn by the officers and soldiers of the German Armed Forces and civil servants of Nazi Germany between the years 1934 and 1945.
The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.
"Hitler's Table Talk" (German: Tischgespräche im Führerhauptquartier) is the title given to a series of World War II monologues delivered by Adolf Hitler, which were transcribed from 1941 to 1944.
Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust is a 1996 book by American writer Daniel Goldhagen, in which he argues that the vast majority of ordinary Germans were "willing executioners" in the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist antisemitism" in the German political culture, which had developed in the preceding centuries.
Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German economist, banker, centre-right politician, and co-founder in 1918 of the German Democratic Party.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
Holocaust victims were people who were targeted by the government of Nazi Germany for various discriminatory practices due to their ethnicity, religion, political beliefs, or sexual orientation. These institutionalized practices came to be called The Holocaust, and they began with legalized social discrimination against specific groups, and involuntary hospitalization, euthanasia, and forced sterilization of those considered physically or mentally unfit for society. These practices escalated during World War II to include non-judicial incarceration, confiscation of property, forced labor, sexual slavery, medical experimentation, and death through overwork, undernourishment, and execution through a variety of methods, with the genocide of different groups as the primary goal. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), the country's official memorial to the Holocaust, "The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews and millions of others by the Nazis and their collaborators during World War II." Of those murdered for being Jewish, more than half were Ashkenazi Polish Jews.
Home front is the informal term for the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of their military.
The Hossbach Memorandum was the summary of a meeting on 5 November 1937 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership in which Hitler's future expansionist policies were outlined.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain (9 September 1855 – 9 January 1927) was a British-born German philosopher who wrote works about political philosophy and natural science; he is described by Michael D. Biddiss, a contributor to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, as a "racialist writer".
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.
Hugo Gutmann later known as Henry G. Grant (19 November 188022 June 1962) was a German Jewish soldier notable for being one of Adolf Hitler's superior officers in World War I, during which he recommended Hitler for the award of the Iron Cross.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Hunger Plan (der Hungerplan; der Backe-Plan) was a plan developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food from the Soviet Union and give it to German soldiers and civilians; the plan entailed the death by starvation of millions of so-called "racially inferior" Slavs following Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union.
Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany.
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children.
Inside the Third Reich (Erinnerungen, "Memories") is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945, serving as Adolf Hitler's main architect before this period.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
The Iron Cross (abbreviated EK) is a former military decoration in the Kingdom of Prussia, and later in the German Empire (1871–1918) and Nazi Germany (1933–1945).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Jewish Bolshevism, also Judeo–Bolshevism, is an anti-communist and antisemitic canard, which alleges that the Jews were the originators of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and that they held the primary power among the Bolsheviks.
The Jewish question was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Johann Georg Hiedler (baptised 28 February 1792 – 9 February 1857) was considered the officially accepted paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler by Nazi Germany.
Johann Nepomuceno Hiedler, also known as Johann Nepomuk Hüttler (19 March 1807 – 17 September 1888), was a maternal great-grandfather and possibly also the alleged paternal grandfather of Adolf Hitler.
John Morris "J.
John S. Conway (December 31, 1929 - June 23, 2017) was Professor Emeritus of History at the University of British Columbia.
John Willard Toland (June 29, 1912 – January 4, 2004) was an American writer and historian.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Julius Schaub (20 August 1898 – 27 December 1967) was the chief aide and adjutant to German dictator Adolf Hitler until the dictator's suicide on 30 April 1945.
Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz (sometimes spelled Doenitz;; 16 September 1891 24 December 1980) was a German admiral who played a major role in the naval history of World War II.
Karl Lueger (24 October 1844 – 10 March 1910) was an Austrian politician, mayor of Vienna, and leader and founder of the Austrian Christian Social Party.
Captain Karl Mayr (5 January 1883 in Mindelheim – 9 February 1945 in Buchenwald concentration camp) was a General Staff officer and Adolf Hitler's immediate superior in an army Intelligence Division in the Reichswehr, 1919–1920.
Karl Wilhelm Krause (5 March 1911 – 6 May 2001) was a Waffen-SS officer (SS number: 236,858) who rose to the rank of SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) during World War II.
Kętrzyn (Rastenburg; former Polish name: Rastembork), is a town in northeastern Poland with 28,351 inhabitants (2004).
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Klara Hitler (née Pölzl; 12 August 1860 – 21 December 1907) was the mother of Adolf Hitler.
Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein (6 May 1898 – 10 May 1945) was a leading Sudeten German politician in Czechoslovakia.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
The Kroll Opera House (Krolloper, Kroll-Oper) was an opera building in Berlin, Germany, located in the central Tiergarten district on the western edge of the Königsplatz square (today Platz der Republik), facing the Reichstag building.
Kurt Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann von Schleicher (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
Lambach is a market town in the Wels-Land district of the Austrian state of Upper Austria on the Ager and Traun Rivers.
Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about west of Munich and south of Augsburg.
The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was prompted by Hitler receiving a telegram from Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring asking for confirmation of Göring's succession, combined with news of Heinrich Himmler's attempted negotiations of surrender with the western Allies, and reports that Red Army troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery.
Laurence Rees (born 1957) is a British historian.
Holocaust denial, the denial of the systematic genocidal killing of approximately six million Jews in Europe by Nazi Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, is illegal in 16 European countries and Israel.
The Russian political term leaderism (вождизм, vozhdism) means "a policy directed at the affirmation/confirmation of one person in the role of an indisputable or infallible leader".
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") comprises policies and practices of settler colonialism which proliferated in Germany from the 1890s to the 1940s.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (22 August 1902 – 8 September 2003) was a German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer.
Leonding is a city southwest of Linz in the Austrian state of Upper Austria.
Linz (Linec) is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich).
Adolf Hitler, as Führer and Reich Chancellor and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Nazi Germany, employed a personal staff, which represented different branches and offices throughout his political career.
This is an incomplete list of documented, realized attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler.
This list of books by or about Adolf Hitler is an English only non-fiction bibliography.
This article lists the individuals who have been identified as senior officers of the Sturmabteilung (SA), a paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), between the years of 1920 and 1945.
This is a partial list of streets and squares named after Adolf Hitler during the era of Nazi Germany.
This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Lohengrin, WWV 75, is a Romantic opera in three acts composed and written by Richard Wagner, first performed in 1850.
Ludwig Kaas (23 May 1881 – 15 April 1952) was a German Roman Catholic priest and politician during the Weimar Republic.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Johanna Maria Magdalena "Magda" Goebbels (née Ritschel; 11 November 1901 – 1 May 1945) was the wife of Nazi Germany's Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Maria Anna Schicklgruber (15 April 1795 – 7 January 1847) was the mother of Alois Hitler, and the paternal grandmother of Adolf Hitler.
Mariahilf is the 6th municipal district of Vienna, Austria (German: 6. Bezirk).
Marinus (Rinus) van der Lubbe (13 January 1909 – 10 January 1934) was a Dutch council communist tried, convicted and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building on 27 February 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire.
Martin Bormann (17 June 1900 – 2 May 1945) was a prominent official in Nazi Germany as head of the Nazi Party Chancellery.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
A Mefo bill (sometimes written as MEFO bill), named after the company Metallurgische Forschungsgesellschaft (Metallurgical Research Corporation), was a promissory note used for a system of deferred payment to finance the German rearmament, devised as a legal fraud by the German Central Bank President, Hjalmar Schacht, in 1934.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
The men's dormitory on Meldemannstraße 27 in Brigittenau district, Vienna, Austria was a public dormitory for men (Männerwohnheim) from 1905 to 2003.
The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).
The military career of Adolf Hitler can be divided into two distinct portions of Adolf Hitler's life.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Hungary (Magyarország külügyminisztere) is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Ministry of War (Kriegsministerium) was a ministry for military affairs of the Kingdom of Bavaria, founded as Ministerium des Kriegswesens on October 1, 1808 by King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Morning dress is the formal dress code for day attire, consisting chiefly of, for men, a morning coat, waistcoat, and formal trousers, and an appropriate gown for women.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi architecture is the architecture promoted by the Third Reich from 1933 until its fall in 1945.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Crimes against the Polish nation committed by Nazi Germany and the collaborationist forces during the invasion of Poland, along with auxiliary battalions during the subsequent occupation of Poland in World War II, claimed the lives of 2.77 million Poles and 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews, according to estimates of the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN).
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Romani people, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nazism and race concerns the Nazi Party's adoption and further development of several hypotheses concerning their concept of race.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
The New Order (German: Neuordnung), or the New Order of Europe (German: Neuordnung Europas), was the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.
A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the High Command of the German Army during the Era of Nazi Germany.
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Olympia is a 1938 German documentary film written, directed and produced by Leni Riefenstahl, documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin, Germany.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.
Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany's code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War.
Operation Sonnenblume (Unternehmen Sonnenblume/Operation Sunflower) was the name given to the dispatch of German troops to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War.
Operation Valkyrie (Unternehmen Walküre) was a German World War II emergency continuity of government operations plan issued to the Territorial Reserve Army of Germany to execute and implement in case of a general breakdown in civil order of the nation.
Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party.
General Otto Hermann von Lossow (15 January 1868 – 25 November 1938) was a Bavarian Army and then German Army officer who played a prominent role in the events surrounding the attempted Beer Hall Putsch by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in November 1923.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany.
Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party in Germany in the years leading up to and during World War II, was also a painter.
Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
Pasewalk is a town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany.
Passau (') is a town in Lower Bavaria, Germany, also known as the Dreiflüssestadt ("City of Three Rivers") because the Danube is joined there by the Inn from the south and the Ilz from the north.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Paula Hitler (also known as Paula Wolff;. 21 January 1896 – 1 June 1960) was the younger sister of Adolf Hitler and the last child of Alois Hitler Sr. and his third wife, Klara Pölzl.
"Peace for our time" was a declaration made by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Neville Chamberlain in his 30 September 1938 speech concerning the Munich Agreement and the Anglo-German Declaration.
Pearl Harbor is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The People's Courts of Bavaria (Volksgerichte) were Sondergerichte (special courts) established by Kurt Eisner during the German Revolution in November 1918 and part of the Ordnungszelle that lasted until May 1924 after handing out more than 31,000 sentences.
A perforated eardrum or punctured eardrum is a rupture or perforation (hole) of the eardrum which can occur as a result of otitis media (ear infection), trauma (e.g. by trying to clean the ear with sharp instruments), explosion, loud noise or surgery (accidental creation of a rupture).
Jehovah's Witnesses suffered religious persecution in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945 after refusing to perform military service, join Nazi organizations or give allegiance to the Hitler regime.
The Phoney War (Drôle de guerre; Sitzkrieg) was an eight-month period at the start of World War II, during which there was only one limited military land operation on the Western Front, when French troops invaded Germany's Saar district.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prague Castle (Pražský hrad) is a castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, dating from the 9th century.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Psychopathy, sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy, is traditionally defined as a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
The term racial hygiene was used to describe an approach to eugenics in the early twentieth century, which found its most extensive implementation in Nazi Germany (Nazi eugenics).
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Ralph Frederick Manheim (April 4, 1907 – September 26, 1992) was an American translator of German and French literature, as well as occasional works from Dutch, Polish and Hungarian.
Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reich Chancellery (Reichskanzlei) was the traditional name of the office of the Chancellor of Germany (then called Reichskanzler) in the period of the German Reich from 1878 to 1945.
The Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (Reichsgau Danzig-Westpreussen) was a Nazi German province created on 8 October 1939 from annexed territory of the Free City of Danzig, the Greater Pomeranian Voivodship (Polish Corridor), and the ''Regierungsbezirk'' West Prussia of Gau East Prussia.
The Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German Reichsgau formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II.
The Reichsrat was one of two legislative bodies in Germany during Weimar Republic (1919–1933), the other being the Reichstag.
The Reichstag ("Diet of the Realm"), officially the Großdeutscher Reichstag ("Greater-German Reichstag") after 1938, was the pseudo-Parliament of the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was the Lower house of the Weimar Republic's Legislature from 1919, with the creation of the Weimar constitution, to 1933, with the Reichstag fire.
The Reichstag fire (Reichstagsbrand) was an arson attack on the Reichstag building (home of the German parliament) in Berlin on 27 February 1933, just one month after Adolf Hitler had been sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.
The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire.
The Reichswehr (English: Realm Defence) formed the military organisation of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the new Wehrmacht (Defence Force).
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
Reinhold Hanisch (27 January 1884, Grünwald an der Neiße (vertical-align|) near Gablonz/Neiße, northern Bohemia, Imperial & Royal Austria 2? February (death date controversial) 1937, in Vienna, aged 53) was an Austrian migrant worker and sometime business partner of the young Adolf Hitler.
The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Sir Richard John Evans (born 29 September 1947), is a British historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe with a focus on Germany.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Robert George Leeson Waite (February 18, 1919 – October 4, 1999) was a historian, psychohistorian, and the Brown Professor of History (1949–1988) at Williams College who specialized in the Nazi movement, particularly Adolf Hitler.
Roger Moorhouse (born 1968 in Stockport, Cheshire) is a British historian and author.
The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust—also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), the Pharrajimos ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), and the Samudaripen ("Mass killing")—was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
A runner was a military courier, a foot soldier responsible for carrying messages during war.
A referendum on territorial status was held in the Territory of the Saar Basin on 13 January 1935.
Saarbrücken (Sarrebruck, Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge) is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
was a Japanese career diplomat.
There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
A salient, also known as a bulge, is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
In the Bible, a scapegoat is an animal which is ritually burdened with the sins of others then driven away.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
Raimund Pretzel (27 December 1907 – 2 January 1999), better known by his pseudonym Sebastian Haffner, was a German journalist and author.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
Cooperation between China and Germany was instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China between 1926 and 1941.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
SMERSH (СМЕРШ) was an umbrella organisation for three independent counter-intelligence agencies in the Red Army formed in late 1942 or even earlier, but officially announced only on 14 April 1943.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.
Soong Mei-ling or Soong May-ling (March 5, 1898 – October 23, 2003), also known as Madame Chiang Kai-shek or Madame Chiang, was a Chinese political figure who was First Lady of the Republic of China, the wife of Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed and promulgated in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I on the battlefield but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19.
Stars and Stripes is an American military newspaper that focuses and reports on matters concerning the members of the United States Armed Forces.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
Steyr is a statutory city, located in the Austrian federal state of Upper Austria.
Stunde Null ("Hour Zero") is a term used by Germany referring to May 8, 1945 at midnight (in English the term is mostly used to refer to the end of World War Two).
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Sudeten German Party (Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on October 1, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP).
German Bohemians, later known as the Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of the state of Czechoslovakia.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht (Day of Freedom: Our Armed Forces) is the third documentary directed by Leni Riefenstahl, following Victory of Faith and Triumph of the Will.
The Telegraph Media Group (TMG, previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
The Bunker (Die Katakombe), also published as The Berlin Bunker, is an account, written by American journalist James P. O'Donnell and German journalist Uwe Bahnsen, of the history of the Führerbunker in early 1945, as well as the last days of German dictator Adolf Hitler.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Historical Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Journal of Modern History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering European intellectual, political, and cultural history, published by the University of Chicago Press in cooperation with the Modern European History Section of the American Historical Association.
The Mind of Adolf Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report, published in 1972 by Basic Books, is based on a World War II report by psychoanalyst Walter C. Langer which probed the psychology of Adolf Hitler from the available information.
The Nazis: A Warning from History is a 1997 BBC documentary film series that examines Adolf Hitler and the Nazis' rise to power, their zenith, their decline and fall, and the consequences of their reign.
The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler is a 1977 book by Robert G. L. Waite.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
Der Sieg des Glaubens (italic) (1933) is the first propaganda film directed by Leni Riefenstahl.
Theodor Gilbert Morell (22 July 1886 – 26 May 1948) was a German doctor known for acting as Adolf Hitler's personal physician.
The Thule Society (Thule-Gesellschaft), originally the Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum ("Study Group for Germanic Antiquity"), was a German occultist and völkisch group founded in Munich right after World War I, named after a mythical northern country in Greek legend.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
The toothbrush moustache is a moustache style, shaved at the edges, except for three to five centimeters above the centre of the lip.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Gertraud "Traudl" Junge (née Humps; 16 March 1920 – 10 February 2002) worked as Adolf Hitler's last private secretary from December 1942 to April 1945.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens) is a 1935 Nazi propaganda film directed, produced, edited, and co-written by Leni Riefenstahl.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
Untermensch (underman, sub-man, subhuman; plural: Untermenschen) is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East", that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs – mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, and later also Russians.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Volksgemeinschaft is a German expression meaning "people's community".
The German term Volksschule generally refers to compulsory education, denoting an educational institution every person (i.e. the people, Volk) is required to attend.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.
Walter Charles Langer (February 5, 1899 – July 4, 1981) was a psychoanalyst from Cambridge, Massachusetts who prepared a psychological analysis of Adolf Hitler in 1943 for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), that predicted his suicide as the "most plausible outcome" among several possibilities identified.
Walther von Brauchitsch (4 October 1881 – 18 October 1948) was a German field marshal and the Commander-in-Chief of the German Army during the Nazi era.
The Wannsee Conference (Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Werner Eduard Fritz von Blomberg (2 September 1878 – 14 March 1946) was a German ''Generalfeldmarschall'', Minister of War, and Commander-in-Chief of the German Armed Forces until January 1938, as he was forced to resign due to his marriage with a former prostitute.
Werner, Freiherr von Fritsch (4 August 1880 – 22 September 1939) was a member of the German High Command.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.
Wilhelm Emanuel Burgdorf (15 February 1895 – 2 May 1945) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II, who served as a commander and staff officer in the German Army (Wehrmacht) (army).
Wilhelm Frick (12 March 1877 – 16 October 1946) was a prominent German politician of the NSDAP, who served as Reich Minister of the Interior in the Hitler Cabinet from 1933 to 1943 and as the last governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Wilhelm Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) in Nazi Germany during World War II.
Wilhelmshaven (meaning William's Harbour) is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Wolf's Lair (German: Wolfsschanze; Polish: Wilczy Szaniec) was Adolf Hitler's first Eastern Front military headquarters in World War II.
The Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments of 1932–1934 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S., to actualize the ideology of disarmament.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Wound Badge (Verwundetenabzeichen) was a military decoration first promulgated by Wilhelm II, German Emperor on 3 March 1918, which was awarded to wounded or frostbitten soldiers of the Imperial German Army, during World War I. Between the world wars, it was awarded to members of the German armed forces who fought on the Nationalist side of the Spanish Civil War, 1938–39, and received combat related wounds.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
Yehuda Bauer (Hebrew: יהודה באואר; born April 6, 1926) is an Israeli historian and scholar of the Holocaust.
The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany.
The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games (French: Les IVes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (German: Olympische Winterspiele 1936), were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1936 in the market town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany.
The 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony refers to a promotion ceremony held at the Kroll Opera House in Berlin in which Adolf Hitler promoted twelve generals to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall ("field marshal") on 19 July 1940.
The 1st Belorussian Front (Першы Беларускі фронт, alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a major formation of the Soviet Army during World War II, being equivalent to a Western army group.
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.
The 6th Army, a field-army unit of the German Wehrmacht during World War II (1939-1945), has become widely remembered for its destruction by the Red Army at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942/43.
The 6th Bavarian Reserve Division (6. Bayerische Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Royal Bavarian Army, part of the German Army, in World War I. The division was formed on 10 September 1914 and organized over the next month.
The 9th Army (9.) was a World War II field army.
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