167 relations: Académie française, Aix-en-Provence, Alexander von Humboldt, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin, Alexis de Tocqueville, Algeria, Alphonse de Lamartine, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, André Chénier, Antoine Maurice Apollinaire d'Argout, Arc de Triomphe, Armand Barbès, Armand Carrel, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Ary Scheffer, Émile Ollivier, Battle of Königgrätz, Battle of Magenta, Battle of Sedan, Belfort, Benjamin Disraeli, Berlin, Bordeaux, Bouc-Bel-Air, Bourgeoisie, Brest, France, Brussels, Casimir Pierre Périer, Chamber of Deputies (France), Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles X of France, Charles-Guillaume Étienne, Chaumont, Haute-Marne, Cholera, Congress of Verona, Earl Granville, Egypt, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Eugène de Rastignac, Eugène Delacroix, Falloux Laws, Félix Pyat, Fondation Dosne-Thiers, Fontainebleau, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, François Gérard, François Guizot, François Mignet, François Mitterrand, ..., François Rude, François-René de Chateaubriand, Franco-Prussian War, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Free trade, French coup d'état of 1851, French Directory, French First Republic, French Revolution, French Revolution of 1848, French Second Republic, French Third Republic, Gambetta (surname), George Saintsbury, Georges Clemenceau, Georges Darboy, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Government of National Defense, Gustave Flaubert, Guyana, Hôtel de Ville, Paris, Henri, Count of Chambord, Holstein, Honoré de Balzac, House of Broglie, Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano, Independent politician, Institut de France, Internet Archive, Italy, Jacobin, Jacques Laffitte, Jean Maximilien Lamarque, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Jean-de-Dieu Soult, Johann Friedrich Cotta, Josep Caixal i Estradé, Joseph Fouché, Jules Armand Dufaure, Jules de Polignac, Jules Favre, Jules Ferry, Jules Grévy, Jules Simon, July Revolution, June Rebellion, Karl Marx, La Comédie humaine, Lake Como, Léon Gambetta, Le Constitutionnel, Le National (Paris), Les Invalides, List of Co-Princes of Andorra, List of Presidents of France, List of works by Antonin Mercié, Longman, Louis Auguste Blanqui, Louis Blanc, Louis Philippe I, Louis-Jules Trochu, Louis-Mathieu Molé, Louise Michel, Louvre, Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues, Lucien Bonaparte, Lyon, Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchesse de Berry, Marseille, Marthe Camille Bachasson, Count of Montalivet, Maxime Du Camp, May 1968 events in France, Mazas Prison, Melun, Mexico, Minister of the Interior (France), Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, Movement Party (France), Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Nantes, Napoleon, Napoleon III, Opportunist Republicans, Otto von Bismarck, Palais de Justice, Paris, Paris Commune, Party of Order, Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, Père Lachaise Cemetery, Place de la Nation, Place Vendôme, Politician, President of France, Prime Minister of France, Prosper Mérimée, Protectionism, Provence, Pyrenees, René de La Croix de Castries, Resistance Party (France), Saint Helena, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Salon (Paris), Seine (department), Stendhal, Thiers wall, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Tours, Victor de Broglie (1785–1870), Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, Victor Hugo, Vienna, Villa di Castello, William Ewart Gladstone, William I, German Emperor. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
Aix-en-Provence (Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm,, Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix (medieval Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in the south of France, about north of Marseille.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin (2 February 1807 in Paris – 31 December 1874) was a French politician, a champion of the working classes who was forced into exile after the failure of the French Revolution of 1848.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, Knight of Pratz (21 October 179028 February 1869), was a French writer, poet and politician who was instrumental in the foundation of the Second Republic and the continuation of the Tricolore as the flag of France.
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.
André Marie Chénier (30 October 176225 July 1794) was a French poet of Greek and Franco-Levantine origin, associated with the events of the French Revolution of which he was a victim.
Atoine Maurice Apollinaire, Comte d'Argout (28 August 1782, Veyssilieu, Isère – 15 January 1858, Paris) was a French statesman, minister and governor of the Bank of France.
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.
Armand Barbès (18 September 1809 – 26 June 1870) was a French Republican revolutionary and a fierce and steadfast opponent of the July monarchy (1830–1848).
Armand Carrel (8 May 1800 – 25 July 1836) was a French journalist and political writer.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Ary Scheffer (10 February 179515 June 1858) was a Dutch-French Romantic painter.
Olivier Émile Ollivier (2 July 182520 August 1913) was a French statesman.
The Battle of Königgrätz (Schlacht bei Königgrätz), also known as the Battle of Sadowa, Sadová, or Hradec Králové, was the decisive battle of the Austro-Prussian War, in which the Kingdom of Prussia defeated the Austrian Empire.
The Battle of Magenta was fought on 4 June 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence, resulting in a French-Sardinian victory under Napoleon III against the Austrians under Marshal Ferencz Gyulai.
The Battle of Sedan was fought during the Franco-Prussian War from 1 to 2 September 1870.
Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Bouc-Bel-Air is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in southern France.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Casimir-Pierre Perier (11 October 177716 May 1832) was a prominent French banker, mine owner, political leader and statesman.
Chamber of Deputies (la Chambre des députés) was the name given to several parliamentary bodies in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (23 December 1804, in Boulogne-sur-Mer – 13 October 1869, in Paris) was a literary critic of French literature.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
Charles-Guillaume Étienne (5 January 1778 – 13 March 1845) was a 19th-century French playwright and miscellaneous writer.
Chaumont is a commune of France, and the capital (or préfecture) of the Haute-Marne department.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
The Congress of Verona met at Verona on 20 October 1822 as part of the series of international conferences or congresses that opened with the Congress of Vienna in 1814–15, which had instituted the Concert of Europe at the close of the Napoleonic Wars.
Earl Granville is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Eugène de Rastignac is a fictional character from La Comédie humaine, a series of novels by Honoré de Balzac.
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
The Falloux Laws were voted in during the French Second Republic and promulgated on 15 March 1850 and in 1851, following the presidential election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte in December 1848 and the May 1849 legislative elections that gave a majority to the conservative Parti de l'Ordre.
Félix Pyat (4 October 1810 – 3 August 1889) was a French Socialist journalist and politician.
The Fondation Dosne-Thiers is a history library located in the 9th arrondissement of Paris at 27, place St-Georges, Paris, France.
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.
François Alexandre Frédéric de La Rochefoucauld, Duke of La Rochefoucauld (11 January 1747 – 27 March 1827) was a French social reformer.
François Pascal Simon, Baron Gérard (4 May 1770 – 11 January 1837 Some sources say he was born on 4 May 1770, however his tombstone (Montparnasse Cemetery, 1st division) reads: "Ici reposent – François Pascal Simon baron Gérard, né à Rome le 12 mars 1770, mort à Paris le 11 janvier 1837 – Jacques Alexandre Gérard, né à Paris le 13 avril 1780, mort à Paris le 28 octobre 1832 – Marguerite Françoise Matteï, de F. Gérard, née à Rome le 7 avril 1775, morte à Auteuil le 1er décembre 1848 – Sophie Catherine Sylvoz, Gérard, née à Chambéry le 8 1792, morte à Paris le 16 mars 1867 – La famille à leur mémoire chère."), was a French painter born in Rome, where his father occupied a post in the house of the French ambassador.
François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (4 October 1787 – 12 September 1874) was a French historian, orator, and statesman.
François Auguste Marie Mignet (8 May 1796 – 24 March 1884) was a French journalist and historian of the French Revolution.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
François Rude (4 January 1784 – 3 November 1855) was a French sculptor.
François-René (Auguste), vicomte de Chateaubriand (4 September 1768 – 4 July 1848), was a French writer, politician, diplomat and historian who founded Romanticism in French literature.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
The French coup d'état of 2 December 1851 was a self-coup staged by Prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time President of the French Second Republic).
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Gambetta is a surname.
George Edward Bateman Saintsbury, FBA (23 October 1845 – 28 January 1933), was an English writer, literary historian, scholar, critic and wine connoisseur.
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.
Georges Darboy (16 January 181324 May 1871) was a French Catholic priest, later bishop of Nancy then archbishop of Paris.
Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann (27 March 180911 January 1891), was a prefect of the Seine Department of France chosen by Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive urban renewal program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris that is commonly referred to as Haussmann's renovation of Paris.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
The Government of National Defense (Gouvernement de la Défense nationale) was the first government of the Third Republic of France from 4 September 1870 to 13 February 1871 during the Franco-Prussian War.
Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was a French novelist.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris, France, is the building housing the city's local administration.
Henri, Count of Chambord (Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné d'Artois, duc de Bordeaux, comte de Chambord); 29 September 1820 – 24 August 1883) was disputedly King of France from 2 to 9 August 1830 as Henry V, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. Afterwards, he was the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. He was nearly received as King in 1871 and 1873. Henri was the posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of Charles X of France, by his wife, Princess Carolina of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies. As the grandson of the King Charles X of France, Henri was a Petit-Fils de France. He also was the last legitimate descendant in the male line of Louis XV of France (His grandfather Charles X was a grandson of Louis XV).
Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.
Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.
The House of Broglie (Maison de Broglie, pronounced) is the name of a noble French family, originally Piedmontese, who emigrated to France in the year 1643.
Hugues-Bernard Maret, 1st Duc de Bassano (1 May 1763 – 13 May 1839), was a French statesman, diplomat and journalist.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The Institut de France (Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Society of the Friends of the Constitution (Société des amis de la Constitution), after 1792 renamed Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality (Société des Jacobins, amis de la liberté et de l'égalité), commonly known as the Jacobin Club (Club des Jacobins) or simply the Jacobins, was the most influential political club during the French Revolution.
Jacques Laffitte (24 October 1767 – 26 May 1844) was a leading French banker, governor of the Bank of France (1814–1820) and liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies during the Bourbon Restoration and July Monarchy.
Jean Maximilien Lamarque (1770–1832) was a French commander during the Napoleonic Wars who later became a member of French Parliament.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duke of Dalmatia, (29 March 1769 – 26 November 1851) was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of the Empire in 1804 and often called Marshal Soult.
Johann Friedrich, Freiherr Cotta von Cottendorf (April 27, 1764 – December 29, 1832) was a German publisher, industrial pioneer and politician.
Josep Caixal i Estradé (1803–1879) was Bishop of Urgell from 1853 until his death in Rome in 1879 and co-prince of Andorra during the New Reform period.
Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché (21 May 1759 – 25 December 1820) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon.
Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure (4 December 1798 – 28 June 1881) was a French statesman.
Jules de Polignac, Count of Polignac (Jules Auguste Armand Marie; 14 May 17802 March 1847), then Prince of Polignac, and briefly 3rd Duke of Polignac in 1847, was a French statesman and ultra-royalist politician after the Revolution.
Jules Claude Gabriel Favre (21 March 1809 – 20 January 1880) was a French statesman.
Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.
François Paul Jules Grévy (15 August 1807 – 9 September 1891) was a President of the French Third Republic and one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republican faction.
Jules François Simon (31 December 1814 – 8 June 1896) was a French statesman and philosopher, and one of the leaders of the Moderate Republicans in the Third French Republic.
The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.
The June Rebellion or the Paris Uprising of 1832 (French: Insurrection républicaine à Paris en juin 1832), was an anti-monarchist insurrection of Parisian republicans on 5 and 6 June 1832.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
La Comédie humaine (The Human Comedy) is the title of Honoré de Balzac's (1799–1850) multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration (1815-1830) and the July Monarchy (1830–1848).
Lake Como (Lago di Como or locally in Italian, also known as Lario, after the Latin name of the lake; Lagh de Còmm in Lombard; Latin: Larius Lacus) is a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Italy.
Léon Gambetta (2 April 1838 – 31 December 1882) was a French statesman, prominent during and after the Franco-Prussian War.
Le Constitutionnel (The Constitutional) was a French political and literary newspaper, founded in Paris during the Hundred Days by Joseph Fouché.
Le National was a French daily founded in 1830 by Adolphe Thiers, Armand Carrel, François-Auguste Mignet and the librarian-editor Auguste Sautelet, as the mouthpiece of the liberal opposition to the Second Restoration.
Les Invalides, commonly known as Hôtel national des Invalides (The National Residence of the Invalids), or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose.
This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra.
Below is a list of Presidents of France.
This is a list of some of the works of the French sculptor and painter Marius Jean Antonin Mercié.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Louis Auguste Blanqui (8 February 1805 – 1 January 1881) was a French socialist and political activist, notable for his revolutionary theory of Blanquism.
Louis Jean Joseph Charles Blanc (29 October 1811 – 6 December 1882) was a French politician and historian.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis-Jules Trochu (12 March 18157 October 1896) was a French military leader and politician.
Louis-Mathieu Molé (24 January 1781 – 23 November 1855), also 1st Count Molé from 1809 to 1815, was a French statesman, close friend and associate of Louis Philippe I, King of the French during the July Monarchy (1830–1848).
Louise Michel (29 May 1830– 9 January 1905) was a teacher and important figure in the Paris Commune.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues (6 August 1715 – 28 May 1747) was a minor French writer, a moralist.
Lucien Bonaparte, Prince Français, 1st Prince of Canino and Musignano (born Luciano Buonaparte; 21 May 1775 – 29 June 1840), the third surviving son of Carlo Bonaparte and his wife Letizia Ramolino, was a French statesman, who served as the final President of the Council of Five Hundred at the end of the French Revolution.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchesse de Berry (Maria Carolina Ferdinanda Luise; 5 November 1798 – 17 April 1870) was an Italian princess of the House of Bourbon who married into the French royal family, and was the mother of Henri, Count of Chambord.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Marthe Camille Bachasson, 3rd Count of Montalivet (24 April 1801, Valence – 4 January 1880, Saint-Bouize) was a French statesman and a Peer of France.
Maxime Du Camp (8 February 1822 – 9 February 1894) was a French writer and photographer.
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France.
The Mazas Prison (French: Prison de Mazas) was a prison in Paris, France.
Melun is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.
The Movement Party (Parti du Mouvement) was a political group during the July Monarchy.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Moderates or Moderate Republicans (Républicains modérés), pejoratively labeled Opportunist Republicans (Républicains opportunistes), were a French political group active in the late 19th century, during the Third French Republic.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
The Palais de Justice ('"Palace of Justice"), formerly the Palais de la Cité ("Palace of the City"), is located on the Boulevard du Palais in the Île de la Cité in central Paris, France.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
The Rue de Poitiers Committee, best known as Party of Order, was a political group, formed by monarchists and conservatives, in the French parliament during the French Second Republic.
Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, 6th Marquess of MacMahon, 1st Duke of Magenta (born Marie Edme Patrice Maurice; 13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893), was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France.
Cemetery (Cimetière du Père-Lachaise,; formerly,, "Cemetery of the East") is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris, although there are larger cemeteries in the city's suburbs.
The Place de la Nation (formerly Place du Trône, subsequently Place du Trône-Renversé during the Revolution) is a circle on the eastern side of Paris, between Place de la Bastille and the Bois de Vincennes, on the border of the 11th and 12th arrondissements.
Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France, located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
Prosper Mérimée (28 September 1803 – 23 September 1870) was an important French writer in the school of Romanticism, and one of the pioneers of the novella, a short novel or long short story.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
René de la Croix de Castries (1908 – 1986) was a French historian and a member of the House of Castries.
The Resistance Party (Parti de la Résistance) was a political group during the July Monarchy.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France.
The Salon (Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris), beginning in 1667 was the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
Seine was a department of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs.
Marie-Henri Beyle (23 January 1783 – 23 March 1842), better known by his pen name Stendhal, was a 19th-century French writer.
The Thiers wall was the last of the defensive walls of Paris.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Thomas Robert Bugeaud, marquis de la Piconnerie, duc d'Isly (15 October 178410 June 1849) was a Marshal of France and Governor-General of Algeria.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
Achille Léonce Victor Charles, 3rd Duke of Broglie (28 November 1785 – 25 January 1870), fully Victor de Broglie, was a French peer, statesman, and diplomat.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Villa di Castello, near the hills bordering Florence, Tuscany, central Italy, was the country residence of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1519-1574).
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William I, or in German Wilhelm I. (full name: William Frederick Louis of Hohenzollern, Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Hohenzollern, 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888), of the House of Hohenzollern was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany.