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Adrenal insufficiency

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Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention. [1]

111 relations: Abetalipoproteinemia, ACTH receptor, ACTH stimulation test, Addison's disease, Adenoma, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal crisis, Adrenal fatigue, Adrenal gland, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Adrenoleukodystrophy, Aldosterone, Alternative medicine, Amyloidosis, Antibody, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2, Autoimmune thyroiditis, Autoimmunity, Bleeding, Cancer, Carotid sinus, Cholesterol, Circulatory system, Coccidioidomycosis, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Cortisol, Craniopharyngioma, Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, Dehydration, Dexamethasone, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diarrhea, Endocrinology, Environment (biophysical), Glycerol kinase, Goitre, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Head injury, Histoplasmosis, HIV/AIDS, Hyperthyroidism, ..., Hypoglycemia, Hypogonadism, Hyponatremia, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Idiopathy, Infection, Insulin tolerance test, Iron overload, Journal of Internal Medicine, Ketoconazole, Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Liver, Lung cancer, Major depressive disorder, Major trauma, MedicineNet, Metastasis, Methylprednisolone, Mineralocorticoid, Mitochondrial DNA, Muscle, Mutation, Mycosis, Nausea, Oral mucosa, Orientation (mental), Orthostatic hypotension, Pain, Pancreas, Pernicious anemia, Phenytoin, Pituitary adenoma, Pituitary gland, Potassium, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Rifampicin, Sarcoidosis, Segmental resection, Sheehan's syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome, Sodium, Steroid hormone, Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Steroidogenic factor 1, Stress (biology), The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Lancet, Thyroid, Thyroid disease, Transcription factor, Triple-A syndrome, Tuberculosis, Vasopressin, Vitiligo, Vomiting, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, Weight loss, X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, 21-Hydroxylase. Expand index (61 more) »


Abetalipoproteinemia, or Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food.

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ACTH receptor

The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type of melanocortin receptor (type 2) which is specific for ACTH.

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ACTH stimulation test

The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin, tetracosactide, or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin) or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide (cosyntropin, tetracosactrin; Synacthen) or alsactide (Synchrodyn).

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Addison's disease

Addison’s disease (also Addison disease, chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism, and hypoadrenalism) is a rare, chronic endocrine system disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids).

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An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (plural adenomas or adenomata) is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.

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Adrenal cortex

Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.

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Adrenal crisis

Adrenal crisis (also known as Addisonian crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency) is a medical emergency and potentially life-threatening situation requiring immediate emergency treatment.

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Adrenal fatigue

Adrenal fatigue or hypoadrenia are terms used in alternative medicine to describe the unscientific belief that the adrenal glands are exhausted and unable to produce adequate quantities of hormones, primarily the glucocorticoid cortisol.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as corticotropin (INN, BAN) (brand names Acortan, ACTH, Acthar, Acton, Cortigel, Trofocortina), is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

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Adrenoleukodystrophy (also known as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, ALD, X-ALD, adrenomyeloneuropathy, AMN, Siemerling–Creutzfeldt disease or bronze Schilder disease) is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta oxidation which results in the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissues throughout the body.

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Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine is any practice that is put forward as having the healing effects of medicine, but does not originate from evidence gathered using the scientific method, is not part of biomedicine, or is contradicted by scientific evidence or established science.

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Amyloidosis is a rare disease that results from accumulation of inappropriately folded proteins.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shape protein produced by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

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Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), or often also Hughes syndrome, is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies.

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Autoimmune disease

Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity).

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Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome

No description.

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Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2, a form of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome also known as Schmidt's syndrome, or APS-II, is the most common form of the polyglandular failure syndromes.

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Autoimmune thyroiditis

Autoimmune thyroiditis, (or Chronic Autoimmune thyroiditis), is a disease in which the body interprets the thyroid glands and its hormone products T3, T4 and TSH as threats, therefore producing special antibodies that target the thyroid’s cells, thereby destroying it.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own cells and tissues.

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Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences), is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Carotid sinus

In human anatomy, the carotid sinus (or carotid bulb) is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid just superior to the bifurcation of the common carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage.

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Cholesterol, from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as cocci, "valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency

11β-Hydroxylase deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (11β-OH CAH) is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from a defect in the gene encoding the enzyme steroid 11β-hydroxylase which mediates the final step of cortisol synthesis in the adrenal.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from a defect in the gene CYP17A1, which encodes for the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and "CAH" in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase II deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (3β-HSD CAH) is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from a mutation in the gene for one of the key enzymes in cortisol synthesis by the adrenal gland, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) type II (HSD3B2).

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones, and is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland.

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Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue, that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s.

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Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency

Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience.

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Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome, also known as hypercortisolism, Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, and hyperadrenocorticism, is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

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Dehydration, also known as hypohydration, is not enough body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Dexamethasone is a type of steroid medication.

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Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes, or T1D; formerly insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Endocrinology (from Greek ἔνδον, endon, "within"; κρίνω, krīnō, "to separate"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Environment (biophysical)

The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution.

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Glycerol kinase

Glycerol kinase is a phosphotransferase enzyme involved in triglycerides and glycerophospholipids synthesis.

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A goitre or goiter (see spelling differences; from the Latin gutteria, struma) is a swelling of the neck or larynx resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland (thyromegaly), associated with a thyroid gland that is not functioning properly.

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Hashimoto's thyroiditis

Hashimoto's thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is attacked by a variety of cell- and antibody-mediated immune processes, causing primary hypothyroidism.

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Head injury

Any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain can be classified as a head injury.

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Histoplasmosis (also known as "cave disease," "Darling's disease," "Ohio valley disease," "reticuloendotheliosis," "spelunker’s lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum'.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hyperthyroidism, also known as over active thyroid and hyperthyreosis, is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar or low blood glucose, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal.

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Hypogonadism is a medical term which describes a diminished functional activity of the gonads – the testes and ovaries in males and females, respectively – that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.

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Hyponatremia (American English) or hyponatraemia (British English) is low sodium concentration in the blood.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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The hypothalamus (from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, "room, chamber") is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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An idiopathy is any disease with unknown pathogenesis or apparently spontaneous origin.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.

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Insulin tolerance test

An insulin tolerance test (ITT) is a medical diagnostic procedure during which insulin is injected into a patient's vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and sometimes for other purposes.

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Iron overload

Iron overload, also known as haemochromatosis, indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.

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Journal of Internal Medicine

The Journal of Internal Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of internal medicine.

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Ketoconazole (INN, USAN, BAN, JAN) is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.

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Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an endocrine disorder that is an uncommon and potentially lethal form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

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Major trauma

Major trauma is any injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes.

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MedicineNet is a medical website that provides detailed information about diseases, conditions, medications and general health.

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Metastasis, or metastatic disease, is the spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

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Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid or corticosteroid drug.

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Mineralocorticoid(s) are a class of steroid hormones characterized by their influence on salt and water balances.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mycosis (plural: mycoses) is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.

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Nausea (Latin nausea, from Greek ναυσία - nausia, "ναυτία" - nautia, motion sickness", "feeling sick or queasy") is a sensation of unease and discomfort in the upper stomach with an involuntary urge to vomit.

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Oral mucosa

The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.

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Orientation (mental)

Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.

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Orthostatic hypotension

Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, orthostasis, and colloquially as head rush or dizzy spell, is a form of low blood pressure in which a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up or stretching.

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Pain can be described as a distressing sensation in a particular part of the body.

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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia (also known as Biermer's anemia, Addison's anemia, or Addison–Biermer anemia) is one of many types of the larger family of megaloblastic anemias.

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Phenytoin, sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Pituitary adenoma

Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.

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Pituitary gland

In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (derived from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, a derivative of cortisol, which is used to treat a variety of inflammatory and auto-immune conditions.

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Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug that is particularly effective as an immunosuppressant drug.

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Rifampicin (INN, BAN), also known as rifampin (USAN), is a antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Sarcoidosis, also called sarcoid, is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells (granulomas) that can form as nodules in multiple organs.

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Segmental resection

Segmental resection (or segmentectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland, as a sub-type of a resection, which might involve removing the whole body part.

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Sheehan's syndrome

Sheehan syndrome, also known as Simmond syndrome, postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary gland necrosis, is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by ischemic necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth.

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Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (also SLOS, or 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency) is an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from New Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Steroid hormone

A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.

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Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein

The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, commonly referred to as StAR (STARD1), is a transport protein that regulates cholesterol transfer within the mitochondria, which is the rate-limiting step in the production of steroid hormones.

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Steroidogenic factor 1

The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) protein controls sexual development in the embryo and at puberty.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition or a stimulus.

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The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of endocrinology and metabolism.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body, and consists of two connected lobes.

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Thyroid disease

A thyroid disease is a medical condition impairing the function of the thyroid.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor (sometimes called a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA.

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Triple-A syndrome

Triple-A syndrome (AAA), also known as Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia syndrome or Allgrove syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder.

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Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or argipressin, is a neurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals.

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Vitiligo is a chronic skin condition characterized by portions of the skin losing their pigment.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome

Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) or hemorrhagic adrenalitis or Fulminant meningococcemia, is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically the pathogen is the meningococcus Neisseria meningitidis.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is a genetic disorder that mainly affects males.

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Steroid 21-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.

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Adrenal disease, Adrenal gland hypofunction, Adrenocortical insufficiency, Hypoadrenalism, Hypocortisolism, Low cortisol, Primary adrenal insufficiency, Primary adrenocortical insufficiency.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_insufficiency

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