125 relations: Abetalipoproteinemia, ACTH receptor, ACTH stimulation test, Addison's disease, Adenoma, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal crisis, Adrenal fatigue, Adrenal gland, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Adrenoleukodystrophy, Aldosterone, Amyloidosis, Antibody, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2, Autoimmune thyroiditis, Autoimmunity, Bleeding, Cancer, Carotid sinus, Cholesterol, Circulatory collapse, Coccidioidomycosis, Coeliac disease, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, Corticosteroid, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Cortisol, Craniopharyngioma, Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, Dehydration, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, Dexamethasone, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diarrhea, Endocrinology, Environment (biophysical), Eosinophilia, Fludrocortisone, Gastritis, Glucocorticoid, ..., Glycerol kinase, Goitre, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Head injury, Histoplasmosis, HIV/AIDS, Hydrocortisone, Hyperkalemia, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, Hypogonadism, Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Idiopathic disease, Infection, Injury, Insulin tolerance test, Iron overload, Joint injection, Journal of Internal Medicine, Ketoconazole, Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Liver, Lung cancer, Major depressive disorder, MedicineNet, Metastasis, Methylprednisolone, Miliary tuberculosis, Mineralocorticoid, Mitochondrial DNA, Mutation, Myalgia, Mycosis, Nausea, Oral mucosa, Orientation (mental), Orthostatic hypotension, Pancreas, Phenytoin, Pituitary adenoma, Pituitary gland, Potassium, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Premature ovarian failure, Renin, Rifampicin, Sarcoidosis, Segmental resection, Sheehan's syndrome, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome, Sodium, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, Steroidogenic factor 1, Stress (biology), The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Lancet, Thyroid, Thyroid disease, Transcription factor, Triple-A syndrome, Tuberculosis, Vasopressin, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitiligo, Vomiting, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, Weight loss, X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita, 21-Hydroxylase. Expand index (75 more) » « Shrink index
Abetalipoproteinemia is a disorder that interferes with the normal absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins from food.
The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type of melanocortin receptor (type 2) which is specific for ACTH.
The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin, tetracosactide, or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin) or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide (cosyntropin, tetracosactrin; Synacthen) or alsactide (Synchrodyn).
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (plural adenomas or adenomata) is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.
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Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Adrenal crisis (also known as Addisonian crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency) is a medical emergency and potentially life-threatening situation requiring immediate emergency treatment.
Adrenal fatigue or hypoadrenia is a pseudoscientific diagnosis believed in alternative medicine to be the state when adrenal glands are exhausted and unable to produce adequate quantities of hormones, primarily the glucocorticoid cortisol, due to chronic stress or infections.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Adrenoleukodystrophy is a disease linked to the X chromosome.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
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Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs), also called autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APSs), polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGASs), or polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes, are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organ, although non-endocrine organs can be affected.There are three types of APS or (in terms that mean the same thing) three APSs, and there are a number of other diseases which have endocrine autoimmunity.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2, a form of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome also known as Schmidt's syndrome, or APS-II, is the most common form of the polyglandular failure syndromes.
Autoimmune thyroiditis, (or Chronic Autoimmune thyroiditis), is a chronic disease in which the body interprets the thyroid glands and its hormone products T3, T4 and TSH as threats, therefore producing special antibodies that target the thyroid’s cells, thereby destroying it.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
A circulatory collapse is defined as a general or specific failure of the circulation, either cardiac or peripheral in nature.
Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as "cocci", "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) which produces a higher than normal amount of androgen, resulting from a defect in the gene encoding the enzyme steroid 11β-hydroxylase (11β-OH) which mediates the final step of cortisol synthesis in the adrenal.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from a defect in the gene CYP17A1, which encodes for the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OH CAH), in all its forms, accounts for over 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and "CAH" in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from a mutation in the gene for one of the key enzymes in cortisol synthesis by the adrenal gland, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) type II (HSD3B2).
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
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Craniopharyngioma is a rare type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue that occurs most commonly in children, but also affects adults.
Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), also known as androstenolone, is an endogenous steroid hormone.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous androstane steroid that is produced by the adrenal cortex.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.
Fludrocortisone, sold under the brand name Florinef among others, is a corticosteroid which is used to treat adrenogenital syndrome, postural hypotension, and adrenal insufficiency.
Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glycerol kinase, encoded by the gene GK, is a phosphotransferase enzyme involved in triglycerides and glycerophospholipids synthesis.
A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.
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Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
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An insulin tolerance test (ITT) is a medical diagnostic procedure during which insulin is injected into a patient's vein, after which blood glucose is measured at regular intervals.
Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.
In medicine, a joint injection (intra-articular injection) is a procedure used in the treatment of inflammatory joint conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, tendinitis, bursitis, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, and occasionally osteoarthritis.
The Journal of Internal Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of internal medicine.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an endocrine disorder that is an uncommon and potentially lethal form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
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Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
MedicineNet is a medical website that provides detailed information about diseases, conditions, medications and general health.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
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Methylprednisolone, sold under the brand names Depo-Medrol and Solu-Medrol among others, is a corticosteroid medication used to suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation.
Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that is characterized by a wide dissemination into the human body and by the tiny size of the lesions (1–5 mm).
Mineralocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which in turn are a class of steroid hormones.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
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Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
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Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.
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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
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The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
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Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
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Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
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Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the loss of function of the ovaries before age 40.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
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Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
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Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Segmental resection (or segmentectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland, as a sub-type of a resection, which might involve removing the whole body part.
Sheehan's syndrome, also known as postpartum pituitary gland necrosis, is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by ischemic necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth.
Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (also SLOS, or 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency) is an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
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A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, commonly referred to as StAR (STARD1), is a transport protein that regulates cholesterol transfer within the mitochondria, which is the rate-limiting step in the production of steroid hormones.
The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling activity of genes related to the reproductive glands or gonads and adrenal glands.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism is a peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of endocrinology and metabolism.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
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Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland (the endocrine organ found at the front of the neck that produces thyroid hormones).
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Triple-A syndrome or AAA syndrome, also known as achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome or Allgrove syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
Vitiligo is a long-term skin condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment.
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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is a genetic disorder that mainly affects males.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal disease, Adrenal gland hypofunction, Adrenal suppression, Adrenocortical insufficiency, Corticosteroid deficiency, Glucocorticoid deficiency, Hypoadrenalism, Hypocortisolism, Low cortisol, Primary adrenal insufficiency, Primary adrenocortical insufficiency.